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Viewing 1 to 30 of 310
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0380
Timothy M. Boundy, Nicholas A. Vitale, Dan W. Figlioli
A multi vector design tool to accurately predict instrument panel obscuration was developed to insure that critical legal displays in vehicles are not obscured. The concept provides for a computer generated light source shaped to replicate the human eyes. The light source is then projected onto a 3D math based arrangement and the resultant shadows are visible on the instrument panel surface and its displays. Design studios require criteria for the placement of the instrument cluster gages and displays, various controls, switches, and steering column stalks before an interior theme can be completed. Therefore, instrument panel obscuration and visibility must be determined early in the design process. The obscured areas are a function of the instrument panel surface, steering wheel rim, hub, spokes, and the location of the driver's eyes. This light source method allows engineers and designers the ability to quickly determine obscured areas.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0395
Venkatesh Kannan, John Seifert, Tony Golletti, Dave Hanner
An intake manifold produced a distinct whistle noise in a vehicle while driving through high torque conditions. The diagnostic tests in a steady air flow test bench helped reveal that the whistle was occurring due to the shear layer instabilities in the air flow over the sump cavity in the intake manifold which acts as an Helmoltz-like resonator. Joint time-frequency domain signal analysis was applied to detect the peak whistle. A sharp radius and a ramp at the upstream edge of the sump cavity reduced the peak whistle sound pressure level from 106dB to 85dB in the air flow bench and made the whistle inaudible in the vehicle. Tolerance study was performed on this geometry to allow manufacturing variations. A test method, using rapid prototype parts, has been developed in order to identify whistles early in the design cycle.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1509
Gaurav Anand, Milind Mahajan, Nagendra Jain, Balaji Maniam, Todd M. Tumas
e-Thermal is a vehicle level thermal analysis tool developed by General Motors to simulate the transient performance of the entire vehicle HVAC and Powertrain cooling system. It is currently in widespread (global) use across GM. This paper discusses the details of the air-conditioning module of e-Thermal. Most of the literature available on transient modeling of the air conditioning systems is based on finite difference approach that require large simulation times. This has been overcome by appropriately modeling the components using Sinda/Fluint. The basic components of automotive air conditioning system, evaporator, condenser, compressor and expansion valve, are parametrically modeled in Sinda/Fluint. For each component, physical characteristics and performance data is collected in form of component data standards. This performance data is used to curve fit parameters that then reproduce the component performance.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1510
Todd M. Tumas, Balaji Maniam, Milind Mahajan, Gaurav Anand, Nagendra Jain
This paper describes a vehicle-level simulation model for climate control and powertrain cooling developed and currently utilized at GM. The tool was developed in response to GM's need to speed vehicle development for HVAC and powertrain cooling to meet world-class program execution timing (18 to 24 month vehicle development cycles). At the same time the simulation tool had to complement GM's strategy to move additional engineering responsibility to its HVAC suppliers. This simulation tool called “e-Thermal” was quickly developed and currently is in widespread (global) use across GM. This paper describes GM's objectives and requirements for developing e-Thermal. The structure of the tool and the capabilities of the simulation tool modules (refrigeration, front end airflow, passenger compartment, engine, transmission, Interior air handling …) is introduced. Model data requirements and GM's strategy for acquiring component data are also described.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0848
Patricia B. Fyhrie, Artie J. Martin
Panic braking can cause an “in-position” unbelted occupant to become “out-of-position.” Although the braking event dynamics and initial positioning of the occupant affect the final position at time of impact (if any), general trends are assumed. FMVSS208 now includes “out-of-position” (OOP) performance for Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) sizes twelve month to six year-old. Airbag suppression technologies currently address that range of OOP occupants. The objective of this study is to develop an approach to defining OOP test positions for the recently released 10 year old ATD and to assist restraint engineers in developing strategies to help reduce the risk of inflation induced injury to the larger out-of-position child. A series of panic brake tests was conducted with the 10 year-old Hybrid III to study panic braking kinematics. Antilock braking (ABS) generated the desired constant deceleration from high initial speeds (40 to 60mph) in three types of vehicles.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0593
Michael T. Sherman, George D. Huron, Kevin A. Whitney, Jim Hill
The equipment for collecting dilute exhaust samples involves the use of bag materials (i.e., Tedlar®) that emit hydrocarbons that contaminate samples. This study identifies a list of materials and treatments to produce bags that reduce contamination. Based on the average emission rates, baked Tedlar®, Capran® treated with alumina deposition, supercritical CO2 extracted Kynar® and supercritical CO2 extracted Teflon NXT are capable of achieving the target hydrocarbon emission rate of less than 15 ppbC per 30 minutes. CO2 permeation tests were also performed. Tedlar, Capran, Kynar and Teflon NXT showed comparable average permeation rates. Based on the criteria of HC emission performance, changes in measured CO2 concentration, ease of sealing, and ease of surface treatment, none of the four materials could be distinguished from one another.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0626
Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Ravi Pattu, William Schnaidt
This paper is targeted to engineers who are involved in predicting fatigue life using either the strain-life approach or the stress-life approach. However, more emphasis is given to the strain-life approach, which is commonly used for fatigue life analysis in the ground vehicle industry. It attempts to discuss, modify and extend approaches in fatigue analysis, so they are best suited for structural durability engineers. Fatigue analysis requires the use of material fatigue properties, stress or strain results obtained from finite element analyses or measurements, and load data obtained from multi-body dynamic analysis or road load data acquisition. This paper examines the effects of these variables in predicting fatigue life. Various mean stress corrections, along with their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Different stress/strain combinations such as signed von Mises, and signed Tresca are examined. Also, advanced methods such as Fatemi-Socie and Bannantine are discussed.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0672
Zhigang Yang, Max Schenkel
Effects of the wind tunnel blockage in a closed-wall wind tunnel were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow over three generic vehicle models representing a passenger sedan, a sports utility vehicle (SUV), and a pickup truck was solved. The models were placed in a baseline virtual wind tunnel as well as four additional virtual wind tunnels, each with different size cross-sections, providing different levels of wind tunnel blockage. For each vehicle model, the CFD analysis produced an aerodynamic drag coefficient for the vehicle at the blockage free condition as well as the blockage effect increment for the baseline wind tunnel. A CFD based blockage correction method is proposed. Comparisons of this method to some existing blockage correction methods for closed-wall wind tunnel are also presented.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0759
Turgay Bengisu
This paper outlines a newly developed method for predicting the coupled response of structures from their uncoupled forced responses without having to know the forces acting on such structures. It involves computing the forced response of originally uncoupled structures with several mass loadings at a potential coupling point. The response data obtained from such computations is then used to predict the coupled response. The theory for discrete linear systems is outlined in the paper and a numerical example is given to demonstrate the validity, advantages and limitations of the method. The method is primarily devised to obtain coupled response of linear dynamic systems from independent and uncoupled analytical simulations. Its application significantly decreases computation time by reducing the simulation model size and is excellent for “what if” scenarios where a large number of simulations would otherwise be necessary.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0780
Turgay Bengisu
This paper outlines a method for computing the transfer functions of structures using their mass loaded responses. According to the method, scaled transfer functions are computed from the response of a structure and without any knowledge of the input forces. The paper outlines the analytical approach, develops the necessary equations for the computation of transfer functions between a mass loading point and other points on a linear dynamic system. A numerical example to show the validity, advantages and limitations of the method is also provided. Currently, the method can be applied to the responses obtained from analytical simulations where it may be necessary to compute coupled response of a simulated dynamic system with other dynamic systems that are not (or cannot be) included in a simulation. It is not uncommon that many dynamic simulations exclude certain coupling effects between the main and the auxiliary systems.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0814
Y. J. Chao, Kangping Wang, Yih-Charng Deng
Inertia force during dynamic testing exists in any testing system. A generic system is analyzed using the principle of rigid body dynamics. It is shown that the load recorded by a load cell includes both the load experienced by the test specimen and the inertia force from the mass between the specimen and the load cell, when the load cell is placed on the fixed side of the test specimen. An impact fixture designed for spot weld strength test was then studied as an example. Test data were collected and analyzed to show the effect of inertia on the impact strength of the spot weld.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0892
Dennis Bogden, Michael Grimes, Larry Michaels, Richard Amann
Signal delivery is the means of translating a physical parameter from a sensor measurement to the application software in the electronic controller. Signal delivery is also translating a digital word from the application software to an actuator response. In both cases, there are many transform functions along the path that will introduce noise, error, and non-linearity. This paper will discuss the importance of understanding the error and sensitivity to variation that signal delivery analysis provides. The analysis will direct design change to improve control system robustness as well as decisions for failure events.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0874
Gui-Ying Lu, David Zheng, Shashikumar Venkatakrishnaiah, Todd Vest
The battery support in a small car is an example of a subsystem that lends itself to mounted component dynamic fatigue analysis, due to its weight and localized attachments. This paper describes a durability analysis method that was developed to define the required enforced motion, stress response, and fatigue life for such subsystems. The method combines the large mass method with the modal transient formulation to determine the dynamic stress responses. The large mass method was selected over others for its ease of use and efficiency when working with the modal formulation and known accelerations from a single driving point. In this example, these known accelerations were obtained from the drive files of a 4-DOF shake table that was used for corresponding lab tests of a rear compartment body structure. These drive files, originally displacements, were differentiated twice and filtered to produce prescribed accelerations to the finite element model.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0030
Joseph M. Tolkacz, Shawn Boozer
The global market pressure of requiring high quality vehicles at lower prices has forced automotive manufacturers to change the way they engineer their products. In the electrical/electronic part of the automobile business, a strategy of reusing common hardware and software components was needed to support these market pressures. The General Motors strategy was to develop a standard electrical architecture. This paper will identify what a standard electrical architecture is, how a standard electrical architecture helps General Motors meet market demands, and issues that General Motors encountered in trying to implement this standard electrical architecture.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1628
Wenyu Lian
The demand for Out-Of-Position (OOP) simulation capabilities in safety/crash software increased after the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) final ruling on FMVSS 208 in 2000. However, the development of this capability involves many technical challenges. To expedite the development and manage the technical difficulties, five benchmark problems were established in this study. Each of them addresses specific technical difficulties of airbag OOP simulations. One benchmark problem has an analytical solution; one has a well-known numerical solution and others have the test results. The benchmark set was designed starting from simple Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) problems to the complicated OOP applications such that the bugs and algorithmic errors of the code can be easily identified. This paper summarizes the solutions, test results, and associated technical issues of the benchmark problems.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1634
John E. Mahoney, Joel M. Maguire, Shushan Bai
The ratio changing mechanics of the continuously variable transmissions are developed. The lever analogy of gear sets, comparison to step gear transmission mechanics, differential calculus analysis, and the step gear ratio changing equations are used. Power on up-shifts, power on downshifts, power off up-shifts, and power off downshifts are analyzed. Approaches to minimize the disturbances are considered.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3678
A. A. Adamczyk, C. P. Hubbard, F. Ament, S. H. Oh, M. J. Brady, M. C. Yee
Vehicle evaluations and model calculations were conducted on a vacuum-insulated catalytic converter (VICC). This converter uses vacuum and a eutectic PCM (phase-change material) to prolong the temperature cool-down time and hence, may keep the converter above catalyst light-off between starts. Tailpipe emissions from a 1992 Tier 0 5.2L van were evaluated after 3hr, 12hr, and 24hr soak periods. After a 12hr soak the HC emissions were reduced by about 55% over the baseline HC emissions; after a 24hr soak the device did not exhibit any benefit in light-off compared to a conventional converter. Cool-down characteristics of this VICC indicated that the catalyst mid-bed temperature was about 180°C after 24hrs. Model calculations of the temperature warm-up were conducted on a VICC converter. Different warm-up profiles within the converter were predicted depending on the initial temperature of the device.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0373
Matthew H. Fronk, David L. Wetter, David A. Masten, Andrew Bosco
PEM Fuel Cell technology has been advancing rapidly during the last several years as evidenced by various vehicle demonstrations by the major automotive companies. As the development continues to bring hardware to automotive system level solutions, many engineering challenges arise. This paper will deal with two (2) of these areas from an automotive system level perspective: Thermal Management and the Fuel Cell Stack. Both of these sub-system areas are critical to the success of the technology in meeting the requirements of tomorrow's automotive customer.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1374
Mukul K. Verma, Bharat Gupta, M. S. Sreekanth
The essential concepts for developing a moving deformable barrier that may serve as a vehicle surrogate in assessing vehicle compatibility are described in this paper. Although moving deformable barriers have been used for assessing other safety criteria, their purpose in those cases is to reproduce a limited set of responses in the struck vehicle. An MDB for vehicle compatibility however, needs to be able to reproduce the responses of both the vehicles. The present study describes the concept of developing such barriers by generating ‘response corridors’ for the significant variables by nonlinear finite element simulations and then selecting design parameters such that the MDB response is within this corridor. It is observed that the response of the equivalent MDB representing a light truck vehicle is reproducible when response corridors are utilized.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1402
Yuan Zhang, Ted Stawiarski, Mani Subramanian, Don Yung, Akbar D. Farahani, Xianggang Zhang
4-Post durability test simulations using a nonlinear FEA model have been executed by engineers responsible for structural durability performance and validation. An integrated Body and Chassis, full FEA model has been used. All components of the test load input were screened and only the most damaging events were incorporated in the simulation. These events included the Potholes, Belgian Block Tracks, Chatter Bump Stops, Twist Ditches, and Driveway Ramps. The CAE technology Virtual Proving Ground (eta/VPG®*) was used to model the full system and the 4-Post test fixtures. The nonlinear dynamic FE solver LS-DYNA** was used in this analysis. The fatigue damage of each selected event was calculated separately and then added together according to the test schedule. Due to the lack of stress/strain information from hardware test, only the analyzed fatigue damage results of the baseline model were scaled to correlate with physical test data.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1326
Brian Breakiron, James R. Fekete
This paper will describe an investigation of the formability of high strength steel (HSS) laser welded blanks (LWBs). Anticipated combinations of thickness and steel grades, including high strength low alloy (HSLA) and dual phase (DP) steels were selected. The blanks were characterized through chemical analysis and mechanical testing, as well as microstructural analysis of the weld. Samples were strained in a limiting dome height tester. Weld line movement, dome height and strain at failure were then measured. Data from these tests resulted in development of forming limit diagrams, and allowed correlation of weld line movement to forming conditions. In part, the results showed that the presence of the weld has a negative influence on formability, and that balancing the load carrying capacity of each side of the blank results in minimum weld line movement in the blanks.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1344
Oguz H. Dagci, Anupam Gangopadhyay, Alan W. Brown, Donald R. Sutherland
A rapid prototyping controller (RPC) based, full-authority, diesel control system is developed, implemented, tested and validated on FTP cycle. As rapid prototyping controller, dSPACE Autobox is coupled with a fast processor based slave for lower level I/O control and a collection of in-house designed interface cards for signal conditioning. The base software set implemented mimics the current production code for a production diesel engine. This is done to facilitate realistic and accurate comparison of production algorithms with new control algorithms to be added on future products. The engine is equipped with all the state-of-the art subsystems found in a modern diesel engine (common rail fuel injection, EGR, Turbocharger etc.).
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1288
Gary Rushton, Robert Baillargeon
The past 10 years have created such buzzwords as “model-based development” and “auto-code generation”. Conveniently absent from the tool literature on model-based development are the equally, or more important concepts of Software Architecture and Process. When developing product line software, the process and architecture form a critical foundation to base reusable products and components. The development process can no longer be viewed as “model-based”, but rather as “model-driven”, due to the reliance on the models as the source artifact as opposed to the creators of the source artifacts. A model-driven product line software development process allows capturing of behavior, for commonality across different products, and having a different implementation for a specific product release.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1279
Pradyumna K. Mishra, Sanjeev M. Naik
FlexRay is a new communication subsystem for future in-vehicle controls. There is a lack of mature model-based development methodologies to build complex FlexRay-based systems. In this paper we describe an end-to-end model-based development process for building a complex FlexRay-based distributed control system. We describe this in the context of safety critical x-by-wire systems for a realistic automotive application. This involves: control system modeling, functional simulation, and distributed software development. We first describe the process of functional and physical architecture design. Next we discuss the software development process dealing with software to hardware allocation, as well as scheduling of software and communication tasks on a time-triggered communication bus under stringent practical restrictions. We conclude by considering the integration issues relating to joint OEM/supplier development of distributed control systems.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0218
Carl-Anders Hergart, Hardo Barths, Robert M. Siewert
The Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF) - model has established itself as a model well suited for capturing conventional non-premixed combustion in diesel engines. There are concerns about applying the concept to model combustion modes characterized by high degrees of premixing, since it is argued that the fast-chemistry assumption, on which the model is based, breaks down. However, the level of premixing at which this occurs is still not well established. In this paper the model is successfully applied to the so-called Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) mode of combustion, characterized by relatively early injection timings, high EGR, and cooled intake air. For very advanced injection timings, an alternative modeling approach is developed.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0602
Kenneth J. Karbon, Urs D. Dietschi
This paper presents a study of roof rack wind noise using commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. The focus is to predict the noise generated from the roof rack cross bars mounted on a realistic vehicle geometry. Design iterations are created by altering the cross bar orientation. Results from the CFD simulations include frequency spectra of Sound Pressure Level (SPL) for comparison to typical wind tunnel measurements. Aerodynamic results of body lift, drag, and transient flow visualization are also produced to support the noise data. The CFD and physical experiments compare very well with respect to tonal noise generation, tonal frequency content, and relative magnitudes. It is concluded that the CFD method is suitable for predicting relative performance, ranking design concepts, and optimizing large scale geometry parameters of vehicle roof racks in a production-engineering environment.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0075
Ronald J. DeKoekkoek, Roberto I. DePaula, Daniel J. Richardson
Control System testing determines whether the embedded controller (software and its HWIO / hardware system) are operating according to specification. General Motors Powertrain (GMPT) has increased its span of test coverage through the use of automated testing. Further use of this type of testing is advised to enhance quality in a field that is rapidly growing more complex.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0791
Matt Johnston, Erich Leonard, Patrick Monsere, Mark Riefe
In recent years, the automotive industry has seen a rapid decrease in product development cycle time and a simultaneous increase in the variety of vehicles offered in the marketplace. These trends require a rigorous yet efficient systems engineering approach to the development of automotive braking systems. This paper provides an overview of an objective process for developing and predicting vehicle-level brake performance through an approach using both laboratory subsystem testing and math modeling.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0803
Jiangtao Song, Zissimos P. Mourelatos, Randy J. Gu, Paul N. Crepeau
The staircase fatigue test method is a well-established, but poorly understood probe for determining fatigue strength mean and standard deviation. The sensitivity of results to underlying distributions was studied using Monte Carlo simulation by repeatedly sampling known distributions of hypothetical fatigue strength data with the staircase test method. In this paper, the effects of the underlying distribution on staircase test results are presented with emphasis on original normal, lognormal, Weibull and bimodal data. The results indicate that the mean fatigue strength determined by the staircase testing protocol is largely unaffected by the underlying distribution, but the standard deviation is not. Suggestions for conducting staircase tests are provided.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0698
Raj P. Ranganathan, David W. Turner, Mark E. Franchett
A system-level, data driven model was developed to predict gas temperature in the exhaust manifolds of naturally aspirated spark ignited engines during vehicle operation. The model is based on data gathered from 67 vehicle tests. The data were collected over the last few years, from a dozen cars and trucks, spanning a range of rated power from 127 to 350 hp, engine displacements from 2 to 8 liters, Line-4, V-6 and V-8 engine configurations, vehicle mass from 1500 to nearly 9000 kg, trailer mass from zero to nearly 4000 kg, different vehicle drive schedules, different vehicle speeds, varying road grades up to a maximum in excess of 9% and ambient temperatures of 40°C. The large number of engine and vehicle design and operational variables that can influence exhaust gas temperature was limited to high-level variables known early in a vehicle development program.
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