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Viewing 1 to 30 of 166
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2126
Ping Lee, Jeff Vogt, Shizhong Han
When pickup trucks are driven on concrete paved freeways, freeway hop shake is a major complaint. Freeway hop shake occurs when the vehicle passes over the concrete joints of the freeway which impose in-phase harmonic road inputs. These road inputs excite vehicle modes that degrade ride comfort. The worst shake level occurs when the vehicle speed is such that the road input excites the vehicle 1st bending mode and/or the rear wheel hop mode. The hop and bending mode are very close in frequency. This phenomenon is called freeway hop shake. Automotive manufacturers are searching for ways to mitigate freeway hop shake. There are several ways to reduce the shake amplitude. This paper documents a new approach using hydraulic body mounts to reduce the shake. A full vehicle analytical model was used to determine the root cause of the freeway hop shake.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2477
Richard J. Fridrich
In recent years a predominant strategy for setting sound quality (SQ) requirements has been the sensory correlation approach (also called sensory evaluation or sensory science). Some users of this approach have reported their progress in numerous papers. Other SQ practitioners have made presentations on specific topics that show the linkage to music and musical notation. These specific links point to an alternative general strategy - “the Music Analogy for Sound Quality.” This paper begins by comparing the general methods of the music analogy and sensory correlation. Some major differences will be identified and implications discussed. Some existing specific tools for the music analogy will be identified as well as some gaps that need to be filled. Finally, reasons will be presented concerning why the music analogy should be considered when developing sound quality requirements.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2314
Sanjay K. Mahajan, Eric Denys, Jun-Chul Bae, Tinghui S. Shi, Kee H. Im
Brake insulators often offer optimal solutions to squeal noise. In the process of engineering solutions to reduce the brake noise, a system-level finite element complex eigenvalue analysis is often used and has gained popularity in recent years. Models of insulators have also been proposed for system-level evaluation, however many challenges remain in efficiently implementing an insulator model, owing to complexities of the insulator component model. The complexities arise from the visco-elastic behavior (primarily the frequency and temperature dependence), and the thin polymer/steel multi-layer nature of the construction - typical in an insulator. As a first part of a joint investigation, this paper explores the nature of frequency and temperature dependence in insulator models and reduces the cumbersome multi-layer model into a simpler form that can be more easily implemented in a typical brake system stability analysis.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2328
Chong Wang, Jason Zhu, Qijun Zhang, Charles Yang, Alan Parrett, Mike Qian
With Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) proven to be a powerful tool for airborne noise analysis, the capability of predicting the exterior sound field around a vehicle at high frequencies (the load case in the SEA analysis) is of particular interest to OEMs and suppliers. This paper employs the High Frequency Boundary Element Method (HFBEM) to simulate the scattered exterior sound field distribution due to a monopole source. It is shown that the proposed method is able to efficiently predict the spatial and frequency averaged sound pressure levels reasonably well up to 10 kHz, even at points in the near field of the vehicle body.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2401
Jason Zhu, David Hammelef, Michelle Wood
This paper presents a Power-Based Noise Reduction (PBNR) concept and uses PBNR to set vehicle acoustic specifications for sound package design. This paper starts with the PBNR definition and describes the correct measurement techniques. This paper also derives the asymptotic relationships among PBNR, conventional noise reduction (NR), and sound transmission loss, for a simple case consisting of the source, path, and receiver subsystems. The advantages of using PBNR over conventional Noise Reduction (NR) are finally demonstrated in vehicle measurement examples.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2427
Qijun Zhang, Alan Parrett, Chong Wang, Dennis Wang, Mike Huang
The Door system is one of the major paths for vehicle interior noise under a variety of load conditions. In this paper we consider the elements of the door lower (excluding glass) in terms of noise transmission. Passenger car doors are comprised of the outer skin, door cavity, door inner sheet metal, vapor barrier, and interior trim. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) models must effectively describe these components in terms of their acoustic properties and capture the dominant behaviors relative to the overall door system. In addition, the models must interface seamlessly with existing vehicle level SEA models. SEA modeling techniques for the door components are discussed with door STL testing and model correlation results.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3500
Cameron Massey, Arthur Bekaryan, Ping Liu, Antony Parulian, Lance Turner, Damon Frisch, Trudy Weber, Mark Verbrugge
Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) testing is a means for validating and verifying component designs in a system context. Most current HWIL work with electrochemical systems for automotive applications has focused on the pack level, providing valuable feedback to system designers. Further benefits are realized by implementing this concept earlier in the development process; applying test vectors to an individual cell, but attenuating the stimulus and feedback to pack levels. This paper reports on a cell-level HWIL system designed to evaluate electrochemical cells and associated subsystems for advanced hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The architecture of the system is described along with an example of its application applied to a commercially available supercapacitor and a state-of-charge algorithm in an HEV-based configuration.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0500
Wenxue Yuan
This paper presents the fundamental principles of variation analysis and robust design for dimensional datum schemes. The kinematics equations for rigid body motions are simplified through linearization. The simplified formulations explicitly relate the dimensional deviations of a rigid part with its datum scheme configuration and dimensional variations at datum target points. This simplified approach can be used with either the first order Taylor series approximation or Monte Carlo simulation to study the statistical characteristics of datum scheme variations. A headlamp case study is presented that shows the application procedures and demonstrates that both Taylor series and Monte Carlo methods generate comparable results, but the former offers more efficiency and convenience due to its close form formulation. This approach has found many applications especially in on-site problem solving and fast what-if studies.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0564
Xuting Wu, Jason M. Wong, Max Farhad
Steering Wheel Torsional Vibration (SWTV) at highway speed on smooth roads is one important attribute affecting vehicle refinement. To ensure desirable SWTV performance, achieve the best design compromises and minimize the development cost, specific design targets need to be defined and the proposed design needs to be assessed very early in the vehicle development cycle. In this paper, the fundamental dynamics of SWTV are analyzed and examples are given to demonstrate the strategies to reduce the SWTV response. Influence of design parameters on the SWTV response is predicted for four vehicle platforms. General guidelines for designing suspension and steering systems are discussed to ensure achieving SWTV targets.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0611
Andy Beaumont, Joe Lemieux, Paul Battiston, Alan Brown
Combustion feedback using cylinder pressure sensors, ion current sensors or alternative sensing techniques is actively under investigation by the automotive industry to meet future legislative emissions requirements. One of the drawbacks of many rapid prototyping engine management systems is their available analog interfaces, often limited to 10-12 bits with limited bandwidth, sampling rate and very simple anti-aliasing filters. Processing cylinder pressure or other combustion feedback sensors requires higher precision, wider bandwidths and more processing power than is typically available. For these reasons, Ricardo in collaboration with GM Research has developed a custom, high precision analog input subsystem for the rCube rapid prototyping control system that is specifically targeted at development of combustion feedback control systems.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1937
Gerald A. Szekely, Alex C. Alkidas
This work describes an experimental investigation on the stratified combustion and engine-out emissions characteristics of a single-cylinder, spark-ignition, direct-injection, spray-guided engine employing an outward-opening injector, an optimized high-squish, bowled piston, and a variable swirl valve control. Experiments were performed using two different outward-opening injectors with 80° and 90° spray angles, each having a variable injector pintle-lift control allowing different rates of injection. The fuel consumption of the engine was found to improve with decreasing air-swirl motion, increasing spark-plug length, increasing spark energy, and decreasing effective rate of injection, but to be relatively insensitive to fuel-rail pressure in the range of 10-20 MPa. At optimal injection and ignition timings, no misfires were observed in 30,000 consecutive cycles.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1854
Michael J. Bonello, David M. Caldwell, Jeffrey A. Pigott, Gregory P. Prior, Timothy M. Schag
A new high output supercharged Northstar DOHC 4.4L V8 engine has been developed for new “V” series Cadillac performance models. The new engine combines the highest power rating of any production Cadillac engine to date with operating refinement uncommon at this power level. The new engine incorporates a high capacity airflow system including a unique GM Powertrain (GMPT) patented supercharger. The design integrates the intake manifold and supercharger (SC) into a supercharger module (SCM) supplied with throttle body (TB) and intercoolers (IC). The new engine architecture is based on the naturally aspirated (NA) rear wheel drive (RWD) engine released in 2004, but has been specifically designed and upgraded from the NA version for the greater structural and thermal loads that result from supercharging.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1833
Mark A. Gehringer
This paper describes an axle gear whine noise reduction process that was developed and applied using a combination of experimental and analytical methods. First, an experimental Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) was used to identify major noise paths. Next, modeling and forced response simulation were conducted using the Hybrid FEA-Experimental FRF method known as HYFEX [1]. The HYFEX model consisted of an experimental FRF representation of the frame/body and a finite element (FE) model of the driveline [2] and suspension. The FE driveline model was calibrated using experimental data. The HYFEX model was then used to simulate the axle noise reduction that would be obtained using a modified frame, prior to the availability of a prototype. Hardware testing was used as the final step in the process to confirm the results of the simulation.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0072
Su Xu, Glenn Williams, Guowu Shen, Réal Bouchard, Mahi Sahoo, Richard Osborne
For automotive applications at elevated temperatures, the need for sufficient creep resistance of Mg alloys is often associated with retaining appropriate percentages of initial clamp loads in bolt joints. This engineering property is often referred to as bolt-load retention (BLR); BLR testing is a practical method to quantify the bolt load with time for engineering purposes. Therefore, standard BLR test procedures for automotive applications are desired. This report summarizes the effort in the Structural Cast Magnesium Development (SCMD) project under the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP), to provide a technical basis for recommending a general-purpose and a design-purpose BLR test procedures for BLR testing of Mg alloys for automotive applications. The summary includes results of factors influencing BLR and related test techniques from open literature, automotive industry and research carried out in this laboratory project.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0169
Oguz H. Dagci, Alan W. Brown
In GM R&D Powertrain/Engine Control Group, rapid prototyping controller (RPC) systems with Matlab/Simulink are used extensively to design, simulate and implement advanced engine control algorithms and models. However, those RPC systems use powerful microprocessors with large amounts of RAM contrary to engine control modules (ECM) in production vehicles. Therefore, a thorough analysis on the comparatively much more complicated algorithms and models cannot be performed during the research stage, since there are not enough tools to enable the smooth transition from Matlab/Simulink to the production type processor. The Real-Time Interface (RTI) Blockset for a production like microprocessor would close the transition gap between rapid prototyping controller systems and production type microprocessors by leveraging the power and popularity of Matlab/Simulink in control engineering world and automatic code generation tools.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0171
SuSanta P. Sarkar, James G. Casazza, John Dale
Consumer expectations for automated vehicle operations such as automatic locking, remote ignition control, navigation, and entertainment are primary drivers for the increasing complexity of embedded automotive electronics modules. The prevalent practice for procuring these modules is to develop a written behavioral specification that is then used by an outside supplier to build and test the module. Validation test plans are written separately based on an understanding of the requirements. The challenges posed by the current practice include the inability to completely specify the expected behavior in a timely manner, the need to balance the design between low cost and new features demanded by the customer, and ensuring that the product exactly implements the specified behavior. Moreover, vehicle manufacturers desire the ability to explore sensitivity of specifications by identifying constraints on the system and assessing the product for ease of implementation.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1524
George Zhu
A case study on halfshaft design was presented to illustrate the application of axiomatic design principles in problem solving at General Motors. The halfshaft design was analyzed to identify design parameters to decouple insertion and retention forces. Design changes were made and implemented in production.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1532
Richard W. Wiese, H.J. Song, H.P. Hsu
Inclusion of a Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) in a vehicle presents a new design challenge in terms of automotive electrical system integration. This paper examines the dynamic RF signal path characteristics of a TPMS data link operating at 315MHz as a short-range device Electromagnetic modeling results and anechoic chamber measurements provide signal path loss estimates for various system configurations. A qualitative link budget formulation is proposed that accounts for observed dynamic and quasi-static variation of the TPMS signal.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1463
Farzad Samie, Burak Gecim
Mechanical Efficiency of toroidal traction drives is the key parameter for transmission engineers worldwide to accept their use in continuously variable transmissions. In this work, the traction drive efficiencies are investigated analytically as well as experimentally as a function of speed, torque, speed ratio and temperature for two different CVU's. In addition, creep at the traction contact is measured and compared with the prediction of the simulation model. In a stand-alone test rig, the drag torque associated with the power-roller thrust bearing is also measured.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0372
Rupesh Sonu Kakade
Abstract The vehicle air-conditioning system has significant impact on fuel economy and range of electric vehicles. Improving the fuel economy of vehicles therefore demand for energy efficient climate control systems. Also the emissions regulations motivate the reduced use of fuel for vehicle's cabin climate control. Solar heat gain of the passenger compartment by greenhouse effect is generally treated as the peak thermal load of the climate control system. Although the use of advanced glazing is considered first to reduce solar heat gain other means such as ventilation of parked car and recirculation of cabin air also have impetus for reducing the climate control loads.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0371
Rupesh Sonu Kakade, Prashant Mer
Abstract The human thermal comfort, which has been a subject of extensive research, is a principal objective of the automotive climate control system. Applying the results of research studies to the practical problems require quantitative information of the thermal environment in the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The exposure to solar radiation is known to alter the thermal environment in the passenger compartment. A photovoltaic-cell based sensor is commonly used in the automotive climate control system to measure the solar radiation exposure of the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The erroneous information from a sensor however can cause thermal discomfort to the occupants. The erroneous measurement can be due to physical or environmental parameters. Shading of a solar sensor due to the opaque vehicle body elements is one such environmental parameter that is known to give incorrect measurement.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980045
Chandran Santanam, Dick Priebe, Terry Scofield, Keith Grable
The new regulations to reduce emissions have resulted in the development of new techniques to maintain or enhance competitive performance. A requirement for the manifold is to help meet the reduction in cold start emissions, particularly during the transient conditions from start to 100 seconds following the Federal Test Procedures for vehicle emissions. Finite element computer models were developed to predict inner and outer wall temperatures, and to determine structural soundness. Tests were performed to assure that noise levels were minimized. Dynamometer lab and field tests were performed to verify that the manifold would meet the design requirements. From the results of these tests and analyses, modifications were made to the weld and manufacturing techniques to improve product life and reduce noise. Dual wall manifolds have proven durability to meet high exhaust gas temperatures up to 1650°F (900°C), while meeting the performance, noise, and weight reduction goals.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980035
Kenneth J. Karbon, Stephen E. Longman
This paper presents an innovative automobile application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) as a complement to wind tunnel experimentation for the evaluation of rain water and wiper wash flow on the exterior of a moving vehicle. In addition to calculating the air flow around a car, a multi-phase CFD code was used to simulate rain drops in the air stream, rain drops impinging on the vehicle, and the transport of the “thin liquid film” of water on the vehicle surfaces. Time-dependent results for the location, velocity, and height of the water film on the windshield, A-pillar, and side glass were obtained. The CFD results compared favorably with a wind tunnel procedure. The variation of the calculated water film corresponded with observed patterns of water streaks on test vehicles. Design iterations performed on the computational model also agreed with similar test configurations.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970915
Richard W. Amann, Mark A. Damico, Brian Green, Charles J. Hahn, Ameer Haider, John W. Juriga, Creighton A. Mantey
General Motors Powertrain Group (GMPTG) has developed an all new small block V8 engine, designated LS1, for introduction into the 1997 Corvette. This engine was designed to meet both customer requirements and competitive challenges while also meeting the ever increasing legislated requirements of emissions and fuel economy. This 5.7L V8 provides increased power and torque while delivering higher fuel economy. In addition, improvements in both QRD and NVH characteristics were made while meeting packaging constraints and achieving significant mass reductions.
1998-09-29
Technical Paper
982392
Kumar Mahadevan, Robert McCoy, Omar Faruque, Brian Schell, Jim Fekete
The effects of strain-rate and element mesh size on the numerical simulation of an automotive component impacted by a mass dropped from an instrumented drop tower was investigated. For this study, an analysis of a simple steel rail hat-section impacted by a mass moving at an initial velocity of 28Mph was performed using the explicit finite element code Radioss. Three constitutive material models: Elasto-Plastic (without strain rate), Johnson-Cook, and Zerilli-Armstrong were used to characterize the material properties for mild and high strength steel. Results obtained from the numerical analyses were compared to the experimental data for the maximum crush, final deformation shape, average crush force and the force-deflection curve. The results from this study indicate that the mechanical response of steel can be captured utilizing a constitutive material model which accounts for strain rate effect coupled with an average mesh size of 6 to 9mm.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0992
James C. Tebbe, Vivek Chidambaram, Jason T. Kline, Sam Scime, Manish P. Shah, Mine Tasci, David Zheng
Automotive engineering development processes are growing more dependent on the use of multi-body dynamic (MBD) models for generating vehicle loads that at one time could only be measured using physical hardware. A certain technique combines these two approaches using a minimal set of physical measurements to excite a vehicle MBD model for predicting loads at various vehicle interfaces. This approach eliminates the use of a tire model, often the roadblock in MBD-based loads prediction simulations. However, for various reasons, the direct application of loads to a model can lead to problems with the simulation. Alternatively, the model can be artificially constrained but this also has its disadvantages. The purpose of this paper is to present a loads prediction technique that relaxes the use of artificial boundary conditions for applications involving the input of measurements to an MBD model.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2534
Turgay Bengisu, Paul Bernier, Tom Brunner
Critical speed induced by imbalance forces is a well-known dynamic behavior of rotating shafts. Such problems are typically found in flexible shafts or rigid shafts with flexible supports when the frequency of rotation reaches the natural frequencies of the shaft. This simple critical speed problem is well understood and formulated in many engineering texts. However, not all critical speed phenomena are induced by imbalance. A perfectly balanced shaft with certain inertial properties also reaches a critical speed condition at a rotational speed that is not equal to the natural frequency of the shaft. Several variables of the dynamic system play a role on the critical speed condition, which is mainly induced by the unstable gyroscopic moment acting on the shaft. The unstable gyroscopic moment forces the shaft bearings to deflect causing precession about the undeflected geometric centerline of the shaft, but the rotation and precession speeds remain synchronized at low speeds.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0439
Yongsheng He, Chan-Chiao Lin, Anupam Gangopadhyay
Over the last decade significant efforts have been made in the automotive industry to move into a math-based control development approach where much of the development could be done off-line using computer simulations. High-fidelity simulation of an engine and control system helps to shorten controller development time with reduced risk. This requires the integration of a detailed engine model with a representative controller model. This paper describes the development and validation of an integrated engine and controller model of a turbocharged diesel engine. The integrated model incorporates a detailed engine model in GT-Power and a comprehensive controller model in Simulink with functionalities like the production ECM. The focus of this study is a non-real time simulation and analysis of the control of EGR, turbocharger, and fueling with engine performance.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0441
Chihsiung Lo, Yunfei Luan, Edward D. Tate, Tony H. Zarger
In developing the 2007 Model Year Saturn VUE Green Line hybrid vehicle, a vehicle model for prediction of fuel economy and performance was developed. This model was developed in Matlab / Simulink / Stateflow by augmenting an existing conventional vehicle model to include hybrid components and controls. The generic structure and the functionalities of the model are presented. This simulation model was used for rapid concept selection and requirements balancing early in the vehicle development process. Engine usage and energy distributions are shown based on simulation results. Fuel economy breakdown was also discussed.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0736
Wenxue Yuan, Xianming Wang, Shizhong Han
The optimal selection of vehicle body and powertrain mounts from “mount libraries” is one of the major undertakings to achieve optimal vehicle dynamics and N&V performance through the reuse of existing mount designs. The great challenges of the process are due to the facts that conventional optimization procedures, either through simulation or DOE, can not be used directly because the stiffness rates of the mounts are scattered and bundled. Sorting out the best through hardware tests is generally unrealistic simply due to the huge number of mount combinations. This paper presents a new approach to the optimal mount selection, and demonstrates through applications that it is efficient and reliable. This approach characterizes a mount by its effective stiffness rate and evaluates its deviation from an associated target. Continuous dummy variables are used to determine the selection targets through conventional processes for performance optimization.
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