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2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2126
Ping Lee, Jeff Vogt, Shizhong Han
When pickup trucks are driven on concrete paved freeways, freeway hop shake is a major complaint. Freeway hop shake occurs when the vehicle passes over the concrete joints of the freeway which impose in-phase harmonic road inputs. These road inputs excite vehicle modes that degrade ride comfort. The worst shake level occurs when the vehicle speed is such that the road input excites the vehicle 1st bending mode and/or the rear wheel hop mode. The hop and bending mode are very close in frequency. This phenomenon is called freeway hop shake. Automotive manufacturers are searching for ways to mitigate freeway hop shake. There are several ways to reduce the shake amplitude. This paper documents a new approach using hydraulic body mounts to reduce the shake. A full vehicle analytical model was used to determine the root cause of the freeway hop shake.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3500
Cameron Massey, Arthur Bekaryan, Ping Liu, Antony Parulian, Lance Turner, Damon Frisch, Trudy Weber, Mark Verbrugge
Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) testing is a means for validating and verifying component designs in a system context. Most current HWIL work with electrochemical systems for automotive applications has focused on the pack level, providing valuable feedback to system designers. Further benefits are realized by implementing this concept earlier in the development process; applying test vectors to an individual cell, but attenuating the stimulus and feedback to pack levels. This paper reports on a cell-level HWIL system designed to evaluate electrochemical cells and associated subsystems for advanced hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The architecture of the system is described along with an example of its application applied to a commercially available supercapacitor and a state-of-charge algorithm in an HEV-based configuration.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0611
Andy Beaumont, Joe Lemieux, Paul Battiston, Alan Brown
Combustion feedback using cylinder pressure sensors, ion current sensors or alternative sensing techniques is actively under investigation by the automotive industry to meet future legislative emissions requirements. One of the drawbacks of many rapid prototyping engine management systems is their available analog interfaces, often limited to 10-12 bits with limited bandwidth, sampling rate and very simple anti-aliasing filters. Processing cylinder pressure or other combustion feedback sensors requires higher precision, wider bandwidths and more processing power than is typically available. For these reasons, Ricardo in collaboration with GM Research has developed a custom, high precision analog input subsystem for the rCube rapid prototyping control system that is specifically targeted at development of combustion feedback control systems.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0605
S. N. Thakur, J. R. McMillen, M. L. Holly, P. K. Samal
Durability requirements for exhaust materials have resulted in the increased use of stainless steels throughout the exhaust system. The conversion of carbon steel exhaust flanges to stainless steel has occurred on many vehicles. Ferritic stainless steels are commonly used for exhaust flanges. Flange construction methods include stamped sheet steel, thick plate flanges and powder metal designs. Flange material selection criteria may include strength, oxidation resistance, weldability and cold temperature impact resistance. Flange geometry considerations include desired stiffness criteria, flange rotation, gasket/sealing technique and vehicle packaging. Both the material selection and flange geometry are considered in terms of meeting the desired durability and cost. The cyclic oxidation performance of the material is a key consideration when selecting flange materials.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1937
Gerald A. Szekely, Alex C. Alkidas
This work describes an experimental investigation on the stratified combustion and engine-out emissions characteristics of a single-cylinder, spark-ignition, direct-injection, spray-guided engine employing an outward-opening injector, an optimized high-squish, bowled piston, and a variable swirl valve control. Experiments were performed using two different outward-opening injectors with 80° and 90° spray angles, each having a variable injector pintle-lift control allowing different rates of injection. The fuel consumption of the engine was found to improve with decreasing air-swirl motion, increasing spark-plug length, increasing spark energy, and decreasing effective rate of injection, but to be relatively insensitive to fuel-rail pressure in the range of 10-20 MPa. At optimal injection and ignition timings, no misfires were observed in 30,000 consecutive cycles.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1941
Peter H. Dugdale, Roger J. Rademacher, Bruce R. Price, Jay W. Subhedar, Roger L. Duguay
General Motors adds a larger displacement more powerful variant to its global 4-cylinder engine family. The new Ecotec 2.4L VVT, being introduced in the 2006 Pontiac Solstice is the latest variant within the Ecotec engine family. This new engine is built on the heritage and excellent reputation of the Ecotec 2.2L(1), the global 4-cylinder engine introduced for the North American market in the 2000 model year Saturn L-series. Ecotec engines are now offered in many additional GM platforms in North America as well as in Europe. The Ecotec 2.4L VVT shares many parts with the Ecotec 2.2L(1), with addition of cam phaser technology to enable variable valve timing (VVT) along with several structural enhancements. The Ecotec 2.4L VVT produces 25% more power, impressive torque at lower engine speeds and offers a number of other advantages.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1788
Jeffrey Santrock, Steven E. Hodges
A prototype fire suppression system was tested in one full-scale vehicle crash tests and three static vehicle fire tests. The prototype fire suppression system consisted of 2 Solid Propellant Gas Generators and two optical detectors. These components were installed on the hood of the test vehicle. A vehicle crash test and a series of static vehicle fire tests were performed to determine the effectiveness of this prototype fire suppression systems in extinguishing fires in the engine compartment of a crashed vehicle
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1854
Michael J. Bonello, David M. Caldwell, Jeffrey A. Pigott, Gregory P. Prior, Timothy M. Schag
A new high output supercharged Northstar DOHC 4.4L V8 engine has been developed for new “V” series Cadillac performance models. The new engine combines the highest power rating of any production Cadillac engine to date with operating refinement uncommon at this power level. The new engine incorporates a high capacity airflow system including a unique GM Powertrain (GMPT) patented supercharger. The design integrates the intake manifold and supercharger (SC) into a supercharger module (SCM) supplied with throttle body (TB) and intercoolers (IC). The new engine architecture is based on the naturally aspirated (NA) rear wheel drive (RWD) engine released in 2004, but has been specifically designed and upgraded from the NA version for the greater structural and thermal loads that result from supercharging.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1463
Farzad Samie, Burak Gecim
Mechanical Efficiency of toroidal traction drives is the key parameter for transmission engineers worldwide to accept their use in continuously variable transmissions. In this work, the traction drive efficiencies are investigated analytically as well as experimentally as a function of speed, torque, speed ratio and temperature for two different CVU's. In addition, creep at the traction contact is measured and compared with the prediction of the simulation model. In a stand-alone test rig, the drag torque associated with the power-roller thrust bearing is also measured.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2707
R. Kai, T. Sekiya, M. Ogawa, K. Saiki, R. Matsubara, H. Kurachi, M. Brayer, E. Warner, S. Fujii, S. Ren
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s heavy duty diesel emission standard was tightened beginning from 2007 with the introduction of ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel. Most heavy duty diesel applications were required to equip Particulate Matter (PM) after-treatment systems to meet the new tighter, emission standard. Systems utilizing Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed-Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) are a mainstream of modern diesel PM after-treatment systems. To ensure appropriate performance of the system, periodic cleaning of the PM trapped in DPF by its oxidation (a process called “regeneration”) is necessary. As a result, of this regeneration, DOC’s and DPF’s can be exposed to hundreds of thermal cycles during their lifetime. Therefore, to understand the thermo-mechanical performance of the DOC and DPF is an essential issue to evaluate the durability of the system.
2012-09-10
Journal Article
2012-01-1639
Austin Zurface, Scott Brownell, David Genise, Patrick Tow, James Tuttle
Global environmental and economic concerns regarding increasing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission are driving changes to legislative regulations and consumer demand. As regulations become more stringent, advanced engine technologies must be developed and implemented to realize desired benefits. Discrete variable valve lift technology is a targeted means to achieve improved fuel economy in gasoline engines. By limiting intake air flow with an engine valve, as opposed to standard throttling, road-load pumping losses are reduced resulting in improved fuel economy. This paper focuses on the design and development of a switching roller finger follower system which enables two mode discrete variable valve lift on end pivot roller finger follower valvetrains. The system configuration presented includes a four-cylinder passenger car engine with an electro-hydraulic oil control valve, dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster, and switching roller finger follower.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1640
Daniel B. Trudell, James E. McCarthy, Jr., Patrick J. Tow
An advanced variable valve actuation (VVA) system is characterized following end-of-life testing to enable fuel economy solutions for passenger car applications. The system consists of a switching roller finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve that are integrated into a four cylinder gasoline engine. The SRFF provides discrete valve lift capability on the intake valves. The motivation for designing this type of VVA system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during part load engine operation. This paper addresses the durability of a SRFF for meeting passenger car durability requirements. Extensive durability tests were conducted for high speed, low speed, switching, and cold start operation. High engine speed test results show stable valvetrain dynamics above 7000 engine rpm. System wear requirements met end-of-life criteria for the switching, sliding, rolling and torsion spring interfaces.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980045
Chandran Santanam, Dick Priebe, Terry Scofield, Keith Grable
The new regulations to reduce emissions have resulted in the development of new techniques to maintain or enhance competitive performance. A requirement for the manifold is to help meet the reduction in cold start emissions, particularly during the transient conditions from start to 100 seconds following the Federal Test Procedures for vehicle emissions. Finite element computer models were developed to predict inner and outer wall temperatures, and to determine structural soundness. Tests were performed to assure that noise levels were minimized. Dynamometer lab and field tests were performed to verify that the manifold would meet the design requirements. From the results of these tests and analyses, modifications were made to the weld and manufacturing techniques to improve product life and reduce noise. Dual wall manifolds have proven durability to meet high exhaust gas temperatures up to 1650°F (900°C), while meeting the performance, noise, and weight reduction goals.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970915
Richard W. Amann, Mark A. Damico, Brian Green, Charles J. Hahn, Ameer Haider, John W. Juriga, Creighton A. Mantey
General Motors Powertrain Group (GMPTG) has developed an all new small block V8 engine, designated LS1, for introduction into the 1997 Corvette. This engine was designed to meet both customer requirements and competitive challenges while also meeting the ever increasing legislated requirements of emissions and fuel economy. This 5.7L V8 provides increased power and torque while delivering higher fuel economy. In addition, improvements in both QRD and NVH characteristics were made while meeting packaging constraints and achieving significant mass reductions.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960012
Creighton A. Mantey, John P. Oldani
General Motors Powertrain Division has developed the next generation big block V8 engine for introduction in the 1996 model year. In addition to meeting tighter emission and on-board diagnostic legislation, this engine evolved to meet both customer requirements and competitive challenges. Starting with the proven dependability of the time tested big block V8, goals were set to substantially increase the power, torque, fuel economy and overall pleaseability of GM's large load capacity gasoline engine. The need for this new engine to meet packaging requirements in many vehicle platforms, both truck and OEM, as well as a requirement for minimal additional heat rejection over the engine being replaced, placed additional constraints on the design.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2534
Turgay Bengisu, Paul Bernier, Tom Brunner
Critical speed induced by imbalance forces is a well-known dynamic behavior of rotating shafts. Such problems are typically found in flexible shafts or rigid shafts with flexible supports when the frequency of rotation reaches the natural frequencies of the shaft. This simple critical speed problem is well understood and formulated in many engineering texts. However, not all critical speed phenomena are induced by imbalance. A perfectly balanced shaft with certain inertial properties also reaches a critical speed condition at a rotational speed that is not equal to the natural frequency of the shaft. Several variables of the dynamic system play a role on the critical speed condition, which is mainly induced by the unstable gyroscopic moment acting on the shaft. The unstable gyroscopic moment forces the shaft bearings to deflect causing precession about the undeflected geometric centerline of the shaft, but the rotation and precession speeds remain synchronized at low speeds.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0439
Yongsheng He, Chan-Chiao Lin, Anupam Gangopadhyay
Over the last decade significant efforts have been made in the automotive industry to move into a math-based control development approach where much of the development could be done off-line using computer simulations. High-fidelity simulation of an engine and control system helps to shorten controller development time with reduced risk. This requires the integration of a detailed engine model with a representative controller model. This paper describes the development and validation of an integrated engine and controller model of a turbocharged diesel engine. The integrated model incorporates a detailed engine model in GT-Power and a comprehensive controller model in Simulink with functionalities like the production ECM. The focus of this study is a non-real time simulation and analysis of the control of EGR, turbocharger, and fueling with engine performance.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0441
Chihsiung Lo, Yunfei Luan, Edward D. Tate, Tony H. Zarger
In developing the 2007 Model Year Saturn VUE Green Line hybrid vehicle, a vehicle model for prediction of fuel economy and performance was developed. This model was developed in Matlab / Simulink / Stateflow by augmenting an existing conventional vehicle model to include hybrid components and controls. The generic structure and the functionalities of the model are presented. This simulation model was used for rapid concept selection and requirements balancing early in the vehicle development process. Engine usage and energy distributions are shown based on simulation results. Fuel economy breakdown was also discussed.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0736
Wenxue Yuan, Xianming Wang, Shizhong Han
The optimal selection of vehicle body and powertrain mounts from “mount libraries” is one of the major undertakings to achieve optimal vehicle dynamics and N&V performance through the reuse of existing mount designs. The great challenges of the process are due to the facts that conventional optimization procedures, either through simulation or DOE, can not be used directly because the stiffness rates of the mounts are scattered and bundled. Sorting out the best through hardware tests is generally unrealistic simply due to the huge number of mount combinations. This paper presents a new approach to the optimal mount selection, and demonstrates through applications that it is efficient and reliable. This approach characterizes a mount by its effective stiffness rate and evaluates its deviation from an associated target. Continuous dummy variables are used to determine the selection targets through conventional processes for performance optimization.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0267
H.Y. Isaac Du, Fanghui Shi
During a new engine development program, or the adaptation of an existing engine to new platform architectures, testing is performed to determine the durability characteristics of the basic engine structure. Such testing helps to uncover High Cycle durability-related issues that can occur at the bulkhead walls as well as cap bolt thread areas in an aluminum cylinder block. When this class of issues occurs, an Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) bearing simulation capability is required. In this study, analytical methods and processes are established to calculate the localized distributed load on the bulkhead. The complexity in performing a system analysis is due to the nonlinear coupling between the bearing hydrodynamic pressure distribution and the crankshaft and block deformation. A system approach for studying the crankshaft-block interaction requires a crankshaft flexible body dynamics model, an engine block assembly flexible body dynamics model and a main bearing lubrication model.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0105
Rajneesh Singh, Fred Shen
Development and integration of the cooling system for an automotive vehicle requires a balancing act between several performance and styling objectives. The cooling system needs to provide sufficient air for heat rejection with minimal impact on the aerodynamic drag, styling requirements and other criteria. An optimization of various design parameters is needed to develop a design to meet these objectives in a short amount of time. Increase in the accuracy of the numerical predictions and reduction in the turn-around time has made it possible for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to be used early in the design phase of the vehicle development. This study shows application of the CFD for robust design of the engine cooling system.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3314
Joshua Bedford, Giles Brereton, Harold Schock, Ronald Herrin
The focus of this research effort was to develop a technique to measure the cyclic variability of the mass injected by fuel injectors. Successful implementation of the measurement technique introduced in this paper can be used to evaluate injectors and improve their designs. More consistent and precise fuel injectors have the potential to improve fuel efficiency, engine performance, and reduce emissions. The experiments for this study were conducted at the Michigan State University Automotive Research Experiment Station. The setup consists of a fuel supply vessel pressurized by compressed nitrogen, a Dantec laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system to measure the centerline velocity of fuel, a quartz tube for optical access, and a Cosworth IC 5460 to control the injector. The detector on the LDA system is capable of resolving Doppler bursts as short as 6μs, depending on the level of seeding, thus giving a detailed time/velocity profile.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3892
Chris Morgan, James L. Linden
There are many factors that can affect the service lifetime of a lubricant. In automobiles, one lubricant that has been heavily tested in recent years for fuel efficiency improvement and durability is axle lubricant. While a substantial amount of testing has been performed toward developing new axle lubricants to aid original equipment manufacturers to reduce warranty costs, improve Corporate Average Fuel Economy, and provide extended drain intervals, not as much testing has been documented to show some of the effects that different operating conditions have on these lubricants. The scope of this work is to bring to light some of the different parameters that affect axle lubricant.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1509
Gaurav Anand, Milind Mahajan, Nagendra Jain, Balaji Maniam, Todd M. Tumas
e-Thermal is a vehicle level thermal analysis tool developed by General Motors to simulate the transient performance of the entire vehicle HVAC and Powertrain cooling system. It is currently in widespread (global) use across GM. This paper discusses the details of the air-conditioning module of e-Thermal. Most of the literature available on transient modeling of the air conditioning systems is based on finite difference approach that require large simulation times. This has been overcome by appropriately modeling the components using Sinda/Fluint. The basic components of automotive air conditioning system, evaporator, condenser, compressor and expansion valve, are parametrically modeled in Sinda/Fluint. For each component, physical characteristics and performance data is collected in form of component data standards. This performance data is used to curve fit parameters that then reproduce the component performance.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1510
Todd M. Tumas, Balaji Maniam, Milind Mahajan, Gaurav Anand, Nagendra Jain
This paper describes a vehicle-level simulation model for climate control and powertrain cooling developed and currently utilized at GM. The tool was developed in response to GM's need to speed vehicle development for HVAC and powertrain cooling to meet world-class program execution timing (18 to 24 month vehicle development cycles). At the same time the simulation tool had to complement GM's strategy to move additional engineering responsibility to its HVAC suppliers. This simulation tool called “e-Thermal” was quickly developed and currently is in widespread (global) use across GM. This paper describes GM's objectives and requirements for developing e-Thermal. The structure of the tool and the capabilities of the simulation tool modules (refrigeration, front end airflow, passenger compartment, engine, transmission, Interior air handling …) is introduced. Model data requirements and GM's strategy for acquiring component data are also described.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1536
Thomas Wang, Francisco Sturla, Vicente Cepeda Salazar
Analytical study of vehicle idle shake performance is standard NVH work within the vehicle development process. Robust design for idle shake performance takes variations into account besides nominal design based performance evaluation. In other words, in addition to the nominal design, Robust Design includes additional evaluations that may incorporate variation due to manufacturing, usage or the environment. This paper presents an example of how to obtain a robust design through performing Robust Optimization on idle shake performance with respect to powertrain mount rates and their tolerance variation. The paper describes a two-phase process that has been systematically implemented to analytically obtain a robust design. In the first phase, performance variation assessment is conducted. Then a Robust Optimization is performed to obtain a robust design.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1634
John E. Mahoney, Joel M. Maguire, Shushan Bai
The ratio changing mechanics of the continuously variable transmissions are developed. The lever analogy of gear sets, comparison to step gear transmission mechanics, differential calculus analysis, and the step gear ratio changing equations are used. Power on up-shifts, power on downshifts, power off up-shifts, and power off downshifts are analyzed. Approaches to minimize the disturbances are considered.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1344
Oguz H. Dagci, Anupam Gangopadhyay, Alan W. Brown, Donald R. Sutherland
A rapid prototyping controller (RPC) based, full-authority, diesel control system is developed, implemented, tested and validated on FTP cycle. As rapid prototyping controller, dSPACE Autobox is coupled with a fast processor based slave for lower level I/O control and a collection of in-house designed interface cards for signal conditioning. The base software set implemented mimics the current production code for a production diesel engine. This is done to facilitate realistic and accurate comparison of production algorithms with new control algorithms to be added on future products. The engine is equipped with all the state-of-the art subsystems found in a modern diesel engine (common rail fuel injection, EGR, Turbocharger etc.).
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0920
Carl-Anders Hergart, Abdelilah Louki, Norbert Peters
Heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls constitutes a significant portion of the overall energy losses over the working cycle of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine. In the last few decades, numerous research efforts have been devoted to investigating the prospects of boosting efficiency by insulating the combustion chamber. Relatively few studies have focused on the prospects of reducing emissions by applying combustion chamber insulation. A main purpose of this study is to assess the potential of reducing in-cylinder soot as well as boosting aftertreatment performance by means of partially insulating the combustion chamber. Based on the findings from a conceptual study, a Low Heat Rejection (LHR) design, featuring a Nimonic 80A insert into an Aluminum piston, was developed and tested experimentally at various loads in a single-cylinder Hatz-engine.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0075
Ronald J. DeKoekkoek, Roberto I. DePaula, Daniel J. Richardson
Control System testing determines whether the embedded controller (software and its HWIO / hardware system) are operating according to specification. General Motors Powertrain (GMPT) has increased its span of test coverage through the use of automated testing. Further use of this type of testing is advised to enhance quality in a field that is rapidly growing more complex.
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