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Viewing 1 to 30 of 125
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0659
Caroline L. Genzale, Lyle M. Pickett, Alexandra A. Hoops, Jeffrey M. Headrick
Laser plasma ignition has been pursued by engine researchers as an alternative to electric spark-ignition systems, potentially offering benefits by avoiding quenching surfaces and extending breakdown limits at higher boost pressure and lower equivalence ratio. For this study, we demonstrate another potential benefit: the ability to control the timing of ignition with short, nanosecond pulses, thereby optimizing the type of mixture that burns in rapidly changing, stratified fuel-air mixtures. We study laser ignition at various timings during single and double injections at simulated gasoline engine conditions within a controlled, high-temperature, high-pressure vessel. Laser ignition is accomplished with a single low-energy (10 mJ), short duration (8 ns) Nd:YAG laser beam that is tightly focused (0.015 mm average measured 1/e₂ diameter) at a typical GDI spark plug location.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0093
Bert Bras, Austin Cobert
Recently Michelin has been developing a new airless, integrated tire and wheel combination called the Tweel® tire. The Tweel tire aims at performance levels beyond those possible with conventional pneumatic technology because of its shear band design, added suspension, and potentially decreased rolling resistance. In this paper, we will focus on the environmental impact of the Tweel tire during its life-cycle from manufacturing, through use and disposal. Since the Tweel tire is currently still in the research phase and is not manufactured and used on a large scale, there are uncertainties with respect to end-of-life scenarios and rolling resistance estimates that will affect the LCA. Nevertheless, some preliminary conclusions of the Tweel tire's environmental performance in comparison to a conventional radial tire can be drawn.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1152
Jeff Yen, John Zullo, Francisco Tejada, Bert Bras, Tina Guldberg
The recent development of electric vehicles creates a new area of interest regarding their potential impacts on natural resource and energy networks. Water consumption is of particular interest, as water scarcity becomes a growing problem in many regions of the world. Water usage can be traced to the production of gasoline, as well as electricity, for regular operation of these vehicles. This paper focuses on the development of a framework to analyze the amount of water consumed in the operation of both conventional and electric vehicles. Using the Systems Modeling Language, a model was developed based on the water consumed directly in energy generation and processing as well as water consumed in obtaining and processing a vehicle's fuels. This model and framework will use the above water consumption breakdown to examine conventional and electric vehicles in metropolitan Atlanta to assess their impacts on that and other urban networks.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1533
Nicholas Earnhart, Kenneth Marek, Kenneth Cunefare
Hydraulic systems pose a particular problem for noise control. Due to the high speed of sound in hydraulic fluids, components typically designed to reduce fluid-borne noise can easily exceed practical size constraints. This paper presents novel solutions to creating compact and effective noise control devices for fluid power systems. A hydraulic silencer is presented that utilizes a voided polymer lining in lieu of a pressurized bladder. Theoretical modeling is developed which predicts device performance and can assist in future design work. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the device. Both voided and non-voided liners are tested to show the effect of the voiding on the performance. In addition, theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented for a prototype Helmholtz resonator that is two orders of magnitude smaller than previously developed devices.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2046
Jean-Guillaume Nerva, Teruo Yamaguchi, Hiroki Iguma, Hiroki Nishigai, Katsufumi Kondo, Satoshi Takano, Tetsuya Aizawa, Caroline L. Genzale, Lyle M. Pickett
For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in a biodiesel spray flame, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in a spray flame fuelled with soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at different axial locations in the spray flame, 40, 50 and 70 mm from injector nozzle, which correspond to soot formation, peak, and oxidation zones, respectively. The biodiesel spray flame was generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and temperature condition (6.7 MPa, 1000K). Density, diameter of primary particles and radius of gyration of soot aggregates reached a peak at 50 mm from the injector nozzle and was lower or smaller in the formation or oxidation zones of the spray.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0876
Jerome Meisel
General Motors has recently developed a front-wheel drive version of its two planetary two-mode transmission (2-MT) for a hybrid-electric vehicle powertrain [1]. This newer transmission includes two planetary gears with two transfer clutches and two braking clutches. With activation of designated pairs of these four clutches, four fixed-gear ratios between the transmission's input shaft and output shaft are obtained. In addition, activation of specific individual clutches gives two modes of operation whereby the IC engine speed is decoupled from the vehicle velocity thus providing an electrical continuously variable transmission (ECVT). This present paper extends the power-split analysis in [2] by deriving a safe-operating region (SOR) in the plane of IC engine speed vs. vehicle velocity for the four fixed-gear and two ECVT modes. This SOR is bounded by the speed limitations of the 2-MT components. Similar results are presented for the Toyota Hybrid System II (THS-II) transmission.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0948
John Arata, Michael J. Leamy, Jerome Meisel, Kenneth Cunefare, David Taylor
This paper presents a comparative analysis of two different power-split hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) powertrains using backward-looking simulations. Compared are the front-wheel drive (FWD) Toyota Hybrid System II (THS-II) and the FWD General Motors Allison Hybrid System II (GM AHS-II). The Toyota system employs a one-mode electrically variable transmission (EVT), while the GM system employs a two-mode EVT. Both powertrains are modeled with the same assumed mid-size sedan chassis parameters. Each design employs their native internal combustion (IC) engine because the transmission's characteristic ratios are designed for the respective brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) maps. Due to the similarities (e.g., power, torque, displacement, and thermal efficiency) between the two IC engines, their fuel consumption and performance differences are neglected in this comparison.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5639
Mark A. Hale, Dimitri N. Mavris, Dennis L. Carter
The Conceptual Aerospace Systems Design and Analysis Toolkit (CASDAT) provides a baseline assessment capability for the Air Force Research Laboratory. The historical development of CASDAT is of benefit to the design research community because considerable effort was expended in the classification of the analysis tools. Its implementation proves to also be of importance because of the definition of assessment use cases. As a result, CASDAT is compatible with accepted analysis tools and can be used with state-of-the-art assessment methods, including technology forecasting and probabilistic design.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5623
Oliver Bandte, Dimitri N. Mavris, Daniel A. DeLaurentis
A key issue in complex systems design is measuring the ‘goodness’ of a design, i.e. finding a criterion through which a particular design is determined to be the ‘best’. Traditional choices in aerospace systems design, such as performance, cost, revenue, reliability, and safety, individually fail to fully capture the life cycle characteristics of the system. Furthermore, current multi-criteria optimization approaches, addressing this problem, rely on deterministic, thus, complete and known information about the system and the environment it is exposed to. In many cases, this information is not be available at the conceptual or preliminary design phases. Hence, critical decisions made in these phases have to draw from only incomplete or uncertain knowledge. One modeling option is to treat this incomplete information probabilistically, accounting for the fact that certain values may be prominent, while the actual value during operation is unknown.
1999-08-02
Technical Paper
1999-01-2698
Hany A. M. Al-Ansary, Sheldon M. Jeter
This paper first briefly reviews the concept of ejector-driven heating and refrigerating systems. The advantages of these systems over conventional systems are outlined. The issue of momentum mismatch between the primary and secondary flows in ejectors is identified as the primary cause of their inherently low second law efficiency. An idea is proposed to solve this problem by adding a non-volatile liquid to the primary flow to reduce the momentum mismatch. The preliminary feasibility of this technique is explored by developing a simple homogeneous two-phase flow model of an ejector. Preliminary results show that the proposed idea reduces irreversibilities and potentially increases the cooling effect.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0908
Benjamin D. Lee, Christiaan J.J. Paredis
Although the design phase can account for a sizable amount of the resources consumed during the product realization process, the time and costs associated with the design process are often neglected when making design decisions. To investigate this issue, we define a process-centric decision model in which the design-phase consumption of resources, such as time and money, is explicitly modeled. While it is clear that the utility of a design is almost always directly impacted by the monetary costs of the design process, our decision model also accounts for the fact that the profit earned by a product depends strongly on its launch date. The decision model allows us thus to consider the trade-off between the time necessary for analysis and the improvement in product quality that results from the analysis. The decision model is sufficiently generic that almost any set of beliefs about the alternatives or analyses, as well as any utility-based preference structure can be modeled.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0347
Mehdi Modares, Robert L. Mullen, Paul X. Bellini, Rafi L. Muhanna
In order to ensure the safety of a structure, adequate strength for structural elements must be provided. In addition, the catastrophic deformations such as buckling must be prevented. In most buckling analyses, structural properties and applied loads are considered certain. Using the linear finite element method, the deterministic buckling analysis is done in two main steps. First, a static analysis is performed using an arbitrary ordinate of applied load. Using the obtained element axial forces, the geometric stiffness of the structure is assembled. Second, performing an eigenvalue problem between the structure's elastic and geometric stiffness matrices yields the structure's critical buckling loads. However, these deterministic approaches disregard uncertainty in the structure's material and geometric properties. In this work, an interval formulation is used to represent the uncertainty in the structure's parameters such as material characteristics.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1051
Bert Bras, Tina Guldberg
In this paper, we quantify several environmental benefits associated with using ultra fine scrap tire rubber powders in virgin and recycled rubber and plastics compounds. Specifically, we will analyze the savings in oil extraction and rubber production in comparison to the rubber powder production using cryogenic grinding. The analysis uses first hand factory data provided by a rubber powder producer. As will be shown, even though cryogenic nitrogen requires production and use of liquid nitrogen, there is still a net environmental benefit in terms of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0646
Bert Bras, Francisco Tejada, Jeff Yen, John Zullo, Tina Guldberg
Numerous studies have pointed out the growing need to assess the availability of water sources in numerous regions around the world as future forecasts suggest that water demands will increase significantly while freshwater resources are being depleted. In this paper, we highlight the difference between water use versus consumption and analyze the life-cycle water consumption of a car from material extraction through production, use, and final disposition/end of life and determine a car's water footprint using data from the EcoInvent database as well as data collected from literature sources. Although water use is typically metered at the factory level, water consumption (i.e., water lost through evaporation and/or incorporation into a material, part, and/or product) is much harder to quantify. As shown in this paper, the difference can be an order of magnitude or more.
2011-06-13
Technical Paper
2011-38-0090
Jeremy Bain, Lakshmi N. Sankar, Roger J. Aubert, Robert J. Flemming
An integrated approach for modeling the ice accretion and shedding of ice on helicopter rotors is presented. A modular framework is used that includes state of the art computational fluid dynamics, computational structural dynamics, rotor trim, ice accretion, and shedding tools. Results are presented for performance degradation due to icing, collection efficiency, surface temperature and water film properties associated with runback-refreeze phenomena, and shedding. Comparisons with other published simulations and test data are given.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0277
Yuriy Romaniw, Bert Bras, Tina Guldberg
This paper looks at a method for decomposing a manufactured product into what is called an “activity space.” The method uses an activity based costing scheme to structure the model and organize the information. It is discussed how the activity space is used to perform sustainability assessments of a manufactured product and the manufacturing process from different viewpoints and perspectives. The way in which the activity space is used to perform an assessment from several viewpoints is discussed.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0482
Naijia Xiao, Rafi L. Muhanna, Francesco Fedele, Robert L. Mullen
Abstract We present a new interval-based formulation for the static analysis of plane stress/strain problems with uncertain parameters in load, material and geometry. We exploit the Interval Finite Element Method (IFEM) to model uncertainties in the system. Overestimation due to dependency among interval variables is reduced using a new decomposition strategy for the structural stiffness matrix and the nodal equivalent load vector. Primary and derived quantities follow from minimization of the total energy and they are solved simultaneously and with the same accuracy by means of Lagrangian multipliers. Two different element assembly strategies are introduced in the formulation: one is Element-by-Element, and the other resembles conventional assembly. In addition, we implement a new variant of the interval iterative enclosure method to obtain outer and inner solutions. Numerical examples show that the proposed interval approach guarantees to enclose the exact system response.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0484
Naijia Xiao, Rafi L. Muhanna, Francesco Fedele, Robert L. Mullen
Abstract We analyze the frequency response of structural dynamic systems with uncertainties in load and material properties. We introduce uncertainties in the system as interval numbers, and use Interval Finite Element Method (IFEM). Overestimation due to dependency is reduced using a new decomposition for the stiffness and mass matrices, as well as for the nodal equivalent load. In addition, primary and derived quantities are simultaneously obtained by means of Lagrangian multipliers that are introduced in the total energy of the system. The obtained interval equations are solved by means of a new variant of the iterative enclosure method resulting in guaranteed enclosures of relevant quantities. Several numerical examples show the accuracy and efficiency of the new formulation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1245
Jonathan D. Cox, Michael Leamy
Abstract The Georgia Tech EcoCAR 3 team’s selection of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) architecture for the EcoCAR 3 competition is presented in detail, with a focus on the team’s modeling and simulation efforts and how they informed the team’s architecture selection and subsequent component decisions. EcoCAR 3, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and General Motors, is the latest in a series of Advanced Vehicle Technology Competitions (AVTCs) and features 16 universities from the United States and Canada competing to transform the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro into a hybrid electric American performance vehicle. Team vehicles will be scored on performance, emissions, fuel economy, consumer acceptability, and more over the course of the four-year competition. During the first year, the Georgia Tech team considered numerous component combinations and HEV architectures, including series RWD and AWD, parallel, and power-split.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1958
Bert Bras, Andrew Carlile, Thomas Niemann, Sherry Mueller, Hyung Chul Kim, Timothy Wallington, Heidi McKenzie, Susan Rokosz
Abstract Tools are now publicly available that can potentially help a company assess the impact of its water use and risks in relation to their global operations and supply chains. In this paper we describe a comparative analysis of two publicly available tools, specifically the WWF/DEG Water Risk Filter and the WBCSD Global Water Tool that are used to measure the water impact and risk indicators for industrial facilities. By analyzing the risk assessments calculated by these tools for different scenarios that include varying facilities from different industries, one can better gauge the similarities and differences between these water strategy tools. Several scenarios were evaluated using the water tools, and the results are compared and contrasted. As will be shown, the results can vary significantly.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3782
Thomas H. Bradley, Brian R. Huff, Andrew A. Frank
Test methods and data acquisition system specifications are described for measurements of the energy consumption of the control system of a servo-pump continuously variable transmission (CVT). Dynamic measurements of the power consumption of the servo-pump CVT control system show that the control system draws approximately 18.9 W-hrs of electrical energy over the HWFET cycle and 13.6 W-hrs over the 505 cycle. Sample results are presented of the dynamic power consumption of the servo-pump system under drive cycle conditions. Steady state measurements of the control power draw of the servo-pump CVT show a peak power consumption of 271 W, including lubrication power. The drive-cycle averaged and steady state energy consumption of the servo-pump CVT are compared to conventional CVT pump technologies.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4030
Kalyana Chakravarthy, Joanna McFarlane, Stuart Daw, Youngchul Ra, Rolf D. Reitz, Jelani Griffin
In this study we identify components of a typical biodiesel fuel and estimate both their individual and mixed thermo-physical and transport properties. We then use the estimated mixture properties in computational simulations to gauge the extent to which combustion is modified when biodiesel is substituted for conventional diesel fuel. Our simulation studies included both conventional diesel combustion (DI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). Preliminary results indicate that biodiesel ignition is significantly delayed due to slower liquid evaporation, with the effects being more pronounced for DI than PCCI. The lower vapor pressure and higher liquid heat capacity of biodiesel are two key contributors to this slower rate of evaporation. Other physical properties are more similar between the two fuels, and their impacts are not clearly evident in the present study.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0076
Ryder Winck, Kenneth Marek, ChengShu Ngoo
This paper presents a study of the effects of anti-lock brakes on a vehicle with cable-type brakes with respect to stopping distance and vehicle control. While ABS is common on motorcycles and some hydraulic braking systems for mopeds, little research has been done on the use of anti-locks for low-powered vehicles using non-hydraulic brakes. A bicycle with cable-type brakes has been retrofitted with an active ABS. Experiments were carried out to compare the braking distance when the ABS was activated and deactivated. The study found that ABS did not sacrifice braking distance while improving vehicle control.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1321
Jerome Meisel
General Motors has introduced a Two-Mode Transmission (2-MT) that provides significant improvements over the Toyota THS-II transmission. These improvements are achieved by employing additional planetaries with clutches and brakes to switch from a Mode-1 to Mode-2 as vehicle speed increases. In addition the 2-MT has four fixed-gear ratios that provide for a purely mechanical energy path from the IC engine to the driven wheels with the electric machines also able to provide additional driving torque. The purpose of this present paper is to extend the methodology in a previous paper [1] to include the 2-MT, thereby presenting an analytic foundation for its operation. The main contribution in this analysis is in the definition of dimensionless separation factors, defined in each mode that govern the power split between the parallel mechanical and electrical energy paths from the IC engine to the driven wheels.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0565
Roxanne A. Conigliaro, Aleksandr A. Kerzhner, Christiaan J. J. Paredis
Modeling and simulation are commonly used in all stages of the design process. This is particularly vital to the success of systems engineering projects where the system under consideration is complex and involves interactions between many interdisciplinary subsystems. In the refining stages of the design process (after concept selection), models and simulations can be used to refine and optimize a system with respect to the decision maker’s objectives. In this paper, a dynamic model of a hydraulic backhoe serves as a test-bed for a large-scale sensitivity analysis and subsequent optimization of the most significant design parameters. The model is optimized under uncertainty with respect to a multi-attribute utility function that includes fuel consumption, cost of the key components, and machine performance.
2008-12-02
Technical Paper
2008-01-2986
Efstathios Velenis, Panagiotis Tsiotras, Jianbo Lu
Trail-Braking (TB) is a common cornering technique used in rally racing to negotiate tight corners at (moderately) high speeds. In a previous paper by the authors it has been shown that TB can be generated as the solution to the minimum-time cornering problem, subject to fixed final positioning of the vehicle after the corner. A TB maneuver can then be computed by solving a non-linear programming (NLP). In this work we formulate an optimization problem by relaxing the final positioning of the vehicle with respect to the width of the road in order to study the optimality of late-apex trajectories typically followed by rally drivers. We test the results on a variety of corners. The optimal control inputs are approximated by simple piecewise linear input profiles defined by a small number of parameters. It is shown that the proposed input parameterization can generate close to optimal TB along the various corner geometries.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1545
Sam Golbuff
A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) design with design parameters electric motor size, engine size, battery capacity, and battery chemistry type, is optimized with minimum cost as a measure of merit. The PHEV is required to meet a fixed set of performance constraints consisting of 0-60 mph acceleration, 50-70 mph acceleration, 0-30 mph acceleration in all electric operation, top speed, grade ability, and all electric range. The optimization is carried out for values of all electric range of 10, 20, and 40 miles. The social and economic impacts of the optimum designs in terms of reduced gasoline consumption and carbon emissions reduction are calculated. Argonne National Laboratory's Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit is used to simulate the performance and fuel economy of the PHEV designs. The costs of different PHEV components and the present value of battery replacements over the vehicle's life are used to determine the design's drivetrain cost.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0666
Jerome Meisel
Hybrid-electric powertrains for passenger vehicles and light trucks are generally being designed with two different configurations described as follows: The Toyota Hybrid System, THS-II, implemented in the 2004 Prius, the Lexus 400-H, and the Ford Hybrid Escape, is a power-split approach involving two electric machines and an internal combustion engine (ICE) mechanically coupled by a three-shaft planetary gear train. The second leading approach is a parallel hybrid-electric powertrain that generally includes a single electric machine and an ICE with a mating multi-ratio transmission. These parallel configurations are further divided as weak parallel and strong parallel. Honda uses a weak parallel powertrain in their Insight and Hybrid Civic. At Georgia Tech a strong (full), split-parallel hybrid powertrain has been implemented in a Ford Explorer. The vehicle is referred to as the Model GT.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1124
Satish Rajagopalan, Thomas G. Habetler, Christian Kral, Franz Pirker
This paper presents monitoring and diagnostic techniques for drivetrain components in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The particular focus of this work is the gear box of the drivetrain and mechanical faults of the electric motor. Permanent magnet motor magnet failures and rotor eccentricities are investigated and diagnosed. For induction motors, the presented mechanical fault cases are electrical rotor asymmetries (defective bars and end rings) and rotor eccentricities, as well. Apart from stationary operation, the presented techniques can also be applied to transient operating conditions. Measurement results are presented and discussed.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929164
Thomas J. Kirk, Jack Winnick
A fuel cell which uses pure hydrogen sulfide as fuel and a solid electrolyte of ceria stabilized with yttria (YSC) has been proposed, with the configuration H2S, Pt/YSC/Pt, O2 (air), operating at temperatures of 600 to 800° C. Initial experiments will use platinum electrodes, with subsequent runs using various perovskite type electrodes. The YSC electrolye system exhibits better ionic conductivity than the more familiar YSZ electrolytes, and thus the fuel cell will operate at a lower temperature range. Cell component manufacture, cell experiments, and analytical techniques are discussed.
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