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Viewing 1 to 30 of 71
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5639
Mark A. Hale, Dimitri N. Mavris, Dennis L. Carter
The Conceptual Aerospace Systems Design and Analysis Toolkit (CASDAT) provides a baseline assessment capability for the Air Force Research Laboratory. The historical development of CASDAT is of benefit to the design research community because considerable effort was expended in the classification of the analysis tools. Its implementation proves to also be of importance because of the definition of assessment use cases. As a result, CASDAT is compatible with accepted analysis tools and can be used with state-of-the-art assessment methods, including technology forecasting and probabilistic design.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5623
Oliver Bandte, Dimitri N. Mavris, Daniel A. DeLaurentis
A key issue in complex systems design is measuring the ‘goodness’ of a design, i.e. finding a criterion through which a particular design is determined to be the ‘best’. Traditional choices in aerospace systems design, such as performance, cost, revenue, reliability, and safety, individually fail to fully capture the life cycle characteristics of the system. Furthermore, current multi-criteria optimization approaches, addressing this problem, rely on deterministic, thus, complete and known information about the system and the environment it is exposed to. In many cases, this information is not be available at the conceptual or preliminary design phases. Hence, critical decisions made in these phases have to draw from only incomplete or uncertain knowledge. One modeling option is to treat this incomplete information probabilistically, accounting for the fact that certain values may be prominent, while the actual value during operation is unknown.
2011-06-13
Technical Paper
2011-38-0090
Jeremy Bain, Lakshmi N. Sankar, Roger J. Aubert, Robert J. Flemming
An integrated approach for modeling the ice accretion and shedding of ice on helicopter rotors is presented. A modular framework is used that includes state of the art computational fluid dynamics, computational structural dynamics, rotor trim, ice accretion, and shedding tools. Results are presented for performance degradation due to icing, collection efficiency, surface temperature and water film properties associated with runback-refreeze phenomena, and shedding. Comparisons with other published simulations and test data are given.
1996-11-18
Technical Paper
962290
Charles C. Crawford, Michael W. Heiges, Mark Wasikowski
This paper outlines work performed by the Aeronautical Systems Division of the Aerospace and Transportation Laboratory at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI). The paper provides limited, but pertinent information relative to the technical viability of a tiltwing configurations as civil powered-lift aircraft. Emphasis has been placed on identifying the complexity differences with tiltrotor and helicopter configurations. Complexity differences normally impact both acquisition and/or operating and support costs, although specific cost estimates are not presented.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
965501
Daniel DeLaurentis, P. Scott Zink, Dimitri N. Mavris, Carlos E. S. Cesnik, Daniel P. Schrage
An evolving aircraft synthesis simulation environment which offers improvements to existing methods at multiple levels of a design process is described in this paper. As design databases become obsolete due to the introduction of new technologies and classes of vehicles and as sophisticated analysis codes are often too computationally expensive for iterative applications, the design engineer may find a lack of usable information needed for decision making. Within the environment developed in this paper, rapid sensitivity analysis is possible through a unique representation of the relationship between fundamental design variables and system objectives. The combined use of the Design of Experiments and Response Surface techniques provides the ability to form this design relationship among system variables and target values, which is termed design-oriented in nature.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
965591
Dimitri N. Mavris, William T. Hayden
The growth of international markets as well as business partnerships between U.S. and Asian-based firms has lead to an increased interest in an economically viable business jet capable of supersonic cruise and trans-Pacific range with one stop over (or non-stop trans-Atlantic range)1. Such an aircraft would reduce the travel time to these regions by as much as 50% by increasing cruise Mach number from roughly 0.85 to 2.0. In response to this interest, the 1996 AIAA / United Technologies / Pratt & Whitney Individual Undergraduate Design Competition has issued a Request for Proposal for the conceptual design of a supersonic cruise business jet. The design of this aircraft considered both performance and economic issues in the conceptual design phase. Through the use of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Design of Experiments (DoE) techniques, the aerodynamics of this vehicle were modeled and incorporated into an aircraft sizing code, FLOPS.
1999-04-13
Technical Paper
1999-01-1433
Tobias Laps, Ivan Y. Burdun, Dimitri N. Mavris, Daniel P. Schrage
The ultimate goal of knowledge-based aircraft design, pilot training and flight operations is to make flight safety an inherent, built-in feature of the flight vehicle, such as its aerodynamics, strength, economics and comfort are. Individual flight accidents and incidents may vary in terms of quantitative characteristics, circumstances, and other external details. However, their cause-and-effect patterns often reveal invariant structure or essential causal chains which may re-occur in the future for the same or other vehicle types. The identification of invariant logical patterns from flight accident reports, time-histories and other data sources is very important for enhancing flight safety at the level of the ‘pilot - vehicle -operational conditions’ system. The objective of this research project was to develop and assess a method for ‘mining’ knowledge of typical cause-and-effect patterns from flight accidents and incidents.
2000-10-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-5564
Nathan R. Hines, Dimitri N. Mavris
System effectiveness has become the prime metric for the evaluation of military aircraft. As such, it is the designer's goal to maximize system effectiveness. Industry documents indicate that all future military aircraft will incorporate signature reduction as an attempt to improve system effectiveness. Today's operating environments demand low observable aircraft which are able to reliably eliminate valuable, time critical targets. Thus, it is desirable to be able to evaluate the signatures of a vehicle, as well as the influence of signatures on the systems effectiveness of a vehicle. Previous studies have shown that shaping of the vehicle is one of the most important contributors to radar cross section and must be considered from the very beginning of the design process. This research strives to meet these needs by developing a parametric geometry radar cross section prediction tool.
2000-10-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-5562
Bryce A. Roth, Dimitri N. Mavris
The objective of this paper is to develop a generalized loss management model to account for the usage of thermodynamic work potential in vehicles of any type. The key to accomplishing this is creation of a differential representation for vehicle loss as a function of operating condition. This differential model is then integrated through time to obtain an analytical estimate for total usage (and loss) of work potential consumed by each loss mechanism present during vehicle operation. The end result of this analysis is a better understanding of how the work potential initially present in the fuel, batteries, etc. is partitioned amongst all losses relevant to the vehicle's operation. The loss partitioning estimated from this loss management model can be used in conjunction with cost accounting systems to gain a better understanding of underlying drivers on vehicle manufacturing and operating costs.
2000-04-11
Technical Paper
2000-01-2100
Ivan Y. Burdun, Oleg M. Parfentyev
An affordable technique is proposed for fast quantitative analysis of aerobatics and other complex flight domains of highly maneuverable aircraft. A generalized autonomous situational model of the “pilot (automaton) – vehicle – operational environment” system is employed as a “virtual test article”. Using this technique, a systematic knowledge of the system behavior in aerobatic flight can be generated on a computer, much faster than real time. This information can be analyzed via a set of knowledge mapping formats using a 3-D graphics visualization tool. Piloting and programming skills are not required in this process. Possible applications include: aircraft design and education, applied aerodynamics, flight control systems design, planning and rehearsal of flight test and display programs, investigation of aerobatics-related flight accidents and incidents, physics-based pilot training, research into new maneuvers, autonomous flight, and onboard AI.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
975541
Ivan Y. Burdun, Dimitri N. Mavris
A technique is proposed for examining complex behaviors in the “pilot - vehicle - operational conditions” system using an autonomous situational model of flight. The goal is to identify potentially critical flight situations in the system behavior early in the design process. An exhaustive set of flight scenarios can be constructed and modeled on a computer by the designer in accordance with test certification requirements or other inputs. Distinguishing features of the technique include the autonomy of experimentation (the pilot and a flight simulator are not involved) and easy planning and quick modeling of complex multi-factor flight cases. An example of mapping airworthiness requirements into formal scenarios is presented. Simulation results for various flight situations and aircraft types are also demonstrated.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
975508
Dimitri N. Mavris, Oliver Bandte
Several approaches to robust design have been proposed in the past. Only few acknowledged the paradigm shift from performance based design to design for cost. The incorporation of economics in the design process, however, makes a probabilistic approach to design necessary, due to the inherent ambiguity of assumptions and requirements as well as the operating environment of future aircraft. The approach previously proposed by the authors, linking Response Surface Methodology with Monte Carlo Simulations, has revealed itself to be cumbersome and at times impractical for multi-constraint, multi-objective problems. In addition, prediction accuracy problems were observed for certain scenarios that could not easily be resolved. Hence, this paper proposes an alternate approach to probabilistic design, which is based on a Fast Probability Integration technique.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
975513
Timothy W. Simpson, Janet K. Allen, Farrokh Mistree, Wei Chen
Design capability indices provide a metric to assess the capability of a family of designs, represented by a range of top-level design specifications, to satisfy a ranged set of design requirements. Design capability indices can be used to manage design freedom in the early stages of the design process when design requirements for a system may be uncertain. To illustrate the use of design capability indices, the design of a family of General Aviation aircraft is presented: design capability indices are used to simultaneously design a family of three aircraft around a two, a four, and a six seater configuration. The results are compared against two of our previous studies.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
975585
Dimitri N. Mavris, George C. Mantis, Michelle R. Kirby
Over the past few years, modern aircraft design has experienced a paradigm shift from designing for performance to designing for affordability. This paper contains a probabilistic approach that will allow traditional deterministic design methods to be extended to account for disciplinary, economic, and technological uncertainty. The probabilistic approach was facilitated by the Fast Probability Integration (FPI) technique; a technique which allows the designer to gather valuable information about the vehicle's behavior in the design space. This technique is efficient for assessing multi-attribute, multi-constraint problems in a more realistic fashion. For implementation purposes, this technique is applied to illustrate how both economic and technological uncertainty associated with a Very Large Transport aircraft may be assessed.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
975570
Erik D. Olson, Dimitri N. Mavris
As an element of a design optimization study of high speed civil transport (HSCT), response surface equations (RSEs) were developed with the goal of accurately predicting the sideline, takeoff, and approach noise levels for any combination of selected design variables. These RSEs were needed during vehicle synthesis to constrain the aircraft design to meet FAR 36, Stage 3 noise levels. Development of the RSEs was useful as an application of response surface methodology to a previously untested discipline. Noise levels were predicted using the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP), with additional corrections to account for inlet and exhaust duct lining, mixer-ejector nozzles, multiple fan stages, and wing reflection. The fan, jet, and airframe contributions were considered in the aircraft source noise prediction.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
975572
Anurag Gupta, Stephen M. Ruffin
A supersonic channel airfoil (SCA) concept that can be applied to the leading edges of wings, tails, fins, struts, and other appendages of aircraft, atmospheric entry vehicles and missiles in supersonic flight for drag reduction is described. It is designed to be beneficial at conditions in which the leading edge is significantly blunted and the Mach number normal to the leading edge is supersonic. The concept is found to result in significantly reduced wave drag and total drag (including skin friction drag) and significantly increased L/D. While this reduction over varying flight conditions has been quantified, some leading edge geometries result in adverse increases in peak heat transfer rates. To evaluate the effectiveness of SCAs in reducing drag without paying any penalties in other areas like lifting capacity, heating rates or enclosed volume, the design space was studied in greater detail using MDO methods.
1997-10-13
Technical Paper
975613
Rolf Rysdyk, Anthony J. Calise, Robert T. N. Chen
Neural network augmented model inversion control is used to provide a civilian tilt-rotor aircraft with consistent response characteristics throughout its operating envelope, including conversion flight. The implemented response types are Attitude Command Attitude Hold in the longitudinal channel, and Rate Command Attitude Hold about the roll and yaw axes. This article describes the augmentation in the roll channel and the augmentation for the yaw motion including Heading Hold at low airspeeds and automatic Turn Coordination at cruise flight. Conventional methods require extensive gain scheduling with tilt-rotor nacelle angle and airspeed. A control architecture is developed that can alleviate this requirement and thus has the potential to reduce development time. It also facilitates the implementation of desired handling qualities, and permits compensation for partial failures.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
975589
N. M. Komerath, R. G. Ames, J. C. Magill
The wind-driven dynamic manipulator is a device which uses the wind tunnel freestream energy to drive multi-axis maneuvers of test models. This paper summarizes work performed using the device in several applications and discusses current work on characterizing the aerodynamics of an X-38 vehicle model in pitch-yaw maneuvers. Previous applications in flow visualization, adaptive control and linear-domain parameter identification are now extended to multi-axis inverse force and moment measurement over large ranges of attitude. A pitch-yaw-roll version is operated with active roll to measure forces and moments during maneuvers. A 3-D look-up table generated from direct force calibration allows operation of the manipulator through nonlinear regimes where control wing stall and boom wake-wing interactions are allowed to occur. Hybrid designs combining conventional and wind-driven degrees of freedom are discussed.
1998-09-28
Technical Paper
985509
Debora D. Daberkow, Dimitri N. Mavris
This paper critically evaluates the use of Neural Networks (NNs) as metamodels for design applications. The specifics of implementing a NN approach are researched and discussed, including the type and architecture appropriate for design-related tasks, the processes of collecting training and validation data, and training the network, resulting in a sound process, which is described. This approach is then contrasted to the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). As illustrative problems, two equations to be approximated and a real-world problem from a Stability and Controls scenario, where it is desirable to predict the static longitudinal stability for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) at takeoff, are presented. This research examines Response Surface Equations (RSEs) as Taylor series approximations, and explains their high performance as a proven approach to approximate functions that are known to be quadratic or near quadratic in nature.
1987-10-01
Technical Paper
871905
George F. McDougal, Samuel M. Blankenship, John J. Timar
The quantification of aircraft survivability in modern battlefield environments is a complex mathematical problem. In general, consideration must be given to the quantification of aircraft vulnerability to individual weapon systems, single encounter aircraft survivability, and the mathematical mapping of single encounter aircraft survivability into mission attrition. A methodology for quantifying the impacts of electronic warfare (EW) upon aircraft survivability is realized by the General Effectiveness Methodology (GEM) which is based upon a hierarchy of computer models. This paper describes this hierarchy of computer simulation tools which extensively employs probability theory to estimate the various engagement events such as aircraft detection, acquisition, missile launch, missile intercept, and probability of aircraft kill.
2010-11-18
Article
The U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) awarded Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne a $1.35 million contract to develop improved computational tools to better predict combustion stability of hydrocarbon-fueled liquid rocket engines.
2010-08-20
Article
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has awarded Aurora Flight Sciences and its partner the Georgia Institute of Technology a contract to continue research and development of next-generation distributed controllers for turbine engines.
2009-03-11
Article
Georgia Tech Research Institute is leading a team of researchers from five universities and research organizations to investigate the feasibility of using a forward-looking interferometer to detect several invisible atmospheric hazards during takeoff, cruise, and landing.
2016-01-29
Article
Researchers from the Georgia Institute of Technology, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and the University of Tokyo have taken a keen interest in origami, which they believe may soon provide a foundation for antennas that can reconfigure themselves to operate at different frequencies.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3399
Hernando Jiménez, Dimitri N. Mavris
A design process is formulated and implemented for the taxonomy selection and system-level optimization of an Efficient Multi-Mach Aircraft Current Technology Concept and an Advanced Concept. Concept space exploration of taxonomy alternatives is performed with multi-objective genetic algorithms and a Powell’s method scheme for vehicle optimization in a multidisciplinary modeling and simulation environment. A dynamic sensitivity visualization analysis tool is generated for the Advanced Concept with response surface equations.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2088
Richard E. Kreeger, Lakshmi Sankar, Robert Narducci, Robert Kunz
Abstract The formation of ice over lifting surfaces can affect aerodynamic performance. In the case of helicopters, this loss in lift and the increase in sectional drag forces will have a dramatic effect on vehicle performance. The ability to predict ice accumulation and the resulting degradation in rotor performance is essential to determine the limitations of rotorcraft in icing encounters. The consequences of underestimating performance degradation can be serious and so it is important to produce accurate predictions, particularly for severe icing conditions. The simulation of rotorcraft ice accretion is a challenging multidisciplinary problem that until recently has lagged in development over its counterparts in the fixed wing community. But now, several approaches for the robust coupling of a computational fluid dynamics code, a rotorcraft structural dynamics code and an ice accretion code have been demonstrated.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2010
Nandeesh Hiremath, Dhwanil Shukla, Narayanan Komerath
Abstract The design of advanced rotorcraft requires knowledge of the flowfield and loads on the rotor blade at extreme advance ratios (ratios of the forward flight speed to rotor tip speed). In this domain, strong vortices form below the rotor, and their evolution has a sharp influence on the aero-dynamics loads experienced by the rotor, particularly the loads experienced at pitch links. To understand the load distribution, the surface pressure distribution must be captured. This has posed a severe problem in wind tunnel experiments. In our experiments, a 2-bladed teetering rotor with collective and cyclic pitch controls is used in a low speed subsonic wind tunnel in reverse flow. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry is used to measure the three component spatial velocity field. Measurement accuracy is now adequate for velocity data, and can be converted to pressure both at and away from the blade surface.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2026
Dhwanil Shukla, Nandeesh Hiremath, Narayanan Komerath
Abstract An architecture is proposed for on-demand rapid commuting across congested-traffic areas. A lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicle provides the efficient loitering and part of the lift, while a set of cycloidal rotors provides the lift for payload as well as propulsion. This combination offers low noise and low downwash. A standardized automobile carriage is slung below the LTA, permitting driveway to driveway boarding and off-loading for a luxury automobile. The concept exploration is described, converging to the above system. The 6-DOF aerodynamic load map of the carriage is acquired using the Continuous-Rotation method in a wind tunnel. An initial design with rear ramp access is modified to have ramps at both ends. The initial design shows a divergence sped in access of 100 mph. An effort to improve the ride quality using yaw stabilizers, failed as the dynamic behavior becomes unstable. The requirements for control surfaces and instrumentation are discussed.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2009
Natasha Barbely, Narayanan Komerath
Abstract Coaxial rotors are finding use in advanced rotorcraft concepts. Combined with lift offset rotor technology, they offer a solution to the problems of dynamic stall and reverse flow that often limit single rotor forward flight speeds. In addition, coaxial rotorcraft systems do not need a tail rotor, a major boon during operation in confined areas. However, the operation of two counter-rotating rotors in close proximity generates many possible aerodynamic interactions between rotor blades, blades and vortices, and between vortices. With two rotors, the parameter design space is very large, and requires efficient computations as well as basic experiments to explore aerodynamics of a coaxial rotor and the effects on performance, loads, and acoustics.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2056
Nikolaus Thorell, Vaibhav Kumar, Narayanan Komerath
Abstract Combat aircraft maneuvering at high angles of attack or in landing approach are likely to encounter conditions where the flow over the swept wings is yawed. This paper examines the effect of yaw on the spectra of turbulence above and aft of the wing, in the region where fins and control surfaces are located. Prior work has shown the occurrence of narrowband velocity fluctuations in this region for most combat aircraft models, including those with twin fins. Fin vibration and damage has been traced to excitation by such narrowband fluctuations. The narrowband fluctuations themselves have been traced to the wing surface. The issue in this paper is the effect of yaw on these fluctuations, as well as on the aerodynamic loads on a wing, without including the perturbations due to the airframe.
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