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Viewing 1 to 30 of 62
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0948
John Arata, Michael J. Leamy, Jerome Meisel, Kenneth Cunefare, David Taylor
This paper presents a comparative analysis of two different power-split hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) powertrains using backward-looking simulations. Compared are the front-wheel drive (FWD) Toyota Hybrid System II (THS-II) and the FWD General Motors Allison Hybrid System II (GM AHS-II). The Toyota system employs a one-mode electrically variable transmission (EVT), while the GM system employs a two-mode EVT. Both powertrains are modeled with the same assumed mid-size sedan chassis parameters. Each design employs their native internal combustion (IC) engine because the transmission's characteristic ratios are designed for the respective brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) maps. Due to the similarities (e.g., power, torque, displacement, and thermal efficiency) between the two IC engines, their fuel consumption and performance differences are neglected in this comparison.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0272
Steven J. Rekuc, Jason M. Aughenbaugh, Morgan Bruns, Christiaan J. J. Paredis
In this paper, the relationship between uncertainty and sets of alternatives in engineering design is investigated. In sequential decision making, each decision alternative actually consists of a set of design alternatives. Consequently, the decision-maker can express his or her preferences only imprecisely as a range of expected utilities for each decision alternative. In addition, the performance of each design alternative can be characterized only imprecisely due to uncertainty from limited data, modeling assumptions, and numerical methods. The approach presented in this paper recognizes the presence of both imprecision and sets in the design process by focusing on incrementally eliminating decision alternatives until a small set of solutions remains. This is a fundamental shift from the current paradigm where the focus is on selecting a single decision alternative in each design decision.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0273
Scott Duncan, Christiaan J. J. Paredis, Bert Bras
Often in the early stages of the engineering design process, a decision maker lacks the information needed to represent uncertainty in the input parameters of a performance model. In one particular form of severely deficient information, a nominal estimate is available for an input parameter, but the amount of discrepancy between that estimate and the parameter's true value, as well as the implications of that discrepancy on system performance, are not known. In this paper, the concepts and techniques of information-gap decision theory (IGDT), an established method for making decisions robust to severely deficient information, are examined more closely through application to a design problem with continuous design variables. The uncertain variables in the chosen example problem are parameters of a probability distribution, so the relationship between IGDT and design approaches considering precise and/or imprecise probabilities is explained.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0482
Naijia Xiao, Rafi L. Muhanna, Francesco Fedele, Robert L. Mullen
Abstract We present a new interval-based formulation for the static analysis of plane stress/strain problems with uncertain parameters in load, material and geometry. We exploit the Interval Finite Element Method (IFEM) to model uncertainties in the system. Overestimation due to dependency among interval variables is reduced using a new decomposition strategy for the structural stiffness matrix and the nodal equivalent load vector. Primary and derived quantities follow from minimization of the total energy and they are solved simultaneously and with the same accuracy by means of Lagrangian multipliers. Two different element assembly strategies are introduced in the formulation: one is Element-by-Element, and the other resembles conventional assembly. In addition, we implement a new variant of the interval iterative enclosure method to obtain outer and inner solutions. Numerical examples show that the proposed interval approach guarantees to enclose the exact system response.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0484
Naijia Xiao, Rafi L. Muhanna, Francesco Fedele, Robert L. Mullen
Abstract We analyze the frequency response of structural dynamic systems with uncertainties in load and material properties. We introduce uncertainties in the system as interval numbers, and use Interval Finite Element Method (IFEM). Overestimation due to dependency is reduced using a new decomposition for the stiffness and mass matrices, as well as for the nodal equivalent load. In addition, primary and derived quantities are simultaneously obtained by means of Lagrangian multipliers that are introduced in the total energy of the system. The obtained interval equations are solved by means of a new variant of the iterative enclosure method resulting in guaranteed enclosures of relevant quantities. Several numerical examples show the accuracy and efficiency of the new formulation.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0815
Dekun Pei, Michael Leamy
This paper presents a forward-looking simulation (FLS) approach for the front wheel drive (FWD) General Motors Allison Hybrid System II (GM AHS-II). The supervisory control approach is based on a dynamic programming-informed Equivalent Cost Minimization Strategy (ECMS). The controller development uses backward-looking simulations (BLS), which execute quickly by neglecting component transients while assuming exact adherence to a specified drive cycle. Since ECMS sometimes prescribes control strategies with rapid component transients, its efficacy remains unknown until these transients are modeled. This is addressed by porting the ECMS controller to a forward-looking simulation where component transients are modeled in high fidelity. Techniques of implementing the ECMS controller and commanding the various power plants in the GM AHS-II for FLS are discussed.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1102
Gina M. Magnotti, Caroline L. Genzale
It is common practice to validate diesel spray models against experimental diesel-spray images based on elastic light scattering, but the metric used to define the liquid boundary in a modeled spray can be physically inconsistent with the liquid boundary detected by light scattering measurements. In particular, spray models typically define liquid penetration based on a liquid mass threshold, while light scattering signal intensities are based on droplet size and volume fraction. These metrics have different response characteristics to changes in ambient conditions and fuel properties. Thus, when spray models are “tuned” or calibrated to match these types of measurements, the predictive capabilities of these models can be compromised. In this work, we compare two different liquid length metrics of an evaporating, non-reacting n-dodecane spray under diesel-like conditions using KIVA-3V.
2011-06-13
Technical Paper
2011-38-0090
Jeremy Bain, Lakshmi N. Sankar, Roger J. Aubert, Robert J. Flemming
An integrated approach for modeling the ice accretion and shedding of ice on helicopter rotors is presented. A modular framework is used that includes state of the art computational fluid dynamics, computational structural dynamics, rotor trim, ice accretion, and shedding tools. Results are presented for performance degradation due to icing, collection efficiency, surface temperature and water film properties associated with runback-refreeze phenomena, and shedding. Comparisons with other published simulations and test data are given.
2011-09-13
Journal Article
2011-01-2171
Qingmin Huang, Jin Huang, Aiguo Cheng
Suspension system dynamics can be obtained by various methods and vehicle design has gained great advantages over the dynamics analysis. By employing the new Udwadia-Kalaba equation, we endeavor some attempts on its application to dynamic modeling of vehicle suspension systems. The modeling approach first segments the suspension system into several component subsystems with kinematic constraints at the segment points released. The equations of motion of the unconstrained subsystems are thus easily obtained. Then by applying the second order constraints, the suspension system dynamics is then obtained. The equations are of closed-form. Having the equations obtained, we then show its application on dynamical load analysis. The solutions for the dynamical loads at interested hard points are obtained. We use the double wishbone suspension to show the systematic approach is easy handling.
1993-04-01
Technical Paper
931122
Pamela M. Norris, William Wepfer, Kevin L. Hoag, Dorinda Courtine-White
Previous work on the cooling jackets of the Cummins L10 engine revealed flow separation, and low coolant velocities in several critical regions of the cylinder head. The current study involved the use of detailed cooling jacket temperature measurements, and finite element heat transfer analysis to attempt the identification of regions of pure convection, nucleate boiling, and film boiling. Although difficult to detect with certainty, both the measurements and analysis pointed strongly to the presence of nucleate boiling in several regions. Little or no evidence of film boiling was seen, even under very high operating loads. It was thus concluded that the regions of seemingly inadequate coolant flow remained quite effective in controlling cylinder head temperatures. The Cummins L10 upon which this study has focused is an in-line six cylinder, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine, with a displacement of 10 liters.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
975508
Dimitri N. Mavris, Oliver Bandte
Several approaches to robust design have been proposed in the past. Only few acknowledged the paradigm shift from performance based design to design for cost. The incorporation of economics in the design process, however, makes a probabilistic approach to design necessary, due to the inherent ambiguity of assumptions and requirements as well as the operating environment of future aircraft. The approach previously proposed by the authors, linking Response Surface Methodology with Monte Carlo Simulations, has revealed itself to be cumbersome and at times impractical for multi-constraint, multi-objective problems. In addition, prediction accuracy problems were observed for certain scenarios that could not easily be resolved. Hence, this paper proposes an alternate approach to probabilistic design, which is based on a Fast Probability Integration technique.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
975541
Ivan Y. Burdun, Dimitri N. Mavris
A technique is proposed for examining complex behaviors in the “pilot - vehicle - operational conditions” system using an autonomous situational model of flight. The goal is to identify potentially critical flight situations in the system behavior early in the design process. An exhaustive set of flight scenarios can be constructed and modeled on a computer by the designer in accordance with test certification requirements or other inputs. Distinguishing features of the technique include the autonomy of experimentation (the pilot and a flight simulator are not involved) and easy planning and quick modeling of complex multi-factor flight cases. An example of mapping airworthiness requirements into formal scenarios is presented. Simulation results for various flight situations and aircraft types are also demonstrated.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
975513
Timothy W. Simpson, Janet K. Allen, Farrokh Mistree, Wei Chen
Design capability indices provide a metric to assess the capability of a family of designs, represented by a range of top-level design specifications, to satisfy a ranged set of design requirements. Design capability indices can be used to manage design freedom in the early stages of the design process when design requirements for a system may be uncertain. To illustrate the use of design capability indices, the design of a family of General Aviation aircraft is presented: design capability indices are used to simultaneously design a family of three aircraft around a two, a four, and a six seater configuration. The results are compared against two of our previous studies.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
975572
Anurag Gupta, Stephen M. Ruffin
A supersonic channel airfoil (SCA) concept that can be applied to the leading edges of wings, tails, fins, struts, and other appendages of aircraft, atmospheric entry vehicles and missiles in supersonic flight for drag reduction is described. It is designed to be beneficial at conditions in which the leading edge is significantly blunted and the Mach number normal to the leading edge is supersonic. The concept is found to result in significantly reduced wave drag and total drag (including skin friction drag) and significantly increased L/D. While this reduction over varying flight conditions has been quantified, some leading edge geometries result in adverse increases in peak heat transfer rates. To evaluate the effectiveness of SCAs in reducing drag without paying any penalties in other areas like lifting capacity, heating rates or enclosed volume, the design space was studied in greater detail using MDO methods.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
975585
Dimitri N. Mavris, George C. Mantis, Michelle R. Kirby
Over the past few years, modern aircraft design has experienced a paradigm shift from designing for performance to designing for affordability. This paper contains a probabilistic approach that will allow traditional deterministic design methods to be extended to account for disciplinary, economic, and technological uncertainty. The probabilistic approach was facilitated by the Fast Probability Integration (FPI) technique; a technique which allows the designer to gather valuable information about the vehicle's behavior in the design space. This technique is efficient for assessing multi-attribute, multi-constraint problems in a more realistic fashion. For implementation purposes, this technique is applied to illustrate how both economic and technological uncertainty associated with a Very Large Transport aircraft may be assessed.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
975589
N. M. Komerath, R. G. Ames, J. C. Magill
The wind-driven dynamic manipulator is a device which uses the wind tunnel freestream energy to drive multi-axis maneuvers of test models. This paper summarizes work performed using the device in several applications and discusses current work on characterizing the aerodynamics of an X-38 vehicle model in pitch-yaw maneuvers. Previous applications in flow visualization, adaptive control and linear-domain parameter identification are now extended to multi-axis inverse force and moment measurement over large ranges of attitude. A pitch-yaw-roll version is operated with active roll to measure forces and moments during maneuvers. A 3-D look-up table generated from direct force calibration allows operation of the manipulator through nonlinear regimes where control wing stall and boom wake-wing interactions are allowed to occur. Hybrid designs combining conventional and wind-driven degrees of freedom are discussed.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
975570
Erik D. Olson, Dimitri N. Mavris
As an element of a design optimization study of high speed civil transport (HSCT), response surface equations (RSEs) were developed with the goal of accurately predicting the sideline, takeoff, and approach noise levels for any combination of selected design variables. These RSEs were needed during vehicle synthesis to constrain the aircraft design to meet FAR 36, Stage 3 noise levels. Development of the RSEs was useful as an application of response surface methodology to a previously untested discipline. Noise levels were predicted using the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP), with additional corrections to account for inlet and exhaust duct lining, mixer-ejector nozzles, multiple fan stages, and wing reflection. The fan, jet, and airframe contributions were considered in the aircraft source noise prediction.
1997-10-13
Technical Paper
975613
Rolf Rysdyk, Anthony J. Calise, Robert T. N. Chen
Neural network augmented model inversion control is used to provide a civilian tilt-rotor aircraft with consistent response characteristics throughout its operating envelope, including conversion flight. The implemented response types are Attitude Command Attitude Hold in the longitudinal channel, and Rate Command Attitude Hold about the roll and yaw axes. This article describes the augmentation in the roll channel and the augmentation for the yaw motion including Heading Hold at low airspeeds and automatic Turn Coordination at cruise flight. Conventional methods require extensive gain scheduling with tilt-rotor nacelle angle and airspeed. A control architecture is developed that can alleviate this requirement and thus has the potential to reduce development time. It also facilitates the implementation of desired handling qualities, and permits compensation for partial failures.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
965516
Dimitri N. Mavris, Michelle R. Kirby
A family of Very Large Transport (VLT) concepts were studied as an implementation of the affordability aspects of the Robust Design Simulation (RDS) methodology which is based on the Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) initiative that is sweeping through industry. The VLT is envisioned to be a high capacity (600 to 1000 passengers), long range (∼7500 nm), subsonic transport. Various configurations with different levels of technology were compared, based on affordability issues, to a Boeing 747-400 which is a current high capacity, long range transport. The varying technology levels prompted a need for an integration of a sizing/synthesis (FLOPS) code with an economics package (ALCCA). The integration enables a direct evaluation of the added technology on a configuration economic viability.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
965501
Daniel DeLaurentis, P. Scott Zink, Dimitri N. Mavris, Carlos E. S. Cesnik, Daniel P. Schrage
An evolving aircraft synthesis simulation environment which offers improvements to existing methods at multiple levels of a design process is described in this paper. As design databases become obsolete due to the introduction of new technologies and classes of vehicles and as sophisticated analysis codes are often too computationally expensive for iterative applications, the design engineer may find a lack of usable information needed for decision making. Within the environment developed in this paper, rapid sensitivity analysis is possible through a unique representation of the relationship between fundamental design variables and system objectives. The combined use of the Design of Experiments and Response Surface techniques provides the ability to form this design relationship among system variables and target values, which is termed design-oriented in nature.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
965591
Dimitri N. Mavris, William T. Hayden
The growth of international markets as well as business partnerships between U.S. and Asian-based firms has lead to an increased interest in an economically viable business jet capable of supersonic cruise and trans-Pacific range with one stop over (or non-stop trans-Atlantic range)1. Such an aircraft would reduce the travel time to these regions by as much as 50% by increasing cruise Mach number from roughly 0.85 to 2.0. In response to this interest, the 1996 AIAA / United Technologies / Pratt & Whitney Individual Undergraduate Design Competition has issued a Request for Proposal for the conceptual design of a supersonic cruise business jet. The design of this aircraft considered both performance and economic issues in the conceptual design phase. Through the use of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Design of Experiments (DoE) techniques, the aerodynamics of this vehicle were modeled and incorporated into an aircraft sizing code, FLOPS.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
965612
Jimmy C. Tai, Dimitri N. Mavris, Daniel P. Schrage
The desire of achieving faster cruise speed for rotorcraft vehicles has been around since the inception of the helicopter. Many unconventional concepts have been considered and researched such as the advanced tilt rotor with canards, the tilt-wing, the folding tiltrotor, the coaxial propfan/folding tiltrotor, the variable diameter tiltrotor, and the stopped rotor/wing concept, in order to fulfill this goal. The most notable program which addressed the technology challenges of accomplishing a high speed civil transport mission is the High Speed Rotorcraft Concept (HSRC) program. Among the long list of potential configurations to fulfill the HSRC intended mission, the stopped rotor/wing is the least investigated due to the fact that the existing rotorcraft synthesis codes cannot handle this type of vehicle. In order to develop such a tool, a designer must understand the physics behind this unique concept.
1998-09-28
Technical Paper
985509
Debora D. Daberkow, Dimitri N. Mavris
This paper critically evaluates the use of Neural Networks (NNs) as metamodels for design applications. The specifics of implementing a NN approach are researched and discussed, including the type and architecture appropriate for design-related tasks, the processes of collecting training and validation data, and training the network, resulting in a sound process, which is described. This approach is then contrasted to the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). As illustrative problems, two equations to be approximated and a real-world problem from a Stability and Controls scenario, where it is desirable to predict the static longitudinal stability for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) at takeoff, are presented. This research examines Response Surface Equations (RSEs) as Taylor series approximations, and explains their high performance as a proven approach to approximate functions that are known to be quadratic or near quadratic in nature.
1998-09-28
Technical Paper
985510
Dimitri N. Mavris, Noel I. Macsotai, Bryce Roth
The objective of this paper is to examine ways in which to implement probabilistic design methods in the aircraft engine preliminary design process. Specifically, the focus is on analytically determining the impact of uncertainty in engine component performance on the overall performance of a notional large commercial transport, particularly the impact on design range, fuel burn, and engine weight. The emphasis is twofold: first is to find ways to reduce the impact of this uncertainty through appropriate engine cycle selections, and second is on finding ways to leverage existing design margin to squeeze more performance out of current technology. One of the fundamental results shown herein is that uncertainty in component performance has a significant impact on the overall aircraft performance (it is on the same order of magnitude as the impact of the cycle itself).
1998-09-28
Technical Paper
985547
Dimitri N. Mavris, Michelle R. Kirby, Songtao Qiu
This paper outlines a comprehensive, structured, and robust methodology for decision making in the early phases ofaircraft design. The proposed approach is referred to as the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) method. The seven-step process provides the decision maker/designer with an ability to easily assess and trade-off the impact of various technologies in the absence of sophisticated, time-consuming mathematical formulations. The method also provides a framework where technically feasible alternatives can be identified with accuracy and speed. This goal is achieved through the use of various probabilistic methods, such as Response Surface Methodology and Monte Carlo Simulations. Furthermore, structured and systematic techniques are utilized to identify possible concepts and evaluation criteria by which comparisons could be made.
1998-06-02
Technical Paper
981837
An Hou, Kurt Gramoll
Compressive load capacity of composite lattice structures are studied. The objective of this research is to investigate the buckling strength of composite lattice structures and to design the most weight efficient structure with the highest buckling load. Buckling strength of both the composite lattice cylindrical and conical shells under axial compressive loads are examined. The main emphasis is placed on the effects of geometric constraints and the optimal design of the structures. In this research, various constraints are studied and the optimal structure which gives the highest strength to weight ratio is obtained. Moreover, these structures can be constructed by filament winding, the manufacturing process can be automated, and the costs can be greatly reduced.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3399
Hernando Jiménez, Dimitri N. Mavris
A design process is formulated and implemented for the taxonomy selection and system-level optimization of an Efficient Multi-Mach Aircraft Current Technology Concept and an Advanced Concept. Concept space exploration of taxonomy alternatives is performed with multi-objective genetic algorithms and a Powell’s method scheme for vehicle optimization in a multidisciplinary modeling and simulation environment. A dynamic sensitivity visualization analysis tool is generated for the Advanced Concept with response surface equations.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3398
Michael Buonanno, Dimitri N. Mavris
Although market research has indicated that there is significant demand for a supersonic business aircraft, development of a feasible concept has proven difficult. Two factors contributing to this difficulty are the uncertain nature of the vehicle’s requirements and the fact that conventional design methods are inadequate to solve such non-traditional problems. This paper describes the application of a multiobjective genetic algorithm to the design space exploration of such a supersonic business jet. Results obtained using this method are presented, and give insight into the important decisions that must be made at the early stages of a design project.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0347
Mehdi Modares, Robert L. Mullen, Paul X. Bellini, Rafi L. Muhanna
In order to ensure the safety of a structure, adequate strength for structural elements must be provided. In addition, the catastrophic deformations such as buckling must be prevented. In most buckling analyses, structural properties and applied loads are considered certain. Using the linear finite element method, the deterministic buckling analysis is done in two main steps. First, a static analysis is performed using an arbitrary ordinate of applied load. Using the obtained element axial forces, the geometric stiffness of the structure is assembled. Second, performing an eigenvalue problem between the structure's elastic and geometric stiffness matrices yields the structure's critical buckling loads. However, these deterministic approaches disregard uncertainty in the structure's material and geometric properties. In this work, an interval formulation is used to represent the uncertainty in the structure's parameters such as material characteristics.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4030
Kalyana Chakravarthy, Joanna McFarlane, Stuart Daw, Youngchul Ra, Rolf D. Reitz, Jelani Griffin
In this study we identify components of a typical biodiesel fuel and estimate both their individual and mixed thermo-physical and transport properties. We then use the estimated mixture properties in computational simulations to gauge the extent to which combustion is modified when biodiesel is substituted for conventional diesel fuel. Our simulation studies included both conventional diesel combustion (DI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). Preliminary results indicate that biodiesel ignition is significantly delayed due to slower liquid evaporation, with the effects being more pronounced for DI than PCCI. The lower vapor pressure and higher liquid heat capacity of biodiesel are two key contributors to this slower rate of evaporation. Other physical properties are more similar between the two fuels, and their impacts are not clearly evident in the present study.
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