Viewing 1 to 30 of 45
Technical Paper
Stefan Bernsteiner, Daniel Wallner
Experimental researches on brake squeal have been performed since many years in order to get an insight into friction-excited vibrations and squeal triggering mechanisms. There are many different possibilities to analyse brake squeal. The different operating deflection shapes can be detected using e.g. laser vibrometer systems or acceleration sensors. Piezoelectric load cells can be used for the measurement of the normal contact force of the brake pad. The presented test setup measures not only the mean value of the friction force between brake pad and disc at a certain brake pressure, but also the superposed vibration of this force, which only occurs during a squeal event. Therefore the guide pins of the brake caliper are replaced by modified ones. The brake pads are held in position by these pins and the resulting force of the brake torque, hence the friction force, acts on these pins. The shape of the pins is optimized for measuring these forces.
Technical Paper
Christoph Poetsch, Herwig Ofner, Eberhard Schutting
The paper describes a universally structured simulation platform which is used for the analysis and prediction of combustion in compression ignition (CI) engines. The models are on a zero-dimensional crank angle resolved basis as commonly used for engine cycle simulations. This platform represents a kind of thermodynamic framework which can be linked to single and multi zone combustion models. It is mainly used as work environment for the development and testing of new models which thereafter are implemented to other codes. One recent development task focused on a multi zone combustion model which corresponds to the approach of Hiroyasu. This model was taken from literature, extended with additional features described in this paper, and implemented into the thermodynamic simulation platform.
Technical Paper
Sebastian Salbrechter, Markus Krenn, Gerhard Pirker, Andreas Wimmer, Michael Nöst
Abstract Optimization of engine warm-up behavior has traditionally made use of experimental investigations. However, thermal engine models are a more cost-effective alternative and allow evaluation of the fuel saving potential of thermal management measures in different driving cycles. To simulate the thermal behavior of engines in general and engine warm-up in particular, knowledge of heat distribution throughout all engine components is essential. To this end, gas-side heat transfer inside the combustion chamber and in the exhaust port must be modeled as accurately as possible. Up to now, map-based models have been used to simulate heat transfer and fuel consumption; these two values are calculated as a function of engine speed and load. To extend the scope of these models, it is increasingly desirable to calculate gas-side heat transfer and fuel consumption as a function of engine operating parameters in order to evaluate different ECU databases.
Technical Paper
Harald Kraus, Martin Ackerl, Paul Karoshi, Jürgen Fabian, Martin Hofstetter
Abstract These days a new generation of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are penetrating the global vehicle market - the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Compared to conventional HEVs, PHEVs have additional significant potential. They are able to improve fuel efficiency and reduce local emissions due to higher battery capacities, and they can be recharged from external outlets. Energy management has a major impact on the PHEVs performance. In this publication, an innovative operation strategy for PHEVs is presented. This is due to the fact that both increasing fuel efficiency and enhancing the vehicle's longitudinal performance requires a fine balance between the consumption of fossil and electric energy. The new operation strategy combines advanced predictive and adaptive algorithms. In contrast to the charge-sustaining strategy of HEVs, the charge-depleting mode for PHEVs is more appropriate.
Journal Article
Georg Macher, Muesluem Atas, Eric Armengaud, Christian Kreiner
Abstract Automotive embedded systems have become very complex, are strongly integrated, and the safety-criticality and real-time constraints of these systems raise new challenges. The OSEK/VDX standard provides an open-ended architecture for distributed real-time capable units in vehicles. This is supported by the OSEK Implementation Language (OIL), a language aiming at specifying the configuration of these real-time operating systems. The challenge, however, is to ensure consistency of the concept constraints and configurations along the entire product development. The contribution of this paper is to bridge the existing gap between model-driven systems engineering and software engineering for automotive real-time operating systems (RTOS). For this purpose a bidirectional tool bridge has been established based on OSEK OIL exchange format files.
Technical Paper
Martin Benedikt, Hannes Stippel, Daniel Watzenig
In the automotive industry well-established different simulation tools targeting different needs are used to mirror the physical behavior of domain specific components. To estimate the overall system behavior coupling of these components is necessary. As systems become more complex, simulation time increases rapidly by using traditional coupling approaches. Reducing simulation time by still maintaining accuracy is a challenging task. Thus, a coupling methodology for co-simulation using adaptive macro step size control is proposed. Convergence considerations of the used algorithms and scheduling of domain specific components are also addressed. Finally, the proposed adaptive coupling methodology is examined by means of a cross-domain co-simulation example describing a hybrid electric vehicle. Considerable advantages in terms of simulation time reduction are presented and the trade-off between simulation time and accuracy is depicted.
Technical Paper
Michael Klanner, Mathias Mair, Franz Diwoky, Oszkar Biro, Katrin Ellermann
Abstract The noise vibration and harshness (NVH) simulation of electric machines becomes increasingly important due to the use of electric machines in vehicles. This paper describes a method to reduce the calculation time and required memory of the finite element NVH simulation of electrical machines. The stator of a synchronous electrical machine is modeled as a two-dimensional problem to reduce investigation effort. The electromagnetic forces acting on the stator are determined by FE-simulation in advance. Since these forces need to be transferred from the electromagnetic model to the structural model, a coupling algorithm is necessary. In order to reduce the number of nodes, which are involved in the coupling between the electromagnetic and structural model, multipoint constraints (MPC) are used to connect several coupling nodes to one new coupling node. For the definition of the new coupling nodes, the acting load is analyzed with a 2D-FFT.
Technical Paper
Chao Chen, Martin Mohr, Franz Diwoky
Abstract This work presents a physical model that calculates the efficiency maps of the inverter-fed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) drive. The corresponding electrical machine and its controller are implemented based on the two-phase (d-q) equivalent circuits that take into account the copper loss as well as the iron loss of the PMSM. A control strategy that optimizes the machine efficiency is applied in the controller to maximize the possible output torque. In addition, the model applies an analytical method to predict the losses of the voltage source inverter. Consequently, the efficiency maps within the entire operating region of the PMSM drive can be derived from the simulation results, and they are used to represent electric drives in the system simulation model of electric vehicles (EVs).
Journal Article
Mario Hirz, Severin Stadler
The optimization of aerodynamic drag represents an important research area for the fuel consumption reduction of heavy duty commercial vehicles. Today's design of tractor-trailers is significantly influenced by legal conditions regarding the vehicle dimensions and the provision of a maximum transportation volume. These boundary conditions lead to brick-shaped trailer outer geometries, especially at the rear ends. That is the reason why the investigations of aerodynamic optimization of commercial vehicle trailers are predominantly restricted to detail measures up to now. The present publication treats the aerodynamic characteristics of general modifications on the outer contour of long-distance haulage trailers in regard of reducing the drag resistance and, thus, potentially also the fuel consumption in highway traffic. A new approach for the realization of a variable outer contour of trailers provides the possibility to adjust the rear end to an aerodynamically optimized shape.
Technical Paper
Peter Grabner, Helmut Eichlseder, Gregor Eckhard
This paper presents an analysis of the potential of E85 (a mixture of 85 % (bio)ethanol and 15 % gasoline) as a fuel for spark-ignition (SI) direct-injection internal combustion engines. This involves investigation of not only application to downsizing concepts with high specific power but also behavior relating to emissions and efficiency at both part and full load. Measurements while running on gasoline were used for comparison purposes. The first stage involved analysis using 1D simulation of two different downsizing concepts with regard to turbocharging potential and performance. Following this, various influential parameters such as injector position, injection pressure, compression ratio, degree of turbocharging etc. were investigated on a single cylinder research engine. In the case of high pressure direct injection, particulate emissions also play an important role, so particulate count and particulate size distribution were also studied in detail.
Technical Paper
Dalibor Jajcevic, Matthias Fitl, Stephan Schmidt, Karl Glinsner, Raimund Almbauer
The exhaust system design has an important influence on the charge mass and the composition of the charge inside the cylinder, due to its gas dynamic behavior. Therefore the exhaust system determines the characteristics of the indicated mean effective pressure as well. The knowledge of the heat transfer and the post-combustion process of fuel losses inside the exhaust system are important for the thermodynamic analysis of the working process. However, the simulation of the heat transfer over the exhaust pipe wall is time consuming, due to the demand for a transient simulation of many revolutions until a cyclic steady condition is reached. Therefore, the exhaust pipe wall temperature is set to constant in the conventional CFD simulation of 2-stroke engines. This paper covers the discussion of a simulation strategy for the exhaust system of a 2-cylinder 2-stroke engine until cyclic steady condition including the heat transfer over the exhaust pipe wall.
Technical Paper
Martin Abart, Stephan Schmidt, Oliver Schoegl, Alexander Trattner, Roland Kirchberger, Helmut Eichlseder, Dalibor Jajcevic
This publication covers investigations on different 3D CFD models for the description of the spray wall and droplet-fluid interaction and the influence of these models on the mixture formation calculation results. Basic experimental investigations in a spray chamber and a flow tunnel as well as the corresponding 3D CFD simulation were conducted in order to clarify the prediction quality of the physical phenomena of spray-wall and spray-fluid interaction by the simulation. Influencing parameters such as the piston top temperature, piston bowl geometry, soot deposits on the piston top as well as flow velocity are investigated. This paper provides a direct link between the underlying simulation models of the mixture formation and actual real world combustion system development processes - underlining the importance of a close interaction of the model calibration and the development process.
Journal Article
Alexander Trattner, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger, Helmut Eichlseder, Armin Kölmel, Michael Raffenberg, Tim Gegg
Today mankind is using highly sophisticated tools which contribute to maintain the standard of living. Nevertheless, these tools have to be further improved in the near future in order to protect health and environment as well as to ensure prosperity. Two-stroke engines equipped with a carburettor are the most used propulsion technology in hand-held power tools like chain saws and grass trimmers. The shortage of fossil resources and the necessary reduction of carbon dioxide emissions ask for improved engine efficiency. Concurrently, customers demand for an easy usage with high performance at all operating conditions, e.g. varying ambient temperature and pressure and different fuels. Moreover, world-wide emission limits will be even stricter in future. The improvement of the emission level, fuel consumption and customer benefits, while keeping the present advantages of two-stroke engines, like high specific power and simplicity, are the goals of this research work.
Journal Article
Christian Zinner, Reinhard Stelzl, Stephan Schmidt, Stefan Leiber, Thomas Schabetsberger
The main target for the development of power sport engines is and will be in future the increase of the power-to-weight ratio. However, the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is getting more and more important as future legislation and increasing customer demands ask for lower fuel consumption. One possible technology for CO₂ reduction which is widely used in automotive applications is downsizing by reducing the engine capacity and increasing the specific power by charging strategies. Focusing on power sport applications, like motorcycles, the automotive downsizing technologies cannot be transferred without major modifications. The essential difference to automotive applications is the extraordinary response behavior of today's motorcycles, as well as the large engine speed spread. Additionally, packaging and cost reasons exclude the direct transfer of highly complex automotive technology, like two-stage charging, cam-phasing, etc., to motorcycle applications.
Technical Paper
Patrick Pertl, Alexander Trattner, Andrea Abis, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger, Takaaki Sato
Small combustion engines can be found in various applications in daily use (e.g. as propulsion of boats, scooters, motorbikes, power-tools, mobile power units, etc.) and have predominated these markets for a long time. Today some upcoming competitive technologies in the field of electrification can be observed and have already shown great technical advances. Therefore, small combustion engines have to keep their present advantages while concurrently minimizing their disadvantages in order to remain the predominant technology in the future. Whereas large combustion engines are most efficient thermal engines, small engines still suffer from significantly lower efficiencies caused by a disadvantageous surface to volume ratio. Thus, the enhancement of efficiency will play a key role in the development of future small combustion engines. One promising possibility to improve efficiency is the use of a longer expansion than compression stroke.
Technical Paper
Andreas Moser, Hermann Steffan
When vehicle to vehicle collisions are analyzed using a discrete kinetic time forward simulation, several simulation runs have to be performed, to find a solution, where post impact trajectories and rest positions correspond with the real accident. This paper describes in detail a method to vary the pre-impact parameters automatically and to evaluate the simulation results. In a first step the different pre-impact parameters are discussed. Their influence on the impact and the post impact movement is shown. Furthermore the necessary specifications to define the post crash movement are presented. The necessity to define tire marks and rest positions of the vehicles involved is outlined. An effective evaluation criteria is derived, which is used to calculate a simulation error. This error is then used as a target function to control the optimization process. Two different optimization strategies are presented.
Technical Paper
Dieter Messner, Andreas Wimmer, Udo Gerke, Falk Gerbig
Hydrogen is seen as a promising energy carrier for a future mobility scenario. Applied as fuel in IC engines with internal mixture formation, hydrogen opens up new vistas for the layout of the combustion system. The 3D CFD simulation of internal mixture formation as well as combustion helps to understand the complex in-cylinder processes and provides a powerful tool to optimize the engine's working cycle. The performance of standard simulation models for mixture formation as well as the performance of a user-defined combustion model applied in a commercial CFD-code is discussed within this article. The 3D CFD simulations are validated with measurements obtained from a thermodynamic and from an optical research engine respectively.
Technical Paper
Hermann Steffan, Andreas Moser
Due to the increasing number of minivans and sport utility vehicles, rollovers have become more significant. As a result, various accident reconstruction programs have been developed to address this issue. To reconstruct rollover crashes, various requirements have to be fulfilled. These consist of: providing a simple method that is able to model three dimensional environments that often play a major role in rollovers. including suspension, tire and collision models must be provided. This is particularily important in the rollover initiation phase. including proper vehicle geometry and contact stiffness must be available. These are important for simulation of body contacts that affect the vehicle motion. This study focuses on one program, PC-CRASH. This program was developed to allow simulations of vehicle 3-dimensional movements before, during and after the impact. The study also discusses the physical background of the models, their capabilities as well as their limitations.
Technical Paper
Christian Rauch, Thomas Hörmann, Sebastian Jagsch, Raimund Almbauer
Research and development engineers have paid much attention to coupling commercial tools for examining complex systems, recently. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate an automated coupling of a CFD program with a commercial thermal radiation tool. Based on a previous work the coupling behaviour of a parallelized CFD code is being demonstrated. The automation thus speeds up the calculation procedure even for transient simulations not relying on codes of just one vendor. The simulation is then compared with measurements of temperatures of an actual SUV and conclusions are drawn.
Technical Paper
A. Tonchev, W. Hirschberg, S. Jagsch
The mathematical thermal design of the vehicle brakes will lead to success if all influence parameters such as friction (fading effect), car geometry and inertia, brake amplifier, tire, convective heat flow, heat conductance and heat radiation are taken into consideration. In addition to a lot of design criteria, the thermal stability of the vehicle brake is becoming more and more important because of permanently increasing engine powers and weight of the vehicles. This requires both stable friction behavior in the contact zone between brake lining and brake disk and a sufficient transfer of the friction energy by means of convective heat flow. In order to accomplish these two tasks, considerable expense on a brake test bed and innumerable brake trials are necessary. It must be guarantied at the end of the brake design process that the vehicle reaches the required braking distance and the thermal stability of the brake, e.g. after several freeway braking sequences.
Technical Paper
Franz Winkler, Roland Oswald, Oliver Schögl, Roland Kirchberger, Andreas Ebner
Based on the fundamental analysis of the two-stroke process (SETC 2005-32-0098) and the development of a stratified scavenged small capacity two-stroke engine (SETC 2006-32-0065), a further approach to achieve low emissions in this engine category is the main subject of this publication. The principles of the system are described by design activities, results of the 3D-CFD simulation and the visualization of the spray in the cylinder. The benefit of this system on exhaust emissions is demonstrated by engine test bench as well as chassis dynamometer results. The achievable reduction of exhaust emissions, especially with an applied oxidation catalytic converter, is remarkable and the potential to fulfill future emission limits has already been demonstrated.
Technical Paper
Dalibor Jajcevic, Raimund A. Almbauer, Stephan P. Schmidt, Karl Glinsner
CFD simulation (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is a state of the art tool for the development of internal combustion engines, especially for internal mixture preparation, scavenging process and combustion. Simulation offers an array of information in the early development phase without the need of building a prototype engine. It shortens the development time, reduces the number of prototypes and therewith test bench costs. In previous investigations [SAE 2005-32-0099] and [SAE 2007-32-0030] a new coupling methodology which bases on the combination of three-dimensional (3D), one-dimensional (1D), and zero-dimensional (0D) CFD calculation has been presented. This methodology uses a new multidimensional interface technology and is able to handle 3D-0D, 3D-1D and 3D-3D connections. The special feature of this methodology is the capability of being placed on any position in the 3D CFD mesh.
Journal Article
René Heindl, Helmut Eichlseder, Christian Spuller, Falk Gerbig, Klaus Heller
Hydrogen nowadays is considered one promising energy carrier for future mobility scenarios. Its application as a fuel in ICEs greatly benefits from Direct Injection (DI) strategies, which help to reduce the disadvantages of PFI systems such as air displacement effects, knocking, backfiring and low power density. In SI-engines one appropriate way to increase efficiency is the reduction of wall heat losses by jet- and/or wall-guided mixture formation systems. In theory, Compression Ignition (CI) systems employing a diffusion type of combustion allow for a significant raise in compression ratio and, thus, are likely to excel the SI concept in terms of efficiency. The following paper deals with results obtained from investigations on H2 Compression-Ignition (H2-CI) combustion systems by employing both thermodynamic research engines and 3D CFD simulation.
Journal Article
Patrick Rossbacher, Mario Hirz, Alexander Harrich, Wilhelm Dietrich, Norbert Theiss
The time reduction of the vehicle design and creation process is an important key to reduce development costs. Modern CAD systems offer a wide range of possibilities, not only in the standard field of mechanical design, but also in terms of creating advanced control mechanisms concerning part and assembly structures. Integrated design strategies include miscellaneous scripting and programming possibilities as well as implemented functions. An efficient application of these features can help to decrease the development time and to manage the growing functional complexity of automotive engineering processes. Continuously increasing product variants and functionalities call for design strategies and methods, which are capable to handle a quick data control and data transfer supporting an efficient geometry creation and evaluation.
Journal Article
Klaus Hadl, Reinhard Ratzberger, Helmut Eichlseder, Martin Schuessler, Waldemar Linares, Hannes Pucher
Abstract This paper describes the development of a 0-D-sulfur poisoning model for a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). The model was developed and calibrated using findings and data obtained from a passenger car diesel engine used on testbed. Based on an empirical approach, the developed model is able to predict not only the lower sulfur adsorption with increasing temperature and therefore the higher SOx (SO2 and SO3) slip after NSC, but also the sulfur saturation with increasing sulfur loading, resulting in a decrease of the sulfur adsorption rate with ongoing sulfation. Furthermore, the 0-D sulfur poisoning model was integrated into an existing 1-D NOx storage catalyst kinetic model. The combination of the two models results in an “EAS Model” (exhaust aftertreatment system) able to predict the deterioration of NOx-storage in a NSC with increasing sulfation level, exhibiting higher NOx-emissions after the NSC once it is poisoned.
Journal Article
Reinhard Ratzberger, Thomas Kraxner, Jochen Pramhas, Klaus Hadl, Helmut Eichlseder, Ludwig Buergler
Abstract The continuously decreasing emission limits lead to a growing importance of exhaust aftertreatment in Diesel engines. Hence, methods for achieving a rapid catalyst light-off after engine cold start and for maintaining the catalyst temperature during low load operation will become more and more necessary. The present work evaluates several valve timing strategies concerning their ability for doing so. For this purpose, simulations as well as experimental investigations were conducted. A special focus of simulation was on pointing out the relevance of exhaust temperature, mass flow and enthalpy for these thermomanagement tasks. An increase of exhaust temperature is beneficial for both catalyst heat-up and maintaining catalyst temperature. In case of the exhaust mass flow, high values are advantageous only in case of a catalyst heat-up process, while maintaining catalyst temperature is supported by a low mass flow.
Technical Paper
Johannes Seifriedsberger, Rudolf Wichtl, Helmut Eichlseder
Abstract The present article is concerned with the investigation of the engine noise induced by the piston slap of an actual passenger car Diesel engine. The focus is put on the coherence of piston secondary movement, impact of the piston on the cylinder liner, generated structure-borne noise excitation of the engine structure and the occurring acceleration on the engine surface. Additionally, the influence of a varying piston-pin offset and piston clearance is evaluated. The analyses are conducted using an elastohydrodynamic multi-body simulation model, taking into account geometry, stiffness and mass information of the single components as well as considering elastic and hydrodynamic behavior of the piston-liner contact. A detailed description of the simulation model will be introduced in the article. The obtained results illustrate the piston secondary motion and the related structure-borne noise on the engine surface for several piston-pin offsets and piston clearances.
Journal Article
Rudolf Wichtl, Michael Schneider, Peter Grabner, Helmut Eichlseder
Abstract The CO2 reduction required by legislation represents a major challenge to the OEMs now and in the future. The use of fuel consumption saving potentials of friction-causing engine components can make a significant contribution. Boundary potential aspects of a combustion engine offer a good opportunity for estimating fuel consumption potentials. As a result, the focus of development is placed on components with great saving potentials. Friction investigations using the motored method are still state of the art. The disadvantages using this kind of friction measurement method are incorrect engine operating conditions like cylinder pressure, piston and liner temperatures, piston secondary movement and warm deformations which can lead to incorrect measurement results compared to a fired engine. In the past, two friction measurement methods came up, the so called floating liner method and a motored friction measurement with external charging.
Technical Paper
Markus Ernst, Mario Hirz, Jurgen Fabian
Abstract A steady increasing share and complexity of automotive software is a huge challenge for quality management during software development and in-use phases. In cases of faults occurring in customer’s use, warranty leads to product recalls which are typically associated with high costs. To avoid software faults efficiently, quality management and enhanced development processes have to be realized by the introduction of specific analysis methods and Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) to enable objective quality evaluations as soon as possible during product development process. The paper introduces an application of specific analysis methods by using KPIs and discusses their potential for automotive software quality improvement. Target is to support quality evaluation and risk-analysis for the release process of automotive software.
Journal Article
Johannes Wurm, Matthias Fitl, Michael Gumpesberger, Esa Väisänen, Christoph Hochenauer
Abstract Nowadays, investigating underhood airflow by using numerical simulation is a standard task in the development process of passenger cars and commercial vehicles. Numerous publications exist which deal with simulating the airflow through the engine compartment of road vehicles. However, hardly anything can be found which deals with off-road vehicles and nothing exists which focuses on snowmobiles. In the presented paper the airflow and the thermal conditions inside the engine compartment of a snowmobile are investigated by the usage of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as well as experimental methods. Field tests at arctic conditions have been conducted on a serial snowmobile to measure temperatures inside the compartment and to gain realistic boundary conditions for the numerical simulation. Thermocouples (type K) were attached under the hood to measure exhaust, air, coolant and surface temperatures of several components at previously defined load cases.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 45


  • Range:
  • Year: