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Viewing 1 to 22 of 22
2014-01-12
Article
A cooling architecture should be designed in a way that cooling loops and heat sinks are used by different heat sources, researchers at the Hamburg University of Technology say.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2445
Hartmut Hintze, Ralf God
Abstract The increasing functionality associated with the rising complexity of aircraft cabin systems which are used by cabin crew, passengers, maintenance staff and other stakeholders, requires a reconsideration of the methods for the development of aircraft cabin systems. This paper deals with a model-based security engineering approach based on the so called Three-V-Model as an appropriate process model, which represents the governing system engineering process (SEP) associated with the safety engineering process (SafEP) and the security engineering process (SecEP). All three processes are pursued concurrently and are interacting reciprocally by working within the same system model on each development level. We describe in detail the involved model-based security engineering activities of the SecEP and the integration of the CORAS risk analysis method in a consistent System Modeling Language (SysML) approach.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2478
Tobias Kreitz, Riko Bornholdt, Matthias Krings, Karsten Henning, Frank Thielecke
Abstract The paradigm shift to focus on an enhancement of existing aircraft systems raises the question which of the many possible incremental improvements results in an advantageous solution still considering all existing requirements. Hence, new methodologies for aircraft system design are a prerequisite to cope with such huge and complex design spaces. In the case of flight control system optimization, major design variables are the control surface configuration and actuation as well as their functional allocation. Possible architecture topologies have to be verified inter alia with respect to system safety requirements. In this context, flight dynamic characteristics and handling qualities of the fully operational as well as of several degraded system states of each topology have to be evaluated and checked against common specifications. A model-based verification of the requirements is favorable, resulting in a rapid reduction of the design space.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2188
Riko Bornholdt, Frank Thielecke
Abstract Due to a shift of the major aviation concerns to focus on enhancements of the successful programs instead of pushing their successors, the need for new methodologies for aircraft system architecture design emerges. Challenging the existing requirements and reconsidering the functions and their allocation could help to dissolve the system specific development paradigm and lead to beneficial architecture concepts. To help understand the mechanisms and boundary conditions of developing fault-tolerant systems, the first part of the paper gives an overview of the successive process of architecture design. The significant architectural design decisions and the concurrent safety assessment process are discussed. One crucial step in the design space exploration of future aircraft system architectures is the allocation of the consumers to the available power sources. Within the paper a methodology for the optimization of the power allocation for flight control systems is proposed.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2137
Simon Kothe, Sven Philipp von Stürmer, Hans Christian Schmidt, Christian Boehlmann, Jörg Wollnack, Wolfgang Hintze
Abstract Strong market growth, upcoming global competition and the impact of customer-requirements in aerospace industry demand for more productive, flexible and cost-effective machining systems. Industrial robots have already demonstrated their advantages in smart and efficient production in a wide field of applications and industries. However, their use for machining of structural aircraft components is still obstructed by the disadvantage of low absolute accuracy and adverse reaction to process loads. This publication demonstrates and investigates different methods for performance assessment and optimization of robot-based machining systems. For conventional Cartesian CNC machining systems several methods and guidelines for performance assessment and error identification are available. Due to the attributes of a common 6-axis-robot serial kinematics these methods of decoupled and separated analysis fail, especially concerning optimization of the system.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2482
Riko Bornholdt, Tobias Kreitz, Frank Thielecke
Abstract For the shift to more-electric aircraft systems, the system specific design paradigm has to be dissolved and the allocation of functions has to be reconsidered. Including more degrees of freedom within the architecture design process for aircraft systems could lead to beneficial architecture concepts. However, new methods for conceptual systems design are required, to cope with the significantly increasing number of potential architecture variations to be evaluated. Within this paper, the GENESYS methodology enabling the design and evaluation of numerous architecture variations will proposed. The methodology consists of several modules, each dedicated to a specific process step of conceptual aircraft system design. Initially, a method for the design-independent analysis of the aircraft level functions and the identification of requirements for the aircraft systems will be illustrated.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2479
Stefan Benischke, Frank Thielecke
Abstract The continuous need for improved high lift performance motivates the evaluation of innovative high lift systems. Single flap drive systems are possible solutions to implement novel functionalities for aerodynamic performance optimization. The previously mechanical coupling needs to be replaced by approved equivalent means. This directly results in high demands on control and monitoring of the multiple single drive systems in order to preserve a safe operation. In the context of the national German research project SysTAvio, strategies for a new concept of a multifunctional high lift system are investigated and presented in this paper. The conceptual system comprises four single flap surfaces, each driven by a local transmission system and powered by a local power control unit. This architecture requires an innovative control strategy for a safe operation of a single drive system as well as synchronous movement of multiple systems.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2636
Kai Schories, Heinrich Rotgang, Frank Thielecke
Simulation of avionics equipment is essential due to the complex nature of its development and integration process. Throughout the development process, executable component models are used to demonstrate the feasibility and the compliance of the system design with respect to its functional requirements. In later development phases, there is the need for system integration tests where a mix of real and simulated equipment is used to verify the overall system behavior. Since Boeing 777 and Airbus A380 programs, IMA1 technology has entered several civil aircraft systems. In recent programs like Boeing 787 and Airbus A350 the number of IMA components has significantly increased. In this paper we present a simulation model for a new IMA component - the common Remote Data Concentrator (CRDC)2, which is developed by Thales-Diehl for the Airbus A350 XWB. Building simulation models of IMA components is in general a challenging task due to their complexity on both software and hardware level.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2281
Jan Grymlas, Frank Thielecke
This paper focuses on the virtual integration and test approach used for the evaluation of an automation system developed for the multifunctional operation of fuel cells in commercial aircraft. In order to accomplish the virtual integration a model of the overall automation system is linked with a dynamic model of the complete fuel cell system. For this purpose a modeling approach for complex physical systems is described in this paper. During virtual testing various simulation runs are executed based on automatically generated test cases, which cover a complete flight mission. For this reason a flight mission is modeled as a Statechart that includes next to time- based flight phases also potential events and malfunctions (e.g. engine flame-out, cargo fire). An algorithm is described, which can find all possible state combinations including parallel event sequences.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2249
Christian Modest, Frank Thielecke
This paper presents a model-based approach for the multi-objective design of optimized diagnosis functions for high lift actuation systems. These systems are used to augment lift at low speed during takeoff and landing, and are safety critical. This demands requirements to the detection of failures and the isolation of root causes in order to provide a high availability at low risk. Dedicated functions cover the determination of features, the detection of symptoms and the isolation of root causes by means of inference and resolution. The aim of the design approach is to provide these functions in an optimal manner with respect to multiple objectives. In order to be clear and traceable the approach consists of separate consecutive steps. These are arranged by using systems engineering principles. With respect to requirements, models of different levels of detail are developed and used to design stepwise all required functions.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2635
Björn Annighöfer, Erik Stallkamp, Frank Thielecke
Development for the Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) platform is complex owing to the variety of equipment, vendors and non-uniform tools. The development should be simplified by a model-based harmonized tool environment by means of an integrated set of tools of different type, origin and purpose. Eclipse's flexible and modular architecture seems adequate as a framework for such a harmonized IMA development environment. This article evaluates how Eclipse could practically be utilized for this purpose. The IMA process and development requirements like concurrency, different process roles, and multiple tools are mapped to the Eclipse framework. In addition, open-source extensions for model-based engineering and application development are integrated in the tools chain. In order to test the performance, openness and compatibility of Eclipse and the tools from the IMA development process, six current and future tools are integrated into a prototype of a common Eclipse instance.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2274
Enno Vredenborg, Frank Thielecke
The integration of fuel cell systems as an independent energy source (Auxiliary Power Unit, APU) requires enhanced aircraft cooling architectures. New environmental control systems and systems with an increased cooling demand are investigated in various research projects. Cooling system architectures can be designed which benefit from similar requirements, e.g. by using the same cooling loops. Additionally, an increased cooling demand makes the investigation of alternative heat sinks necessary. For detailed system investigations simulation studies are used. A model library has been created in Dymola/Modelica containing the necessary component models to simulate cooling systems. The used modeling approaches and main model information are presented in this article. In order to understand the basic system behavior a Design of Experiment (DOE) is useful. If only two or three parameters are considered, simulation studies can be performed for each possible parameter combination.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2406
Hendrik Strummel, Frank Thielecke
Abstract Fuel cell technology will play a decisive role in the process of achieving the ambitious ecological goals of the aviation industry. However, apart from its obvious environmental advantages, the integration of fuel cell technology into commercial aircraft represents a challenging task in terms of operational and economical aspects. Since fuel cell systems are currently exposed to an intense competition with well-established power sources onboard an aircraft, engineers are in pursuit of highly efficient and particularly lightweight fuel cell systems. Supported by model-based design in conjunction with elaborate optimization techniques this pursuit has led to highly specialized systems. These systems tend to use their components to full capacity, which typically implies marginal system robustness.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2107
Carsten Dunker, Kevin Poole, Frank Thielecke
This paper describes the conceptual design of a variable-speed fixed-displacement electric motor pump for aircraft hydraulic systems. In contrast to today's approaches, the pump controls the constant system pressure by adapting the motor speed rather than the pump displacement or both. This concept might increase the pump's part load efficiency significantly. The paper starts with introducing and analyzing the dynamic requirements of aircraft hydraulic pumps and evaluating different pump concepts. The concept of an internal gear pump driven by a permanent magnet synchronous motor is selected. For this concept an experimental prototype is developed. The electric motor pump is modeled and a pressure controller is designed. The prototype is set up and tested on an experimental test bench regarding dynamics, efficiencies and noise emissions. The overall concept is evaluated regarding secondary power demand, system heat load, wear, reliability, noise, and mass.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2414
Carsten Dunker, Riko Bornholdt, Frank Thielecke, Robert Behr
Abstract The All-Electric-Engine with only electrical power offtake is a main goal in aircraft system development. The use of electric-motor pumps instead of engine-driven pumps for powering the central hydraulic systems could be a part of this objective. Additionally, the concept would meet the incremental development strategy performed by the aerospace industry today and saves costs by using state-of-the-art hydraulic actuation technology. This paper describes a process for optimizing such systems regarding their architecture and design parameters. For this task a methodology for the hydraulic consumer allocation called OPAL is used and extended by an automatic power system sizing. Feasible allocations, called permutations, are determined on the basis of preliminary system safety assessments regarding multiple top failure events. In the next step an automated sizing of the permutations is performed based on simplified hydraulic load analyses.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2034
Tobias Kreitz, Frank Thielecke
Abstract The aviation industry is facing major challenges due to increased environmental requirements that are driven by economic constraints. For this reason, guidelines like "Flightpath 2050", the official guide of European aviation, call for significant reductions in pollutant emissions. The concept of the More Electric Aircraft offers promising perspectives to meet these demands. A key-enabler for this concept is the integration of new technologies on board of the next generation of civil transportation aircraft. Examples are electro-mechanical actuators for primary and secondary flight controls or the fuel cell technology as innovative electrical energy supply system. Due to the high complexity and interdisciplinarity, the development of such systems is an equally challenging and time-consuming process.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2646
Hauke Peer Lüdders, Jan Grymlas, Enno Vredenborg, Frank Thielecke
This paper presents a methodology to develop, optimize and evaluate fuel cell system architectures. The main focus is placed on the sizing and optimization process which uses the simulation tool Matlab/Simscape. A model library is introduced which contains parametric behavior models. The benefit of this is that the size of the components is not fixed by the parameters. The size of the components is driven by the energy and mass flows of each component. Thus the implicit sizing and optimization process is easy to handle and numerically robust. Illustrative results are shown for a fuel cell system.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2702
Christian Modest, Kai Schories, Hauke Peer Lüdders, Frank Thielecke
In the paper at hand a model-based development approach for a diagnostic system for a multifunctional fuel cell system architecture will be presented. The approach consists primarily of four parts. The first part is a description of general steps needed to build an accurate component-based model of the system using a state of the art model-based diagnostic reasoning tool. As a first result there will be a static simulation model for nominal system behavior. The second part of the approach deals with the identification of safety critical failure conditions (SCFC) at a system level, e.g. low Power. The SCFCs are then mapped into the model. This means that categorized physical quantities and monitoring executives are chosen, that are appropriate for representing the specific SCFCs, e.g. low voltage at outlet of DC-DC converter module. According to step two there will be conflicts, meaning discrepancies between the simulated nominal and the mapped behavior.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2505
Jan Grymlas, Hauke Peer Lüdders, Enno Vredenborg, Frank Thielecke
This paper presents a model-based design and verification approach, which is used to develop a complex state-based fuel cell control system. The architecture of the control system is organized in a hierarchical manner with one supervisory controller and several system controllers. The used development approach considers the systematic design of this hierarchical concept and enables the integration of requirements. The single modules of the control system are modeled as Statecharts. During the design process a method based on Petri Nets is used to analyze and verify the state-based structure of the supervisory controller. The verification of the control system functionalities is finally realized by a black box test approach. The required test sequences are systematically specified on the basis of the state transition graph of the supervisory controller.
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3217
Malte Pfennig, Udo B. Carl, Frank Thielecke
For actuation of high lift surfaces in modern airplanes, complex mechanical shaft transmission systems powered by central drive units are deployed. The design of mechanical actuation systems, which have a major share in the weight of secondary flight controls, is a complex and challenging engineering task. Especially for specification of essential component and system design parameters within the preliminary design phase, engineering skill and experience are of significant importance owing to many uncertainties in component data and boundary conditions. Extensive trade-offs, as well as an evaluation of the system requirements and constraints lead to an iterative and time-consuming design process. Utilizing an integrated design assistance tool, mathematical functions and constraints can be modeled on system and component level and formalized as a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP). Thus, automated consistency checking and pruning of the solution space can be achieved.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2107
Thorsten Kiehl, Jan Philip Speichert, Ethan Higgins, Ralf God
Abstract For an “end-to-end passenger experience that is secure, seamless and efficient” the International Air Transport Association (IATA) proposes Near Field Communication (NFC) and a single token concept to be enablers for future digital travel. NFC is a wireless technology commonly utilized in Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) and contactless smart cards. It is characterized by the following two attributes: a tangible user interface and secured short range communication. While manufacturers are currently adapting PED settings to enable NFC in the flight mode, the integration and use of this technology in aircraft cabins still remains a challenge. There are no explicit qualification guidelines for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing in an aircraft environment available and there is a lack of a detailed characterization of NFC equipped PEDs.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2166
Hendrik Susemihl, Christoph Brillinger, Sven Philipp Stürmer, Stephan Hansen, Christian Boehlmann, Simon Kothe, Jörg Wollnack, Wolfgang Hintze
Abstract The demand for higher production rates in aircraft industry requests more flexible manufacturing solutions. A bottleneck in production is the machining of large components by vast portal machines. Time-consuming referencing processes result in non-satisfying cost-effectiveness of these high-invest-machines. Mobile robot-based solutions are able to operate simultaneously which increases the productivity significantly. However, due to the limited workspace of robots, machining tasks have to be divided and long trajectories are separated in single overlapping segments. Thus high-accuracy referencing strategies are required to achieve desired production tolerances. In this publication different advanced optical reference strategies will be discussed taking the inhomogeneous behavior of a mobile robotic machining system into account.
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