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Viewing 1 to 30 of 92
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2162
Patricia Anselmi, Julian Kashdan, Guillaume Bression, Edouard Ferrero-Lesur, Benoist Thirouard, Bruno Walter
Latest emissions standards impose very low NOx and particle emissions that have led to new Diesel combustion operating conditions, such as low temperature combustion (LTC). The principle of LTC is based on enhancing air fuel mixing and reducing combustion temperature, reducing raw nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particle emissions. However, new difficulties have arisen. LTC is typically achieved through high dilution rates and low CR, resulting in increased auto-ignition delay that produces significant noise and deteriorates the combustion phasing. At the same time, lower combustion temperature and reduced oxygen concentration increases hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon oxide (CO) emissions, which can be problematic at low load. Therefore, if LTC is a promising solution to meet future emission regulations, it imposes a new emissions, fuel consumption and noise trade-off. For this, the injection strategy is the most direct mean of controlling the heat release profile and fuel air mixture.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2165
David Serrano, Olivier Laget, Dominique Soleri, Stephane Richard, Benoit Douailler, Frederic Ravet, Marc Moreau, Nathalie Dioc
The introduction of alternative fuels is crucial to limit greenhouse gases. CNG is regarded as one of the most promising clean fuels given its worldwide availability, its low price and its intrinsic properties (high knocking resistance, low carbon content...). One way to optimize dedicated natural gas engines is to improve the CNG slow burning velocity compared to gasoline fuel and allow lean burn combustion mode. Besides optimization of the combustion chamber design, hydrogen addition to CNG is a promising solution to boost the combustion thanks to its fast burning rate, its wide flammability limits and its low quenching gap. This paper presents an investigation of different methane/hydrogen blends between 0% and 40 vol. % hydrogen ratio for three different combustion modes: stoichiometric, lean-burn and stoichiometric with EGR.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2106
Lyle M. Pickett, Caroline L. Genzale, Gilles Bruneaux, Louis-Marie Malbec, Laurent Hermant, Caspar Christiansen, Jesper Schramm
Diesel spray experimentation at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions is intended to provide a more fundamental understanding of diesel combustion than can be achieved in engine experiments. This level of understanding is needed to develop the high-fidelity multi-scale CFD models that will be used to optimize future engine designs. Several spray chamber facilities capable of high-temperature, high-pressure conditions typical of engine combustion have been developed, but because of the uniqueness of each facility, there are uncertainties about their operation. For this paper, we describe results from comparative studies using constant-volume vessels at Sandia National Laboratories and IFP.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2087
Adrien Halle, Alexandre Pagot
The benefits of running on ethanol-blended fuels are well known, especially global CO₂ reduction and performances increase. But using ethanol as a fuel is not drawbacks free. Cold start ability and vehicle autonomy are appreciably reduced. These two drawbacks have been tackled recently by IFP and its partners VALEO and Cristal Union. This article will focus on the second one, as IFP had the responsibility to design the powertrain of a fully flex-fuel vehicle (from 0 to 100% of ethanol) with two main targets: reduce the fuel consumption of the vehicle and maintain (at least) the vehicle performances. Using a MPI scavenging in-house concept together with turbocharging, as well as choosing the appropriate compression ratio, IFP managed to reach the goals.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0568
Riccardo Ceccarelli, Philippe Moulin, Carlos Canudas de Wit
In nowadays diesel engine, the turbocharger system plays a very important role in the engine functioning and any loss of the turbine efficiency can lead to driveability problems and the increment of emissions. In this paper, a VGT turbocharger fault detection system is proposed. The method is based on a physical model of the turbocharger and includes an estimation of the turbine efficiency by a nonlinear adaptive observer. A sensitivity analysis is provided in order to evaluate the impact of different sensors fault, (drift and bias), used to feed the observer, on the estimation of turbine efficiency error. By the means of this analysis a robust variable threshold is provided in order to reduce false detection alarm. Simulation results, based on co-simulation professional platform (AMEsim© and Simulink©), are provided to validate the strategy.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0546
Roda Bounaceur, Oliver Herbinet, Rene Fournet, Pierre-Alexandre Glaude, Frederique Battin-Leclerc, Antonio Pires da Cruz, Mohammed Yahyaoui, Karine Truffin, Gladys Moreac
An unified model with a single set of kinetic parameters has been proposed for modeling laminar flame velocities of several alkanes using detailed kinetic mechanisms automatically generated by the EXGAS software. The validations were based on recent data of the literature. The studied compounds are methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-heptane, iso-octane, and two mixtures for natural gas and surrogate gasoline fuel. Investigated conditions are the following: unburned gases temperature was varied from 300 to 600 K, pressures from 0.5 to 25 bar, and equivalence ratios range from 0.4 to 2. For the overall studied compounds, the agreement between measured and predicted laminar burning velocities is quite good.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0628
Stephane Jay, Olivier Colin
In the context of low consumption and low emissions engines development, combustion processes modeling is a challenging subject as the requirements for accurately controlled pollutant emissions are becoming more stringent. From a scientific point of view, it is a major source of in-depth investigations as the chemical processes involved are strongly coupled to the flow characteristics. Among the various approaches developed recently to account for these processes in realistic configurations, tabulated techniques appear to be a promising way. They induce a good compromise between the accuracy of detailed chemistry and the computational time necessary to calculate complex configurations. Tabulation approaches were firstly developed to address the modeling of species concentrations in stationary combustors. They consist basically of pre-computed chemical kinetics using detailed mechanisms.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-1267
Herve Perrin, Jean-Pierre Dumas, Olivier Laget, Bruno Walter
Future emissions standards for passenger cars require a reduction of NOx (nitrogen oxide) and CO₂ (carbon dioxide) emissions of diesel engines. One of the ways to reach this challenge while keeping other emissions under control (CO: carbon monoxide, HC: unburned hydrocarbons and particulates) is to reduce the volumetric compression ratio (CR). Nevertheless complications appear with this CR reduction, notably during very cold operation: start and idle. These complications justify intensifying the work in this area. Investigations were led on a real 4-cylinder diesel 13.7:1 CR engine, using complementary tools: experimental tests, in-cylinder visualizations and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) calculations. In previous papers, the way the Main combustion takes place according to Pilot combustion behavior was highlighted. This paper, presents an in-depth study of mixture preparation and the subsequent combustion process.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1229
Eric Watel, Alexandre Pagot, Pierre Pacaud, Jean-Christophe Schmitt
While fuel efficiency has to be improved, future Diesel engine emission standards will further restrict vehicle emissions, particularly of nitrogen oxides. Increased in-cylinder filling is recognized as a key factor in addressing this issue, which calls for advanced design of air and exhaust gas recirculation circuits and high cooling capabilities. As one possible solution, this paper presents a 2-stage boosting breathing architecture, specially dedicated to improving the trade-off between emissions and fuel consumption instead of seeking to improve specific power on a large family vehicle equipped with a 1.6-liter Diesel engine. In order to do it, turbocharger matching was specifically optimized to minimize engine-out NOx emissions at part-load and consumption under common driving conditions. Engine speed and load were analyzed on the European driving cycle. The key operating points and associated upper boundary for NOx emission were identified.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0844
Florence Duffour, Vincent Knop, Franck Vangraefschepe, Thomas Leone, Vincent Pascal
Among the existing concepts that help to improve the efficiency of spark-ignition engines at part load, Controlled Auto-Ignition™ (CAI™) is an effective way to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. This combustion concept is based on the auto-ignition of an air-fuel-mixture highly diluted with hot burnt gases to achieve high indicated efficiency and low pollutant emissions through low temperature combustion. To minimize the costs of conversion of a standard spark-ignition engine into a CAI engine, the present study is restricted to a Port Fuel Injection engine with a cam-profile switching system and a cam phaser on both intake and exhaust sides. In a 4-stroke engine, a large amount of burnt gases can be trapped in the cylinder via early closure of the exhaust valves. This so-called Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) strategy has a key parameter to control the amount of trapped burnt gases and consequently the combustion: the exhaust valve-lift profile.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1370
Jonathan Chauvin, Nicolas Petit, Pierre Rouchon, Gilles Corde, Philippe Moulin, Michel Castagné
Torque balancing for diesel engines is important to eliminate generated vibrations and to correct injected quantity disparities between cylinders. The vibration phenomenon is important at low engine speed and at idling. To estimate torque production from each cylinders, the instantaneous engine speed from the crankshaft is used. Currently, an engine speed measurement every 45° crank angle is sufficient to estimate torque balance and to correct it in an adaptive manner by controlling the mass injected into each cylinder. The contribution of this article is to propose a new approach of estimation of the indicated torque of a DI engine based on a nonstationary linear model of the system. On this model, we design a linear observer to estimate the indicated torque produced by each cylinder. In order to test it, this model has been implemented on a HiL platform and tested on simulation and with experimental data.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1945
Thierry Colliou, Jacques Lavy, Brigitte Martin, Karine Chandès, Guy Pichon, Loys Pierron
To ensure overall optimisation of heavy duty engine performance (with the respect of NOx&PM future European and US emissions standards), the use of a high efficiency NOx after-treatment system such as a NOx trap appears to be necessary. But running in rich conditions, even for a short time, leads to a large increase of particulate emissions so that a particulate filter is required. A first investigation with a NOx-trap only has been carried out to evaluate and optimise the storage, destorage and reduction phases from the NOx conversion efficiency and fuel penalty trade-off. The equivalence ratio level, the fuel penalty and the temperature level of the NOx-trap have been shown as a key parameter. Respective DPF and LNA locations have been studied. The configuration with the NOx-trap upstream provides the best NOx / fuel penalty trade-off since it allows NOx slip reduction and does not disturb the rich pulses.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1904
Pierre Duret, Bertrand Gatellier, Luis Monteiro, Marjorie Miche, Peter Zima, Damien Maroteaux, Jacky Guezet, David Blundell, Fritz Spinnler, Hua Zhao, Matteo Perotti, Lucio Araneo
The purpose of the European « SPACE LIGHT » (Whole SPACE combustion for LIGHT duty diesel vehicles) 3-year project launched in 2001 is to research and develop an innovative Homogeneous internal mixture Charged Compression Ignition (HCCI) for passenger cars diesel engine where the combustion process can take place simultaneously in the whole SPACE of the combustion chamber while providing almost no NOx and particulates emissions. This paper presents the whole project with the main R&D tasks necessary to comply with the industrial and technical objectives of the project. The research approach adopted is briefly described. It is then followed by a detailed description of the most recent progress achieved during the tasks recently undertaken. The methodology adopted starts from the research study of the in-cylinder combustion specifications necessary to achieve HCCI combustion from experimental single cylinder engines testing in premixed charged conditions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0981
Ph. Pierre, M. Castagné, G. Corde, G. Eyssavel, A. Floch
Abstract For studying simultaneously and early in the development process the effects of engine design parameters and of control strategies on HC emissions, a methodology has been set up to reproduce on a gasoline single-cylinder engine the beginning of MVEG cycle. This methodology uses different fuels and analysis tools to assess the HC sources. Oil and water are heated to follow the thermal behavior of a multi cylinder engine. A fast prototyping system is used to control the engine. Special attention has been paid to take into account the acoustic effect on the air feeding. The main tendencies observed in stabilized conditions are similar to transient test conditions with GDI engine. Wall wetting appears as the main source of HC emission in case of direct injection. Transient effects are especially sensitive during cold conditions.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0472
Matthias Bouchez, Jean Baptiste Dementhon
The reduction of particulate emissions from Diesel engines is a key issue to meet future emission standards. Particulate traps represent an attractive solution to the problem of this source of pollution. However, they have the disadvantage of requiring periodic and safe regeneration to release exhaust back pressure and to recover filtration efficiency. Natural regeneration of the particulate filter may occur. Nevertheless, with light-duty vehicles and their low level of exhaust gas temperature, it may be necessary to facilitate or force the regeneration. The objective of this work is to give an overview of the possibilities offered by the engine management system to increase significantly exhaust gas temperatures. Thus, different engine tunes, through injection timing, boost pressure or EGR rate, may be sufficient to ensure safe regeneration of the trap.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3648
Gilles Bruneaux, Dean Verhoeven, Thierry Baritaud
A database of information concerning the spray development and pollutant formation in common-rail, direct-injection Diesel engine is constructed using a transparent model Diesel engine. Spray development is investigated using optical diagnostics: Mie scattering and Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence (LIEF) make possible qualitative visualization of liquid and vapor phases. The injection pressure/nozzle hole diameter is found to be the most important parameter (in the parameter range used for the study): it reduces the liquid penetration length and improves the mixing of vapor fuel. Direct imaging of combustion development shows the influence of different engine parameters on flame location. Comparison with measured vapor distributions shows the effect of thermal expansion on the vapor plume before any light from combustion is visible. Soot formation is investigated using Laser Induced Incandescence imaging.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0937
Thomas Coppin, Olivier Grondin, Guenael Le Solliec, Laurent Rambault, Nezha Maamri
Among the last years, environmental concerns have raised the interest for biofuels. Ethanol, blended with gasoline seems particularly suited for the operation of internal combustion engines, and has been in use for severals years in some countries. However, it has a strong impact on engine performance, which is emphasized on recent engine architectures, with downsizing through turbocharging and variable valve actuation. Taking all the benefits of ethanol-blended fuel thus requires an adaptation of the engine management system. This paper intends to assess the effect of gasoline-ethanol blending from this point of view, then to describe a mean-value model of a fuel-flexible turbocharged PFI-SI engine, which will serve as a basis for the development of control algorithms. The focus will be in this paper on ethanol content estimation in the blend, supported by both simulation and experimental results.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1506
L. Starck, A. Faraj, H. Perrin, L. Forti, N. Jeuland, B. Walter
Faced with the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, diesel engines present the advantage of having low CO₂ emission levels compared to spark-ignited engines. Nevertheless, diesel engines still suffer from the fact that they emit pollutants and, particularly nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulates (PM). One of the most promising ways to meet this challenge is to reduce the compression ratio (CR). However a current limitation in reducing the diesel CR is cold start requirements. In this context, the fuel characteristics such as the cetane number, which represents ignition, and volatility could impact cold start. That is why a matrix of 8 fuels was tested. The cetane number ranges from 47.3 to 70.9 and the volatility, represented by the temperature necessary to distillate 5% of the product (T5%), ranges from 173 to 198°C. The engine tests were carried out at -25°C, on a common rail 4-cylinder diesel engine.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1513
Vivien Delpech, Jerome Obiols, Dominique Soleri, Laurent Mispreuve, Eric Magere, Sebastien Kermarrec
In order to address the CO₂ emissions issue and to diversify the energy for transportation, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) is considered as one of the most promising alternative fuels given its high octane number. However, gaseous injection decreases volumetric efficiency, impacting directly the maximal torque through a reduction of the cylinder fill-up. To overcome this drawback, both independent natural gas and gasoline indirect injection systems with dedicated engine control were fitted on a RENAULT 2.0L turbocharged SI (Spark Ignition) engine and were adapted for simultaneous operation. The main objective of this innovative combination of gas and liquid fuel injections is to increase the volumetric efficiency without losing the high knocking resistance of methane.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1520
Sebastien Magand, Bertrand Lecointe, Fabien Chaudoye, Michel Castagne
Diversifying energy resources and reducing greenhouse gas emissions are key priorities in the forthcoming years for the automotive industry. Currently, among the different solutions, sustainable biofuels are considered as one of the most attractive answer to these issues. This paper deals with the vehicle application of an innovative diesel fuel formulation using Ethanol to tackle these future challenges. The main goal is to better understand the impact of using biofuel blends on engine behavior, reliability and pollutants emissions. This alternative oxygenated fuel reduces dramatically particulate matter (PM) emissions; this paves the way to improve the NOx/PM/CO₂ trade-off. Another major interest is to avoid adding a particulate filter in the exhaust line and to avoid modifying powertrain and vehicle hardware and therefore to minimize the overall cost to fulfill upcoming emission regulations.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1472
Maria Thirouard, Pierre Pacaud
In the context of CO₂ emission regulations and increase of energy prices, the downsizing of engine displacement is a widely discussed solution that allows a reduction of fuel consumption. However, high power density is required in order to maintain the power output and a good driveability. This study demonstrates the potential to strongly increase the specific power of High Speed Diesel Injection (HSDI) diesel engines. It includes the technological requirements to achieve high specific power and the optimal combination of engine settings to maximize specific power. The results are based on experimental work performed with a prototype single-cylinder engine (compression ratio of 14). Tests were conducted at full load, 4000 rpm. Part load requirements are also taken into account in the engine definition to be compatible with the targets of new emission standards.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0342
Louis-Marie Malbec, Gilles Bruneaux
The air entrainment of multi-hole diesel injection is investigated by high speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) using a multi-hole common rail injector with an injection pressure of 100 MPa. The sprays are observed in a high pressure, high temperature cell that reproduces the thermodynamic conditions which exist in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine during injection. Typical ambient temperature of 800K and ambient density of 25 kg/m3 are chosen. The air entrainment is studied with the PIV technique, giving access to the velocity fields in the surrounding air and/or in the interior of two neighboring jets. High acquisition rate of 5000 Hz, corresponding to 200 μs between two consecutive image pairs is obtained by a high-speed camera coupled with a high-speed Nd:YLF laser. The effect of neighboring jets interaction is studied by comparing four injectors with different numbers of holes (4, 6, 8 and 12) with similar static mass flow rate per hole.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3739
Julian T. Kashdan, Jean-François Papagni
Planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of formaldehyde (CH2O) and OH has been performed to investigate the homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process inside the piston bowl of an optically-accessible, direct injection Diesel-fueled HCCI engine. In particular, the effects of charge dilution and the adoption of single and split injection strategies on the two-stage HCCI combustion have been studied. Results obtained show that the level of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) significantly affects the pre-combustion or so called cool flame phase during which formaldehyde is detected. The cool flame phasing as indicated by the formation of this intermediate species is unaffected by the EGR level however, auto-ignition timing which marks the start of main combustion is inevitably advanced following a reduction in EGR and this ultimately determines the formaldehyde lifetime and consequently the degree of homogeneity attained.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0453
Claire-Noëlle Millet, Sheϊma Benramdhane
A 3 way catalytic converter (3WCC) model based on a global kinetic model was developed and validated against laboratory scale and engine test bench experiments. Various equivalence ratios and temperatures were tested. A methodology was finalized and applied to calibrate the kinetic constants. Laboratory scale experiments were first used to characterize the reaction mechanism during light-off, including the way reduction and oxidation reactions begin and compete with each other when temperature increases. The numerical results are in good agreement with the laboratory scale light-off results. Also, when adapted to simulate the engine test bench experiments, the model is able to correctly reproduce both the light-off tests and the 3WCC conversion efficiency evolution versus equivalence ratio. A calibration method in two steps was thus established and successfully used. The combination of modeling with experimental work appeared to be a powerful tool to determine the reaction mechanism.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2714
B. Walter, H. Perrin, J. P. Dumas, O. Laget
With a high thermal efficiency and low CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions, Diesel engines become leader of transport market. However, the exhaust-gas legislation evolution leads to a drastic reduction of NOx (nitrogen oxide) standards with very low particulate, HC (unburned hydrocarbons) and CO (carbon monoxide) emissions, while combustion noise and fuel consumption must be kept under control. The reduction of the volumetric compression ratio (CR) is a key factor to reach this challenge, but it is today limited by the capabilities to provide acceptable performances during very cold operation: start and idle below −10°C. This paper focuses on the understanding of the main parameter’s impacts on cold operation. Effects of parameters like hardware configuration and calibration optimization are investigated on a real 4 cylinder Diesel 14:1 CR engine, with a combination of specific advanced tools.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2776
Stephane Zinola, Stephane Raux, Jean-Charles Dabadie
Lean-burn combustion in SI engines can significantly reduce fuel consumption but NOx reduction becomes challenging because classic three-way catalyst (TWC) is no more efficient. Urea-SCR is then an interesting alternative solution because of its high NOx conversion efficiency without any additional fuel consumption. The coupling between two SI lean-burn engines (stratified and homogeneous combustion) and a urea-SCR catalyst was simulated on the NEDC cycle. Simulation results showed that the SCR efficiency would comply with the limits required by future Euro 5/6 regulations. Associated urea solution consumptions were estimated thanks to a simplified model. Finally, a comparison with a Diesel application was also made. It showed that the required amount of reducing agent remained significantly higher for SI lean-burn engines than for Diesel engine.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2729
Sylvain Mendez, Julian T. Kashdan, Gilles Bruneaux, Benoist Thirouard, Franck Vangraefschepe
Low temperature combustion is a promising way to reach low NOx emissions in Diesel engines but one of its drawbacks, in comparison to conventional Diesel combustion is the drastic increase of Unburned Hydrocarbons (UHC). In this study, the sources of UHC of a low temperature combustion system were investigated in both a standard, all-metal single-cylinder Diesel engine and an equivalent optically-accessible engine. The investigations were conducted under low load operating conditions (2 and 4 bar IMEP). Two piston bowl geometries were tested: a wall-guided and a more conventional Diesel chamber geometry. Engine parameters such as the start of injection (SOI) timing, the level of charge dilution via exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR), intake temperature, injection pressure and engine coolant temperature were varied. Furthermore, the level of swirl and the diameter of the injector nozzle holes were also varied in order to determine and quantify the sources of UHC.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1100
Jean Milpied, Nicolas Jeuland
This paper presents the major results of an International Consortium study carried out by IFP and focused on the evaluation of fuel impacts on Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) combustion. The formulation and tests of two adapted fuel matrix have allowed identifying and evaluating the main fuel properties that can improve CAI combustion for a maximum enlargement of the CAI operating range. CAI combustion mode appears as one promising solution for the development of low CO2 gasoline engines. Fuel properties can then be key parameters to improve the performances of CAI engines. During a first step of the study, steady state tests have been performed on a single cylinder Port Fuel Injection Spark Ignition (PFI SI) engine, with real fuels.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-1352
Gilles Bruneaux, David Maligne
The mixing and combustion processes of short double Diesel injections are investigated by optical diagnostics. A single hole Common Rail Diesel injector allowing high injection pressure up to 120MPa is used. The spray is observed in a high pressure, high temperature cell that reproduces the thermodynamic conditions which exist in the combustion chamber of a Diesel engine during injection. Three configurations are studied: a single short injection serving as a reference case and two double short injections with short and long dwell time (time between the injections). Several optical diagnostics were performed successively. The mixing process is studied by normalized Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence giving access to the vapor fuel concentration fields. In addition, the flow fields both inside and outside the jets are characterized by Particle Imaging Velocimetry.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1185
Stephane Zinola, Jacques Lavy
This paper presents the detailed characterization of particulate emissions from a NADI™ dual mode engine (HCCI at low load and conventional combustion at high load). Morphology, composition and chemical reactivity of the particulate matter generated on an engine running in HCCI mode have been specified and compared to the conventional mode reference. Results showed that HCCI combustion formed particles with a higher volatile organic fraction due to the relatively high level of HC generated by this kind of combustion. Advanced soot characterization emphasized that HCCI soot is oxidized at a slower reaction rate than conventional soot, but with a lower temperature. This last characteristic could partially compensate the poor continuous regeneration effect due to low NO2 emission levels observed in HCCI combustion. Microscopic observation and particle sizing did not show significant differences between HCCI and conventional soot.
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