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Viewing 1 to 30 of 82
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0449
Rafael Zalman, Alexander Griessing, Paul Emberson
1. ABSTRACT Automotive applications classed as safety-related or safety-critical are now important differentiating technologies in the automotive industry. The emergence of safety standard ISO 26262 underlines the increasing importance of safety in automotive software. As well as functional requirements, hard real-time requirements are of crucial importance to safety-related software as there is a need to prove that the system functionality is fulfilled, even in worst-case scenarios. Measurement-based WCET (Worst-Case Execution Time) analysis combines on-target timing measurements with static analysis of program structure to calculate predicted worst-case paths and times. This is in contrast to traditional end-to-end timing measurements, which give no confidence that the worst-case path is actually tested and no insight into the location of any timing problems that do emerge.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0688
Thang Nguyen, Georg Pelz
This paper considers the verification of non-standard CAN network topologies of the physical layer at high speed transmission rate (500.0Kbps and 1.0Mbps). These network topologies including single star, multiple stars, and hybrid topologies (multiple stars in combination with linear bus or with ring topology) are simulated by using behavior modeling language (VHDL-AMS) in comparison to measurement. Throughout the verification process, CAN transceiver behavioral model together with other CAN physical layer simulation components have been proved to be very accurate. The modeling of measurement environment of the CAN network is discussed, showing how to get the measurement and simulation results well matched. This demonstrates that the simulation solution is reliable, which is highly desired and very important for the verification requirement in CAN physical layer design.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0846
Michael Christian Wycisk, Leo Aichriedler, Michael Breunig, Jürgen Hoika, Jens Kahrweg
More and more passenger cars are equipped with passive side protection systems such as thorax airbags for front and rear passengers. In the past, side airbag protection systems used sensors based on acceleration measurements [1]. In the meantime different sensor principles have been tested in order to increase the performance of this application. The intention has been to achieve faster firing decisions and to decrease the misuse risk for a floor or chassis impact. This paper presents the partitioning of an advanced chipset for pressure and acceleration based airbag systems. It shows the communication link between the sensors, the receiver-IC and other blocks in the application.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0717
Tim Gutheit, Nico Kelling, Michael Lenz, Johann Winter
As the demand for enhanced comfort, safety and differentiation with new features continues to grow and as electronics and software enable most of these, the number of electronic units or components within automobiles will continue to increase. This will increase the overall system complexity, specifically with respect to the number of controller actuators such as e-motors. However, hard constraints on cost and on physical boundaries such as maximum power dissipation per unit and pin-count per unit/connector require new solutions to alternative system partitioning. Vehicle manufacturers, as well as system and semiconductor suppliers are striving for increased scalability and modularity to allow for most cost optimal high volume configurations while featuring platform reuse and feature differentiation. This paper presents new semiconductor based approaches with respect to technologies, technology mapping and assembly technologies.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0190
Karsten Schmidt, Jens Harnisch, Denny Marx, Albrecht Mayer, Andre Kohn, Reinhard Deml
Abstract Integration scenarios for ECU software become more complicated, as more constraints with regards to timing, safety and security need to be considered. Multi-core microcontrollers offer even more hardware potential for integration scenarios. To tackle the complexity, more and more model based approaches are used. Understanding the interaction between the different software components, not only from a functional but also from a timing view, is a key success factor for high integration scenarios. In particular for multi-core systems, an amazing amount of timing data can be generated. Usually a multi-core system handles more software functionality than a single-core system. Furthermore, there may be timing interference on the multicore systems, due to the shared usage of buses, memory banks or other hardware resources.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0432
Thomas Liebetrau, Roland Fiederling, Maximilian Vogl, Dieter Stephan Parth
Abstract Glare-free high beams are a consistent enhancement of adaptive headlight systems for vehicles with advanced driver assist systems. A prerequisite for these are camera-based systems with the ability to recognize and classify objects such as vehicles in front or oncoming vehicles when driving at night. These objects can then be dynamically masked out of the high beam of the specially designed headlights. Since we are talking about moving objects, it is essential for the high beam to be continuously and dynamically adapted. This paper describes a modular LED matrix system for dynamically adjusting a glare-free and continuously active high beam. The main focus was on the modularity of the system and the optimization of the thermal properties of an LED matrix in order to ensure that operation was reliable under the harsh environmental conditions inside a headlight. Specific control electronics and different interconnection methods were examined.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0459
Alexandra Atzesdorfer, Gerold Gründler
New generation microcontrollers for automotive applications require a huge number of I/Os, dealing with various sensor and actuator signals derived from the external world. In case of the first TriCore™ based 32-Bit microcontroller this leads to approximately 270 I/Os for signal processing. Adding the power supply lines and thermal balls, the overall number of required interconnects grows far over 300. To outperform standard microcontroller packages, e.g. QFPs, the limitations in terms of package size and maximum number of interconnects have to be improved. Main goal is to adapt the component quality to the high level reliability standard, which is the basis of an implementation into automotive parts. Current tests with a P-BGA standard package show interesting results for the board level reliability, when design and test parameters are changed only slightly.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0135
Boris Vittorelli, Mario Keil, Klaus Reinmuth
The importance of electrical motors in the automotive industry is growing. Besides standard brushed DC motors, mainly found in body and convenience areas, multiphase unipolar BLDC motors, generally used in open loop pump drives and HVAC applications, are becoming more and more widespread. These technologies have been around for some years now and are quite well covered. As well as AC induction motors, some emerging applications (mainly in the areas of powertrain and chassis control) implement permanent magnet synchronous motors with closed loop and vector-controlled technology. These applications call for a new drive concept. This paper analyzes the various requirements and proposes a suitable concept.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0145
Patrick Leteinturier, Boris Vittorelli
The C166 family, based on a 16-bit core; it is nowadays an enormous success in automotive, in particular in PowerTrain. This component is the right answer for the automotive real time applications of today. It is with both, automotive customer requirements and a long automotive experience in semi-conductors that this new generation 32-bit family is borne. The objective of this document is to provide and comment on automotive requirements in terms of the new micro-controller, to show the benefits for the applications and explain how the AUDO architecture fulfils these requirements.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1342
Joachim Krech, Albrecht Mayer, Gerlinde Raab
Automotive powertrain and safety systems under design today are highly complex, incorporating more than one CPU core, running with more than 100 MHz and consisting of several 10 million transistors. Software complexity increases similarly making new methodologies and tools mandatory to manage the overall system. The use of accurate virtual prototypes improves the quality of systems with respect to system architecture design and software development. This approach is demonstrated with the example of the PCP/GPTA subsystem for Infineon's AUDO-NG powertrain controllers.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0043
Patrick Leteinturier, Dirk Hammerschmidt, Tobias Werth, Gerhard Pichler
The signal delivery and quality of sensor data is of growing importance for modern automotive control applications. Sensors tend to be calibrated subsystems that are designed to stay in a defined tolerance and thus can easily be modeled. Compared to this deterministic behavior the transmission channel is time variant due to EMC and aging of contacts for example. The use of analog signaling, which is the actual state of realization in many cases, is sensitive to the time variant effects mentioned before. This time variance is hard to consider for the control system development. In this paper we will analyze the role of the sensor in the signal supply chain and discuss approaches for digital sensor-ECU communication and their potential to establish a link, which allows neglecting low level effects of the channel.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0057
Nico Kelling, Markus Koenig, K. Manon McNair
For the past approximately 20 years, the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) has been the established standard for serial communication between a host or central microprocessor and peripheral devices. This standard has been used extensively in control modules covering the entire spectrum of automotive applications, as well as non-automotive applications. As the complexity of engine control modules grows, with the number of vehicle actuators being controlled and monitored increasing, the number of loads the central microprocessor has to manage is growing accordingly. These loads are typically controlled using discrete and pulse-width modulated (PWM) outputs from the microcontroller when real-time operation is essential or via SPI when real-time response is not critical. The increase of already high pin-count on microcontrollers, the associated routing effort and demand for connected power stages is a concern of cost and reliability for future ECU designs.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0023
Sung Hoon Kim, Jung Su Kim, Dian Nugraha, Vincent Wan, Il Hong Suh
Abstract It has become an important trend to implement safety-related requirements in the road vehicles. Recent studies have shown that accidents, which occurred when drivers are not focused due to fatigue or distractions, can be predicted in advance when using safety features. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are used to prevent this kind of situation. Currently, many major tiers are using a DSP chip for ADAS applications. This paper suggests the migration from a DSP configuration to a Microcontroller configuration for ADAS application, for example, using a 32bit Multi-core Microcontroller. In this paper, the following topics will be discussed. Firstly, this paper proposes and describes the system block diagram for ADAS configuration followed by the requirements of the ADAS system. Secondly, the paper discusses the current solutions using a DSP. Thirdly, the paper presents a system that is migrated to a Multi-core microcontroller.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0088
Tervin Tan, Jin Seo Park, Patrick Leteinturier
Abstract The constant motivation for lower fuel consumption and emission levels has always been in the minds of most auto makers. Therefore, it is important to have precise control of the fuel being delivered into the engine. Gasoline Port fuel injection has been a matured system for many years and cars sold in emerging markets still favor such system due to its less system complexity and cost. This paper will explain injection control strategy of today during development, and especially the injector dead-time compensation strategy in detail and how further improvements could still be made. The injector current profile behavior will be discussed, and with the use of minimum hardware electronics, this paper will show the way for a new compensation strategy to be adopted.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0056
Bjoern Steurich, Klaus Scheibert, Axel Freiwald, Martin Klimke
Abstract Vehicle manufacturers are challenged by rising costs for vehicle recalls. A major part of the costs are caused by software updates. This paper describes a feasibility study on how to implement software update over the air (SOTA) in light vehicles. The differences and special challenges in the automotive environment in comparison to the cellular industry will be explained. Three key requirements focus on the drivers’ acceptance and thus are crucial for the vehicle manufacturers: SOTA must be protected against malicious attacks. SOTA shall interfere as little as possible with the availability of a vehicle. Long update processes with long vehicle downtimes or even complete fails must be avoided. The functional safety of the vehicle during operation may not be limited in any way The study gives options how those objectives can be achieved.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0252
David Levy
The newly released Distributed System Interface 3 (DSI3) Bus Standard specification defines three modulation levels form which 16 valid symbols are coded. This complex structure is best decoded with symbol pattern recognition. This paper proposes a simplification of the correlation score calculation that sharply reduces the required number of operations. Additionally, the paper describes how the pattern recognition is achieved using correlation scores and a decoding algorithm. The performance of this method is demonstrated by mean of simulations with different load models between the master and the sensors and varying noise injection on the channel. We prove than the pattern recognition can decode symbols without any error for up to 24dBm.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0257
Jin Seo Park, Jens Harnisch, Michael Deubzer, Keum Cheol Jeong, Patrick Leteinturier, Il hong Suh
A variety of methodologies to use embedded multicore controllers efficiently has been discussed in the last years. Several assumptions are usually made in the automotive domain, such as static assignment of tasks to the cores. This paper shows an approach for efficient task allocation depending on different system modes. An engine management system (EMS) is used as application example, and the performance improvement compared to static allocation is assessed. The paper is structured as follows: First the control algorithms for the EMS will be classified according to operating modes. The classified algorithms will be allocated to the cores, depending on the operating mode. We identify mode transition points, allowing a reliable switch without neglecting timing requirements. As a next step, it will be shown that a load distribution by mode-dependent task allocation would be better balanced than a static task allocation.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0260
Jongtaek Han, Jin Seo Park, Michael Deubzer, Jens Harnisch, Patrick Leteinturier
Abstract Multi-core systems are adopted quickly in the automotive domain, Proof of concepts have been implemented for power train, body and chassis, involving hard real-time constraints. However, depending on the degree of integration, it can be costly, especially in those cases where existing single-core software has to be migrated over. Furthermore, there seems to be a high level of uncertainty, whether a found solution, with regards to partitioning, mapping and orchestration of software is close to an optimum solution. Some integrated solutions demonstrate considerably less performance, for instance due to communication overhead compared to execution on single-core systems. This paper discusses a methodology, as to how to effectively and efficiently investigate the software architecture design space for multi-core software development.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0323
Thomas Liebetrau, Philip Brockerhoff
Abstract In modern vehicles, the number of small electrical drive systems is still increasing continuously for blowers, fans and pumps as well as for window lifts, sunroofs and doors. Requirements and operating conditions for such systems varies, hence there are many different solutions available for controlling such motors. In most applications, simple, low-cost DC motors are used. For higher requirements regarding operating time and in stop-start capable systems, the focus turns to highly efficient and durable brushless DC motors with electronic commutation. This paper compares various electronic control concepts from a semiconductor vendor point of view. These concepts include discrete control using relays or MOSFETs. Furthermore integrated motor drivers are discussed, including system-on-chip solutions for specific applications, e.g. specific ICs for window lift motors with LIN interface.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0333
Ja-chun Han, Dian Tresna Nugraha, Shi-Nian Li
This paper discusses the RDC method utilizing delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter hardware module (DSADC) integrated in the Infineon's microcontroller family. With its higher resolution capability when compared to the regularly used ADC with successive-approximation (SAR), DSADC seems to have more potential. On the other hand, DSADC's inherent properties, such as asynchronous sampling rate and group delay, which when not handled properly, would have negative effects to the rotor positioning system. The solution to overcome those side-effects involves utilization of other internal microcontroller's resources such as timers and capture units, as well as additional software processing run inside CPU. The rotor positioning system is first modeled and simulated in high-level simulation language environment (Matlab and Simulink) in order to predict the transient- and steady state behaviors. The group delay itself is obtained by simulating the model of DSADC module implementation.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0517
Patrick Leteinturier, Mark Nuchimowicz
The increasing legal requirements for safety, emission reduction, fuel economy and onboard diagnosis systems is pushing the market for more innovative solutions with rapidly increasing complexity. Hence, the embedded systems that will have to control the automobiles have been developed at such an extent that they are now equivalent in scale and complexity to the most sophisticated avionics systems. The former analogue filter design is now replaced by digital signal processing. This paper will demonstrate the key elements to provide a powerful, scalable and configurable solution that offers a migration route to evolve and even revolutionize automotive electronics. To illustrate this migration toward digital processing the knock function has been developed. A simple RC filter is used as external anti-aliasing. To get the maximum flexibility the signal is very early converted and processed digitally. The micro-controller has been developed using a three-layered solution.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0518
Hannes Estl, Claus Preuschoff, Patrick Leteinturier
Driven by factors like consumption, power output per liter, comfort and more stringent exhaust gas standards the powertain control area, has developed rapidly in the last decades. This trend has also brought with it many innovations in the ignition application. Today we can see a trend to Pencil-coil or Plug-top-coil ignition systems. The next step in system partitioning is to remove the power driver from the ECU and place it directly in/on the coil body. The advantages of the new partitioning - e.g. no high voltage wires, reduced power dissipation on the ECU - are paid with different, mainly tougher requirements for the electronic components. By using specialized technologies for the different functions - IGBT for switching the power, SPT for protection, supply and diagnostics - in chip-on-chip technology all required functions for a decentralized ignition system can be realized in a TO220/ TO263 package.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1704
Patrick Leteinturier, Hui Xie, Nenghui Zhou, Hongchao Zhang, Jiang Tang, Shengzhi Hou
The increasingly stringent requirements in relation to emission reduction and onboard diagnostics are pushing the Chinese automotive industry toward more innovative solutions and a rapid increase in electronic control performance. To manage the system complexity the architecture will require being well structure on hardware and software level. The paper introduces GEMS-K1 (Gasoline Engine Management System - Kit 1). GEMS-K1 is a platform being compliant with Euro IV emission regulation for gasoline engines. The application software is developed using modeling language, the code is automatically generated from the model. The driver software has a well defined structure including microcontroller abstraction layer and ECU abstraction layer. The hardware is following design rules to be robust, 100% testable and easy to manufacture. The electronic components use the latest innovation in terms of architecture and technologies.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0125
Laurent Beaurenaut, Christoph Eggiman, Ferdinand Gastinger, Hagen Platzdasch, Friedrich Rasbornig, Michael Strasser
Single Edge Nibble Transmission (SENT) is a promising low-cost solution for communication between off-ECU sensors and a microcontroller. First, this paper analyses the advantages of digital sensors with a special focus on position sensors. The possible integration of SENT in other application fields (such as pressure sensors) is also discussed. Secondly, it describes possible solutions for handling SENT communication on microcontrollers and it gives practical examples based on Infineon's TriCore and XC2000 families. It discusses the constraints and limitations on software level and how they could be solved by dedicated hardware implementations. Finally, this paper presents the Short PWM Code (SPC) protocol, which is a further extension of the SENT protocol. SPC aims at increasing the performance of the communication link and reducing system costs at the same time. By allowing bidirectional communication, SPC opens the way to new system relevant functionalities.
2008-01-09
Technical Paper
2008-28-0026
Patrick Leteinturier
The number of vehicles in world has been steadily increasing over the years. Asia Pacific is blessed to have the fastest growth rate in the world, with China experiencing over 20% vehicle production growth in the recent and coming years. As India jumps on this explosive bandwagon which could see growth rates higher than China, there is a need to understand the environmental and cost aspects arising from the vast increase of automobiles. The need to protect the environment, combined with the limited resource of oil, has led to the need for more fuel-efficient vehicles with intelligent engine and transmission control systems. This paper/presentation will look into the tough emissions regulations, lower CO2 requirement, different fuels and their efficiency, alternative fuel and the infrastructure to support such a paradigm shift, cost to achieve the desired, and GEMS-K1 (Gasoline Engine Management System - Kit 1) as a solution to meet some of the issues mentioned.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0277
S. Ahmed, M. Münzer, M. Thoben, H. Rüthing
Today the majority of power electronics is developed based on the requirements set by the main fields of application e.g. power generation, power supply, industrial drive and traction. With introduction to automotive applications new requirements have to be taken into account. This paper discusses how interconnection technologies for power semiconductors can be improved to meet the demand for higher temperature capability in HEV applications.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0512
Patrick Leteinturier, Markus Levy
More than ever, microcontroller performance in cars has a direct impact on the driving experience, on compliance with improved safety, ever-stricter emissions regulations, and on fuel economy. The simple microcontrollers formerly used in automobiles are now being replaced by powerful number-crunchers whose performance can no longer be measured in MIPS. Instead, their effectiveness is based on a coherent partitioning between analog and digital, hardware and software, tools and methodology. To make an informed choice among the available devices, what the designer needs are benchmarks that are specific to automotive applications, and which provide a realistic representation of how the device will perform in the automotive environment. This presentation will explore the role of new benchmarks in the development of complex automotive applications.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0396
Dirk Hammerschmidt, Timo Dittfeld, Gerhard Pichler, Hubert Rothleitner, Michael Strasser, Derek Bernardon
1. ABSTRACT In the case of a side impact the decision to deploy an airbag has to be taken much faster as it would be required for a front impact. Furthermore, there is a significant spread of the measurable acceleration depending on which pillars of the cars side are hit. Measuring the pressure inside the door as a direct result of an impact, the deformation of the door becomes observable. Based on pressure measurements side impacts can be detected much faster and more reliable. Therefore side airbag pressure sensors are established as add-on or replacement for side airbag acceleration sensors. This paper will present a Side Airbag Chip Set comprising of a side airbag pressure sensor and a satellite receiver. The system architecture and the partitioning between a single chip solution for the side airbag pressure sensor module plus the compatible satellite receiver will be described.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0397
Wolfgang Granig, Stephan Hartmann, Benno Köppl
Position detection and control is necessary in modern automotive applications because of remotely controlled actuators, such as window lifters or windshield. In recent years, the demand for reliable actuators for safety critical systems, such as power steering systems, has also increased significantly. This creates a growing demand for fast, accurate and efficient servo motor systems that are increasingly smarter, smaller and cheaper. One interesting option is to use Giant Magneto Resistive (GMR) angle sensors to replace the resolvers, Hall, inductive and Anisotropic Magneto Resistive Effect (AMR) Sensors commonly used today for shaft-angle measurements. In principle, there are functional differences among various angle measurement technologies; thus, the effect of switching between them needs to be analyzed.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0085
Frank J. Winters, Carsten Mielenz, Graham Hellestrand
This paper will address the electronic development in the wireless industry and compare it to the electronic development in the automotive industry. The wireless industry is characterized by rapid, dramatic high tech changes with a less than two-year cycle time and an equivalent life cycle. The automotive electronics industry is working toward reducing the typical 2 to 3 year development cycle down 1 to 2 years but with a life cycle of 10 years or more. In addition to realizing the electronic development benefits seen in the wireless industry, the automotive industry places significantly more emphasis on the quality and reliability aspects of their designs as many of them are targeted toward, or interface with, safety critical applications. One of the lessons learned from the wireless industry is the development process; where the hardware selection process can be accomplished in a virtual environment in conjunction with concurrent software development.
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