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2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2349
Yasuhiro Tako, Shou-ichi Tsuga, Ryuji Arai, Takashi Tani, Go Honda, Keiji Nitta
Closed habitation experiments are to be carried out using Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) from FY2005 to FY2009. The last target of duration of closed habitation is four months. Preliminary study and testing have been conducted in order to carry out the closed habitation experiments. The CEEF has three closed plantation chambers (PC-A, B and C) with artificial lighting solely having each cultivation area of 30 m2 and a closed plantation chamber (PC-F) with both natural lighting and supplemental artificial lighting having a 60-m2 cultivation area. A ‘stable’ period of sequential crop cultivation was maintained for four weeks in a trial experiment conducted in FY2003 using the Plantation Module (PM), in which rice, soybean and crops including rice sapling, soybean sapling, soybean, peanuts and safflower were cultivated in PC-A, PC-B, PC-C and PC-F, respectively. Amount of total clean water input to PM was 741 L day−1 on the average for the period.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2819
Tsuyoshi Masuda, Yasuhiro Tako, Keiji Nitta
A linear programming model has been constructed to develop a cultivation plan for habitation experiments using a two-person crew in Closed Ecological Experiment Facilities (CEEF), which is an earth based integration demonstration test bed of Advanced Life Support System (ALSS), under constraints such as a limited cultivation area and various nutritional requirements. The optimized area was 129.14 m2. According to the results, the optimized cultivation plan was then implemented in a habitation experiment in the CEEF during FY2004 with some modification to meet requirements from menu formulation. Results of the cultivation experiment, also during FY2004, showed feasibility of the plantation plan in the view point of nutrition supply, though errors between expected and observed productivities varied from −37 % to +267 %.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3230
Tamiyasu Shimamiya, Toshihiro Kitama, Makoto Osada, Yukio Ozaki, Akira Usui, Masanori Shinohara, Youichi Aibe, Osamu Komatsubara, Susumu Nozoe, Nobuyuki Terada, Motohiko Mohri
Human activities in space must include life in a confined, artificial and isolated environment. We investigated the mental and physiological status of four crewmembers undergoing repeated seven-day habitation in an advanced life support system. In order to monitor the psycho-physiological stresses, saliva cortisol and urinary adrenaline were sampled and visual-analog scale was serially recorded. As a result, saliva cortisol and urinary adrenaline levels were higher in pre- and post habitation. Psychological scales showed a relatively relaxed mood during habitation, indicating that the crew experienced stress in the pre- and post seven-day habitation periods. The periods of environmental change such as those pre-and post habitation seem to be critical for monitoring the health of crew performing analogous missions.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3229
Yoichi Aibe, Osamu Komatsubara, Masanori Shinohara, Susumu Nozoe, Yasuhiro Tako, Tamiyasu Shimamiya, Makoto Osada, Yukio Ozaki, Toshitada Yoshioka, Motohiko Mohri
Two-week closed habitation experiments were repeated three times using Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) to evaluate the capability of advanced life support systems. The CEEF is a two-manned system. Four crew members, termed econauts, inhabited the CEEF, taking turns at one-week shifts in pairs. Each econaut underwent three habitations. In order to evaluate the state of health of the crew, medical examinations were carried out before, immediately after and two months after the series of habitations. Physical data such as blood pressure, body temperature and body weight were monitored during each habitation. In 2005, though calorie intake and expenditure were well balanced, a temporary reduction in body weight was observed. As a countermeasure in 2006, econauts began their habitation diet one week before habitation to adapt their condition. As a result, total serum cholesterol significantly decreased after the series of habitations.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3025
Hiroyuki Miyajima, Koichi Abe, Tomofumi Hirosaki, Yoshio Ishikawa
A habitation experiment using the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities was started in 2005. In the future, the stays will be gradually extended. We have been developing the three layered control software for a Control Computer System of the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities in order to back up the habitation experiments. In this paper, we will show the development of an operation scheduling system for one of the three layers, such as at the planning and scheduling level, and discuss the development of a scheduling algorithm that does not cause the complexity of the ALS scheduler to be exponentially increased.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2078
Takashi Baba, Nobuyasu Yamaguchi, Masao Nasu, Youichi Aibe, Masanori Shinohara
In space utilization, an enormous amount of freshwater for drinking, daily use, hydroponics. is used and recycled in a closed habitat. We have developed culture-independent techniques to analyze microbial cells at the single level, a cell itself, and also community level. By using these methods such as fluorescent vital staining (double staining with carboxyfluorescein diacetate and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenyl indole), microcolony method and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), bacterial abundance and their physiological activity in freshwater used in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) “Mini-Earth” were determined.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2294
Tamiyasu Shimamiya, Toshihiro Kitama, Makoto Osada, Yukio Ozaki, Masanori Shinohara, Youichi Aibe, Osamu Komatsubara, Susumu Nozoe, Nobuyuki Terada, Motohiko Mohri
Closed Ecology Experimental Facilities, CEEF, is designed to regenerate everything required for living, such as air, water, and food. Researchers called “econauts” play a crucial role in maintaining the system in good order. CEEF must involve confinement, which is one of the major factors responsible for deterioration in crew health and performance. Two econauts repeated 7-day habitation in the CEEF 3 times in 2005. Blood cells, hormones and mood status were analyzed. Although clinically no problem, changes of mood status and a stress hormone correlated in an econaut. Characteristic changes were observed in leukocyte ratio. These data are essential in considering the effects of forthcoming long-term habitation in CEEF.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2296
Youichi Aibe, Masanori Shinohara, Osamu Komatsubara, Manami Suzuki, Yasuhiro Tako, Tamiyasu Shimamiya, Toshitada Yoshioka, Michimasa Yoshida, Motohiko Mohri
In FY2005, the first series of seven-day closed habitation experiments was conducted using the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). The operation period of CEEF is planned to be extended to four months by FY2009. The CEEF is a two-manned system. The habitants, called “Eco-nauts”, are responsible for operating the system as a part of an artificial environment. Therefore, their continuous health checks are very important to the success of the habitation experiments. To check their health condition, medical examinations were carried out before, right after and two months after the series of experiments. During each experiment, physical data were obtained and evaluated by medical doctors using a web-video-meeting system. The primary objective of this study was to verify if the schedule and examinations selected for the health check of the Eco-nauts were successfully carried out.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2125
Koichi Abe, Masahiro Endo, Keiji Nitta, Tomofumi Hirosaki, Hiroyuki Miyajima, Yoshio Ishikawa
Closure experiments will be conducted using the Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) and the Closed Animal and Habitation Experiment Facility (CAHEF) of the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). The CEEF behavioral Prediction System (CPS) has been developed to check the CEEF operation for the closure experiments in advance. For the development of CPS, a simulation program for CPEF had been developed and reported. A simulation program for CAHEF was developed, and combined with the simulation program for CPEF. This integrated simulation program was validated by data obtained from a habitation experiment conducted in CEEF.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-1973
Hiroyuki Miyajima, Koichi Abe, Tomofumi Hirosaki, Yoshio Ishikawa
We developed an Advanced Life Support systems scheduler (ALS scheduler) to back up the habitation experiments of Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), and integrated the Lagrangian decomposition and coordination method for a scheduling algorithm of the scheduler. Later research revealed that when comparing solutions obtained by the Lagrangian decomposition and coordination method and by a skilled operator, respectively, a schedule sought by the skilled operator has different features from those of a schedule sought by the Lagrangian decomposition and coordination method. This paper describes how to generate a schedule such as one created by a skilled operator, while reducing complexity by integrating empirical knowledge to the Lagrangian decomposition and coordination method.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-1979
Sho-ichi Tsuga, Yasuhiro Tako, Osamu Komatsubara, Susumu Nozoe, Yuji Nakamura, Kazunori Nishidate, Shuji Fukuda
Before a series of overall material circulation in an experimental system including crops, animals and humans, technical examinations for the development of a waste processing system were conducted for incorporating the system to the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). The examinations are intended to validate the function of the carbonization and incineration processing units which were installed in the CEEF in 2006. Using different mock-up samples, examinations have been carried out to verify the function and capability of the whole system, including the waste carbonization processing unit, incineration processing unit, exhaust gas tank and the exhaust gas processing unit. In an examination using filter paper pulp as a mock-up sample, processing time in each unit was checked. The processing times needed for carbonization and incineration processing were 5.7 and 2.6 hours, respectively.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3049
Osamu Komatsubara, Yasuhiro Tako, Toshie Ogasawara
Determination of sweetener production from sugar beets was carried out in order to accomplish self sufficiency in closed habitation experiments in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF or the so-called “Mini-Earth”) of the Institute for Environmental Sciences in Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan. The sweetener was made from sugar beets, which were cultivated hydroponically in the CEEF, were grounded and the juice was pressed out. Sensory analysis was conducted to evaluate the acceptability of the sweetener. The seven-day closed habitation experiments in the CEEF were conducted six times and the use of the sweetener was demonstrated.
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951584
Akira Ashida, Keiji Nitta
Construction of Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) is started in Rokkasho village of Aomori prefecture, the northern part of Honshu island in Japan. CEEF consist of Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) and Closed Geo-Hydrosphere Experiment Facility (CGEF) with capability to simulate ecological systems containing plants, animals, human, trees and sea living things. These biospecies are selected according to experimental plans and are maintained their lives in controlled environments. Recyclings of materials circulating in the closed system of CEEF are made mainly utilizing physical chemical treatments. The construction of CEEF will be completed by 1998. This paper mainly describes design of CPEF.
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951581
Kiyomi Funabashi, Hideaki Kurokawa, Chikako Yoshioka, Satoshi Sugawara, Ryusuke Abe, Keiji Nitta, Akira Ashida
A unique recovery system for NaCI (salt) from urine, which consists of electrodialysis (ED) and crystallization processes is proposed. The possibility of the mineral recovery included in urine is shown in a previous report. To improve the purity of the produced salt, pH control is needed as a pretreatment. By controlling pH of the feed solution to about 10, multivalent ions such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ are crystallized as phosphate solids which can be separated by filtration. As well as raising the NaCI purity, this controls scaling b y multivalent ions.
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951583
Masatoshi Tsuji, Y. Kawakami, A. Ashida, K. Nitta
The system design of the Nitrogen Fixation System (NFS) for CEEF has been carried out. The system is a fertilizer production process for plant cultivation from air and water. Newly developed technologies are adopted as key processes of the system. Use of physico-chemical methods made the total system compact, energy efficient and controllable. The NFS is completely self-confined and generating no unnecessary byproducts. The system has a applicability for future lunar or Mars base CELSS system.
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951537
Tatsuo Hosomi, Yasuhiro Tako, Akira Ashida, Keiji Nitta, Yoshitaka Tokimori, Tomiyoshi Yamamoto
IES (Institute for Environmental Sciences) is now constructing CEEF at Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan. The simulation for material flow is made based on a system model of CEEF, which includes one person and 7 plant species of Rice, Soybean, Komatsuna, Sesame, Tomato, Potato and Buckwheat. In this simulation software, plants, human and their support systems are mathematically defined and material flows such as O2, N2, CO2, waters, fertilizers and organic matters are computed. This software simulates only material flow and but does not simulate thermal dynamics of the environment. The simulation result showed reasonable material flows in a closed system.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961414
Akira Ashida, Yasuhiro Tako, Keiji Nitta
In order to verify the material circulation design for a Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities, CEEF, the organic element analysis of edible and inedible parts of the major candidate plants (rice, soybean, sesame and komatsuna (Brassica campestris)) has been carried out experimentally and by using food analysis data. In the experiment, rice, soybean and sesame were cultivated by hydroponics and soil culture for this purpose. The organic element analysis data from the food analysis data were made using empirical chemical equations formulated as to major nutriments by Volk and Rummel. The experimental results showed good agreement with those obtained from the food analysis data. Komatsuna has high nitrogen content. Inedible parts of rice, soybean and sesame have almost the same constituent ratio. The edible part of soybean contains five times as much nitrogen as its inedible part. Rice shows no significant difference between the edible and inedible parts.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961418
Masatoshi Tsuji, Takayuki Sakamoto, Akira Ashida, Keiji Nitta
The Nitrogen Fixation System (NFS) which produces ammonia and nitric acid from nitrogen and water has been developed. The NFS is one essential part of material circulation system of the CEEF (Closed Ecological Experiment Facility) the first Japanese CELSS experiment facility. Basically, physico-chemical and some new technologies are utilized as elemental processes in the NFS. Low pressure ammonia synthesis, ammonia enrichment with PSA and water electrolysis with SPE are such new technologies. We designed and installed the NFS as a subsystem of CEEF. The capacity of the NFS is 125g/day as fixed nitrogen. First operation of NFS is expected to be done early fiscal year of 1996 in CEEF.
1993-07-01
Technical Paper
932289
Akira Ashida, Keiji Nitta
Materials circulating in a closed ecological system are classified as metabolic ones and nonmetabolic ones. Nonmetabolic substances relate to environment constituents and cultural activities. Treatment of these materials are discussed from a view point of CELSS concept. The closed system, CEEF, will be constructed in Japan in the near future. CEEF is an experiment facility with processing capacity of two adult persons, consisting of a plant module, an animal module, a habitat module and supporting facilities for the three modules. The supporting facilities are composed of artificial processors of gases, waters and wastes. The plant module has artificial and natural lighting cultivating sections.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2336
Hisashi Nabenishi, Hiroshi Sakata, Yasuhiro Tako, Koji Otsubo, Keiji Nitta, Hideo Minagawa
The basal metabolism of the Candidate Animal is mainly on energy metabolism that was estimated for future animal breeding in CEEF as preliminary research. The amounts of gas exchange in the respiration and heat production of the Shiba goat (native Japanese goat) were analyzed to predict energy and material flow of the animal breeding system in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). Experimental animals were fed Timothy hay or inedible parts of rice cultivated in CEEF. The feces and urine were collected during the 7-day metabolism measurement period after a 2-week preliminary breeding period. The O2 consumption, CO2 production, and CH4 production were measured by a mass spectrometric respiration gas analysis system on the 7th day of the metabolism measurement period. Heat production was also obtained from these data. O2 consumption, CO2 production and CH4 production were 100.3 - 153.8 L, 127.2 - 174.0 L and 5.7 - 10.8 L per day (at 0°C, 0.101MPa), respectively.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2335
Yasuhiro Tako, Shouichi Tsuga, Ryuji Arai, Koji Otsubo, Keiji Nitta, Tatsuya Nakai, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Tsukasa Kumagai, Toyomi Baba
In the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), waste materials such as plant inedible parts, feces and urine of animal and human, and garbage are to be decomposed to inorganic materials by a physical and chemical (P/C) process; Wet Oxidation (W/O). It is known that significant part of nitrogen (N) in the waste materials is reduced to gaseous nitrogen (N2) through W/O process. There is also some deposition of minerals such as iron (Fe) and phosphorous (P) through W/O process. Nitrogen Fixation Subsystem (NFS) produces ammonia (NH3) which is one of end products of NFS, from N2 separated from module air and hydrogen (H2) derived from electrolyses of water, and also produces nitrate (HNO3) from a part of the NH3 and oxygen (O2) derived from electrolyses of water. As another end product of NFS, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is produced from the HNO3 and a part of the NH3.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2453
Hiroyuki Miyajima, Yoshio Ishikawa, Ryuji Arai, Yasuhiro Tako, Keiji Nitta
In the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), with integrating the Closed Plantation Experiment Facilities (CPEF) and the Closed Animal Breading & Habitation Facilities (CABHF), closed habitation experiments without material exchange with the outside will be conducted after the 2005 fiscal year. Cultivation experiments of about 30 crops and the integrating test of the material circulation system required for the closed habitation experiments have been performed since 2000 fiscal year. Using data reported in these experiments, material circulation in CEEF is simulated based on the recent operation strategy, and the storage capacity needed for the buffer of an air processing subsystem was estimated. In order for two humans to dwell over 120 days, the storage capacities of the carbon dioxide tank, the oxygen tank, and the waste gas tank in CPEF, and the carbon dioxide tank and the oxygen tank in CABHF are 820 g, 2830 g, 4425 g, 1780 g, and 1792 g, respectively.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2547
Koichi Abe, Masahiro Endo, Keiji Nitta, Hiroyuki Miyajima, Yoshio Ishikawa, Seishiro Kibe
For validation of operation schedules for the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), development of the CEEF behavioral prediction system (CPS) has been started. The CPS will be simulated using the CEEF operation schedule. The CPS will gather data on quantities of materials in each component of the CEEF and operational status of each component at the start of the simulation, and configure them as the initial conditions of the simulation. For requirements of experiments, the simulation program for the CPS should be easy to adapt for changes of components and object materials. Because the CEEF is a nonlinear system, available period of the simulation is important. A flexible algorithm for the changes was developed. The simulation was available for three days to validate.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2484
Yasuhiro Tako, Ryuji Arai, Keiji Nitta
The plant system plays roles of edible biomass production, O2 production, CO2 removal, and so on, in bioregenerative life support systems. In order to simulate the edible and inedible biomass production and gas exchange of crops, it is necessary to construct reliable dynamic prediction models for each crop considering not only short-term environmental effects but also its long-term effects, because response of plant system is highly dependent on plant age, plant size, and environmental condition experienced by the plant. Closed Plantation Experiment Facility (CPEF) of Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) has three plantation chambers with artificial lighting system, which has maximum capability for providing PPFD of approximately 1900 μmol·m-2·s-1 for crops at canopy top level in these chambers. Each even-aged population of rice and soybean was grown in each plantation chamber.
2001-07-09
Technical Paper
2001-01-2133
Yasuhiro Tako, Ryuji Arai, Koji Otsubo, Keiji Nitta
The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) can be used as a test bed for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS), because technologies developed for the CEEF system facilitate self-sufficient material circulation. Two experiments were conducted from September 27, 1999 to February 17, 2000 and from September 28, 2000 to February 9, 2001 in this study. In both experiments, rice and soybeans were cultivated sequentially in each chamber, having a cultivation bed area of 30 m2 and floor area of 43 m2, inside the Plantation Module (PM) with artificial lighting of the CEEF. 6 to 8 other vegetables were also cultivated in a chamber, having a cultivation bed area of 60 m2 and floor area of 65 m2, inside the PM with natural lighting in the first experiment and the second experiment. In both experiments, stable transplant and harvest of each crop were maintained during approximately one month, after approximately 3-months preparatory cultivation.
2001-07-09
Technical Paper
2001-01-2130
Hiroyuki Miyajima, Koichi Abe, Keiji Nitta, Yoshio Ishikawa, Akira Ashida
A simulation of an open mode system experiment was run using the same experimental conditions as an integration test conducted from September 1999 to February 2000 using the Closed Plant Experiment Facility at the Institute for Environmental Sciences in order to evaluate the operation of closed mode system to be conducted in future. Operation of the open mode system experiment required a supply of water and carbon dioxide from the outside, and the discharge of nutrient waste water and oxygen. The present simulation verified the feasibility of using non-integrated wet-oxidation processor, nutrient synthesis unit and nutrient waste water processor connected within a closed mode system, and it was confirmed that sufficient material circulation could be achieved when rice and soybeans were divided into six beds with different growing stages to facilitate control of the nutrient solution.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3091
Yasuhiro Tako, Osamu Komatsubara, Shouichi Tsuga, Ryuji Arai, Kenji Koyama, Shuji Fukuda, Makoto Akaishi, Masato Ogasawara
The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) were installed to collect data for realistic estimation of radiocarbon transfer in the ecosystem. Two-week experiments were conducted three times from September to November of 2006, in which two human subjects called as eco-nauts were enclosed and worked in an airtight facility, the CEEF. The eco-nauts were changed after a week from beginning of each experiment. In these experiments, a Plant Module (PM) with 23 crops, including rice, soybean, peanut, and sugar beet, was connected to an Animal & Habitation Module (AHM) which included the eco-nauts and two goats. 91.8-94.6% (by weight) of the food consumed by the eco-nauts and 79% of the feed to the goats (straw, leaf and bran of rice, leaf and stem of soybean, and leaf, stem and shell of peanut) were produced from crops in the PM. Amount of oxygen produced by the crops was more than the amount consumed by respiration of human and animals in these experiments.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2076
Takashi Tani, Susumu Nozoe, Shouichi Tsuga, Yasuhiro Tako
In the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), an artificial ecosystem including crops, Shiba goats, and human inhabitants is to be constructed in order to conduct long-term habitation experiments. For carbon circulation in this artificial ecosystem, CO2 needs to be recovered from the air of animal breeding and habitation rooms using a CO2 separator and to be injected into growth chambers for consumption in crop photosynthesis. Moreover, daily crop yield from the growth chambers needs to be stabilized to drive carbon circulation in the artificial ecosystemwithout huge buffers. Because crops are cultivated in a staggered manner, controlling atmospheric CO2 concentration in the growth chambers at a constant level during light periods throughout crop cultivation is necessary for stabilizing daily crop yield.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2075
Yasuhiro Tako, Shouichi Tsuga, Takashi Tani, Ryuji Arai, Osamu Komatsubara, Masanori Shinohara
Three 1-week experiments were conducted from September to October of 2005 in which two human subjects called as eco-nauts were enclosed and worked in an airtight facility called Closed Ecosystem Experiment Facilities (CEEF). The test involved connecting a Plant Module (PM) with 23 crops, including rice, soybean, peanut, and sugar beet, to an Animal & Habitation Module (AHM), which included the eco-nauts and two Shiba goats. Although only 34% (by weight) of the food consumed by the eco-nauts was produced by crops in the PM in the first experiment, it was 81% in the second and third experiments. As for feed for the goats, although all was Timothy hay was supplied from outside in the first experiment, all of the feed (rice straw, soybean leaf and peanut shell) was produced in the PM in the second and third experiments. In all these experiments, the crops produced more oxygen than the amount consumed by respiration of human and animals.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-3004
Osamu Komatsubara, Yoichi Aibe, Masanori Shinohara, Yasuhiro Tako, Keiji Nitta, Toshitada Yoshioka
Preliminary seven-day habitation experiments without complete closure of the habitation module were performed in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) to obtain information for the closed habitation and to prepare for the actual closed habitation experiments to be launched in September 2005. Energy requirements have been estimated for habitant candidates in closed habitation experiments (to be called Eco-nauts). This paper presents the calculations of Eco-nauts' energy requirements using records of life activities during the preliminary experiments and compares them with the expected energy supply from the CEEF.
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