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Viewing 1 to 30 of 43
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1705
Chadwyck Musser, Jerome Manning, George Chaoying Peng
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is the standard analytical tool for predicting vehicle acoustic and vibration responses at high frequencies. SEA is commonly used to obtain the interior Sound Pressure Level (SPL) due to each individual noise or vibration source and to determine the contribution to the interior noise through each dominant transfer path. This supports cascading vehicle noise and vibration targets and early evaluation of the vehicle design to effectively meet NVH targets with optimized cost and weight. A common misconception is that SEA is only capable of predicting a general average interior SPL for the entire vehicle cabin and that the differences between different locations such as driver's ear, rear passenger's ear, lower interior points, etc., in the vehicle cannot be analytically determined by an SEA model.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1707
George Chaoying Peng
Vehicle manufacturers demand early design assessment of vehicle wind noise attribute so as to eliminate engineering waste induced by late design changes. Vehicle wind noise attribute can be simulated with a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model using exterior surface turbulence pressure on the vehicle greenhouse panel as the wind noise load. One important application of SEA wind noise model is the wind noise assessment for vehicle form design. Vehicle form optimization for wind noise plays an important role in lightweight vehicle architecture, since that reduction in the wind noise load will compensate the loss of vehicle body acoustic attenuation caused by down-gauge glazing and body panels. In this paper, two SEA wind noise load cases currently used in vehicle SEA wind noise modeling have been analyzed and evaluated against vehicle measurements.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1185
J.W.G. Turner, A. Popplewell, R. Patel, T.R. Johnson, N.J. Darnton, S. Richardson, S.W. Bredda, R.J. Tudor, C.I. Bithell, R. Jackson, S.M. Remmert, R.F. Cracknell, J.X. Fernandes, A.G.J. Lewis, S. Akehurst, C.J. Brace, C. Copeland, R. Martinez-Botas, A. Romagnoli, A.A. Burluka
The paper discusses the concept, design and final results from the ‘Ultra Boost for Economy’ collaborative project, which was part-funded by the Technology Strategy Board, the UK's innovation agency. The project comprised industry- and academia-wide expertise to demonstrate that it is possible to reduce engine capacity by 60% and still achieve the torque curve of a modern, large-capacity naturally-aspirated engine, while encompassing the attributes necessary to employ such a concept in premium vehicles. In addition to achieving the torque curve of the Jaguar Land Rover naturally-aspirated 5.0 litre V8 engine (which included generating 25 bar BMEP at 1000 rpm), the main project target was to show that such a downsized engine could, in itself, provide a major proportion of a route towards a 35% reduction in vehicle tailpipe CO2 on the New European Drive Cycle, together with some vehicle-based modifications and the assumption of stop-start technology being used instead of hybridization.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1196
Andrew Lewis, Sam Akehurst, James Turner, Rishin Patel, Andrew Popplewell
Increasingly stringent regulations and rising fuel costs require that automotive manufacturers reduce their fleet CO2 emissions. Gasoline engine downsizing is one such technology at the forefront of improvements in fuel economy. As engine downsizing becomes more aggressive, normal engine operating points are moving into higher load regions, typically requiring over-fuelling to maintain exhaust gas temperatures within component protection limits and retarded ignition timings in order to mitigate knock and pre-ignition events. These two mechanisms are counterproductive, since the retarded ignition timing delays combustion, in turn raising exhaust gas temperature. A key process being used to inhibit the occurrence of these knock and pre-ignition phenomena is cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Cooled EGR lowers temperatures during the combustion process, reducing the possibility of knock, and can thus reduce or eliminate the need for over-fuelling.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0936
Prashant Khapane, Uday Ganeshwade
Abstract Vehicle water wading capability refers to vehicle functional part integrity (e.g. engine under-tray, bumper cover, plastic sill cover etc.) when travelling through water. Wade testing involves vehicles being driven through different depths of water at various speeds. The test is repeated and under-body functional parts are inspected afterwards for damage. Lack of CAE capability for wading equates to late detection of failure modes which inevitably leads to expensive design change, and potentially affects program timing. It is thus of paramount importance to have a CAE capability in this area to give design loads to start with. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is used to model a vehicle travelling through water at various speeds. A non-classical CFD approach was deemed necessary to model this. To validate the method, experimental testing with a simplified block was done and then verified with CFD modelling.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0610
Adrian P. Gaylard, John Pitman, Jonathan Jilesen, Adriano Gagliardi, Bradley Duncan, John Wanderer, Alex Konstantinov
Contamination of vehicle rear surfaces is a significant issue for customers. Along with being unsightly, it can degrade the performance of rear camera systems and lighting, prematurely wear rear screens and wipers, and transfer soil to customers moving goods through the rear tailgate. Countermeasures, such as rear camera wash or automated deployment add expense and complexity for OEMs. This paper presents a rear surface contamination model for a fully detailed SUV based on the use of a highly-resolved time-accurate aerodynamic simulation realised through the use of a commercial Lattice-Boltzmann solver, combined with Lagrangian Particle Tracking to simulate droplet advection and surface water dynamics via a thin film model. Droplet break-up due to aerodynamic shear is included, along with splash and stripping from the surface film. The effect of two-way momentum coupling is included in a sub-set of simulations.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0614
Adrian P. Gaylard, Nicholas Oettle, Joaquin Gargoloff, Bradley Duncan
Historically vehicle aerodynamic development has focused on testing under idealised conditions; maintaining measurement repeatability and precision in the assessment of design changes. However, the on-road environment is far from ideal: natural wind is unsteady, roadside obstacles provide additional flow disturbance, as does the presence of other vehicles. On-road measurements indicate that turbulence with amplitudes up to 10% of vehicle speed and dominant length scales spanning typical vehicle sizes (1-10 m) occurs frequently. These non-uniform flow conditions may change vehicle aerodynamic behaviour by interfering with separated turbulent flow structures and increasing local turbulence levels. Incremental improvements made to drag and lift during vehicle development may also be affected by this non-ideal flow environment. On-road measurements show that the shape of the observed turbulence spectrum can be generalised, enabling the definition of representative wind conditions.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1397
S.M. Remmert, R.F. Cracknell, R. Head, A. Schuetze, A.G.J. Lewis, S. Akehurst, J.W.G. Turner, A. Popplewell
Increasingly strict government emissions regulations in combination with consumer demand for high performance vehicles is driving gasoline engine development towards highly downsized, boosted direct injection technologies. In these engines, fuel consumption is improved by reducing pumping, friction and heat losses, yet performance is maintained by operating at higher brake mean effective pressure. However, the in-cylinder conditions of these engines continue to diverge from traditional naturally aspirated technologies, and especially from the Cooperative Fuels Research engine used to define the octane rating scales. Engine concepts are thus key platforms with which to screen the influence of fundamental fuel properties on future engine performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1286
A. Meghani, J. Allen, J.W.G. Turner, A. Popplewell, D.J. Marshall, J.S. Hoyle, S. McBroom, R. Urista, M. Bazyn
Abstract The paper discusses the effects of various charging system technologies on the performance and fuel consumption of a modern supercharged engine, the Jaguar Land Rover AJ126 3.0 litre V6. The goal of the project was to improve performance and reduce the fuel consumption of the standard engine by researching new technologies around the supercharger. As standard the AJ126 engine uses an Eaton R1320 supercharger with a fixed ratio drive from the crankshaft and no clutch.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1282
J.W.G. Turner, A. Popplewell, D.J. Marshall, T.R. Johnson, L. Barker, J. King, J. Martin, A.G.J. Lewis, S. Akehurst, C.J. Brace, C.D. Copeland
Abstract The paper discusses investigations into improving the full-load and transient performance of the Ultraboost extreme downsizing engine by the application of the SuperGen variable-speed centrifugal supercharger. Since its output stage speed is decoupled from that of the crankshaft, SuperGen is potentially especially attractive in a compound pressure-charging system. Such systems typically comprise a turbocharger, which is used as the main charging device, compounded at lower charge mass flow rates by a supercharger used as a second boosting stage. Because of its variable drive ratio, SuperGen can be blended in and out continuously to provide seamless driveability, as opposed to the alternative of a clutched, single-drive-ratio positive-displacement device. In this respect its operation is very similar to that of an electrically-driven compressor, although it is voltage agnostic and can supply other hybrid functionality, too.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2814
Andrew Pedlow, Geoffrey McCullough, Alexandre Goguet, Ken Hansen
Abstract Mathematical modelling has become an essential tool in the design of modern catalytic systems. Emissions legislation is becoming increasingly stringent, and so mathematical models of aftertreatment systems must become more accurate in order to provide confidence that a catalyst will convert pollutants over the required range of conditions. Automotive catalytic converter models contain several sub-models that represent processes such as mass and heat transfer, and the rates at which the reactions proceed on the surface of the precious metal. Of these sub-models, the prediction of the surface reaction rates is by far the most challenging due to the complexity of the reaction system and the large number of gas species involved.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2718
Sarah Remmert, Steven Campbell, Roger Cracknell, Andrea Schuetze, Andrew Lewis, Karl Giles, Sam Akehurst, James Turner, Andrew Popplewell, Rishin Patel
Market demand for high performance gasoline vehicles and increasingly strict government emissions regulations are driving the development of highly downsized, boosted direct injection engines. The in-cylinder temperatures and pressures of these emerging technologies tend to no longer adhere to the test conditions defining the RON and MON octane rating scales. This divergence between fuel knock rating methods and fuel performance in modern engines has previously led to the development of an engine and operating condition dependent scaling factor, K, which allows for extrapolation of RON and MON values. Downsized, boosted DISI engines have been generally shown to have negative K-values when knock limited, indicating a preference for fuels of higher sensitivity and challenging the relevance of a lower limit to the MON specification.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2550
Bo Hu, Chris Brace, Sam Akehurst, Colin Copeland, J.W.G. Turner
Abstract The Divided Exhaust Period (DEP) concept is an approach which has been proved to significantly reduce the averaged back pressure of turbocharged engines whilst still improving its combustion phasing. The standard layout of the DEP system comprises of two separately-functioned exhaust valves with one valve feeding the blow-down pulse to the turbine whilst the other valve targeting the scavenging behaviour by bypassing the turbine. Via combining the characteristics of both turbocharged engines and naturally aspirated engines, this method can provide large BSFC improvement. The DEP concept has only been applied to single-stage turbocharged engines so far. However, it in its basic form is in no way restricted to a single-stage system. This paper, for the first time, will apply DEP concept to a regulated two-stage (R2S) downsized SI engine.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2583
Mohammed Reza Kianifar, Felician Campean, Tim Beattie, David Richardson
This paper presents the development and implementation of an Analytical Target Cascading (ATC) Multi-disciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) framework for the steady state engine calibration optimisation problem. The case is made that the ATC offers a convenient framework for the engine calibration optimisation problem based on steady state engine test data collected at specified engine speed / load points, which is naturally structured on 2 hierarchical levels: the ‘Global’ level, associated with performance over a drive cycle, and ‘Local’ level, relating to engine operation at each speed / load point. The case study of a diesel engine was considered to study the application of the ATC framework to a calibration optimisation problem. The paper describes the analysis and mathematical formulation of the diesel engine calibration optimisation as an ATC framework, and its Matlab implementation with gradient based and evolutionary optimisation algorithms.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1656
Bo Hu, Sam Akehurst, Chris Brace, Colin Copeland, James Turner
Fuel efficiency and torque performance are two major challenges for highly downsized turbocharged engines. However, the inherent characteristics of the turbocharged SI engine such as negative PMEP, knock sensitivity and poor transient performance significantly limit its maximum potential. Conventional ways of improving the problems above normally concentrate solely on the engine side or turbocharger side leaving the exhaust manifold in between ignored. This paper investigates this neglected area by highlighting a novel means of gas exchange process. Divided Exhaust Period (DEP) is an alternative way of accomplishing the gas exchange process in turbocharged engines. The DEP concept engine features two exhaust valves but with separated function. The blow-down valve acts like a traditional turbocharged exhaust valve to evacuate the first portion of the exhaust gas to the turbine.
2013-05-13
Journal Article
2013-01-1933
Sivapalan Senthooran, L.A.Raghu Mutnuri, Joe Amodeo, Robert Powell, Claire Freeman
For most car manufacturers, wind noise from the greenhouse region has become the dominant high frequency noise contributor at highway speeds. Addressing this wind noise issue using experimental procedures involves high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the use of a reliable numerical prediction capability early in the vehicle design process. Previously, a computational approach that couples an unsteady computational fluid dynamics solver (based on a Lattice Boltzmann method) to a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) solver had been validated for predicting the noise contribution from the side mirrors. This paper presents the use of this computational approach to predict the vehicle interior noise from the windshield wipers, so that different wiper placement options can be evaluated early in the design process before the surface is frozen.
2013-09-30
Technical Paper
2013-01-2034
Mohammad Esgandari, Richard Taulbut, Oluremi Olatunbosun
Disc brake noise is recognized as a major problem of the automotive industry. Various experimental and numerical techniques have been developed to model the noisy brake and investigate possible solutions. Developing a virtual model of the disc brake which can accurately reproduce the behavior of the brake unit under different conditions is a considerable step forward towards reaching this goal. Among various aspects of the analytical model of a disc brake, application of the correct value of damping based on the material properties and functional frequency range of each component is a significant factor in ensuring correct prediction of the brake system behavior. Complex Eigenvalue Analysis is well established as a tool for predicting brake instabilities which can potentially lead to brake noise. However, it is known to over-predict instabilities i.e. predict instabilities which do not occur in the real brake system.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1231
Ross McMurran, R. Peter Jones
Robustness is particularly important in complex systems of systems due to emergent behaviour. This paper presents two novel, techniques developed as part of a framework for design for robustness of complex automotive electronic systems, but in principle could be applied to a broad range of distributed electronic systems. The overall framework is described to give the context of use for the techniques. The first technique is a “robustness case” which is a structured argument for the robustness of a system analogous to a safety case. The second is a model based approach to early robustness verification of complex systems. The approaches are demonstrated by their application to the system initialisation of the propulsion control system of a hybrid electric vehicle. The hybrid system initialisation process is discussed in terms of the key objectives and the technical implementation, illustrating the level of complexity underlying a simple high level requirement.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1228
Graciela Becci, Gunwant Dhadyalla, Alexandros Mouzakitis, James Marco, Andrew David Moore
Testing real-time vehicular systems challenges the tester to design test cases for concurrent and sequential input events, emulating unexpected user and usage profiles. The vehicle response should be robust to unexpected user actions. Sequence Covering Arrays (SCA) offer an approach which can emulate such unexpected user actions by generating an optimized set of test vectors which cover all possible t-way sequences of events. The objective of this research was to find an efficient nonfunctional sequence testing (NFST) strategy for testing the robustness of real-time automotive embedded systems measured by their ability to recover (prove-out test) after applying sequences of user and usage patterns generated by combinatorial test algorithms, considered as “noisy” inputs. The method was validated with a case study of an automotive embedded system tested at Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) level. The random sequences were able to alter the system functionality observed at the prove-out test.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1256
Jonathan Jilesen, Adrian P. Gaylard, Bradley Duncan, Alex Konstantinov, John Wanderer
Numerical simulations have proven to be effective tools for the aerodynamic design of vehicles, helping to reduce drag, improve cooling flows, and balance aerodynamic lift. Aeroacoustic simulations can also be performed; these can give guidance on how design changes may affect the noise level within the cabin. However, later in the development process it may be discovered that soiling management issues, for example, necessitate design changes. These may have adverse consequences for noise or require extra expense in the form of technological counter-measures (i.e. hydrophobic glass). Performing soiling simulations can allow these potential issues to be addressed earlier in the design process. One of the areas where simulation can be particularly useful is in the prediction of soiling due to wheel spray.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0588
Adrian P. Gaylard, Michael Fagg, Mark Bannister, Bradley Duncan, Joaquin Ivan Gargoloff, Jonathan Jilesen
Water accumulating on a vehicle's wind screen, driven over the A-pillar by a combination of aerodynamic forces and the action of the windscreen wipers, can be a significant impediment to driver vision. Surface water film, or streams, persisting in key vision areas of the side glass can impair the drivers' ability to see clearly through to the door mirror, and laterally onto junctions. Common countermeasures include: water management channels and hydrophobic glass coatings. Water management channels have both design and wind noise implications. Hydrophobic coatings entail significant cost. In order to manage this design optimisation issue a water film and wiper effect model has been developed in collaboration with Jaguar Land Rover, extending the capabilities of the PowerFLOW CFD software. This is complimented by a wind-tunnel based test method for development and validation. The paper presents the progress made to date.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1164
Alexandros Mouzakitis, Jianlin Wei, Jihong Wang
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations have long been used to test electronic control units (ECUs) and software in car manufacturers. It provides an effective platform to the rapid development process of the ECU control algorithms and accommodates the added complexity of the plant under control. Accurate Model based HIL simulation (AMHIL) is considered as a most efficient and cost effective way for exploration of new designs and development of new products, particularly in calibration and parameterization of vehicle stability controllers. The work presented in the paper is to develop a mathematical model of a windscreen wiper system for the purpose of conducting HIL vehicle test and eventually to replace the real component with the model for cost cutting and improved test efficiency. The model is developed based on the electro-mechanical engineering principles.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0898
Thorsten Gerke, Alkiviadis Boulos
Electrical power requirements for vehicles continue to increase. Future vehicle applications require the development of reliable and robust power supply strategies that operate over various ambient temperatures and driving conditions. Insufficient charge balance is one of the major concerns for conventional lead-acid battery systems when operated with limited charging times during short journeys or extreme climate conditions. For vehicle power supply analysis, a detailed understanding of the operational characteristics of the major components and how they interact as a part of the electric power system, including environmental and road conditions, is essential if the analysis is to aid system optimization. This paper presents a model based technique that enhances the process of vehicle electrical power system design. Vehicle system optimization using virtual prototypes has become critically important as more electrical features are added to future vehicles.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0900
A. P. Gaylard, J. P. Howell, K. P. Garry
This paper presents a series of observations of time-averaged wake asymmetry for a range of “notchback” vehicle geometries. The primary focus is on a reduced scale experiment using full-sized saloon geometry. Substantial flow asymmetry was observed in the vehicle “notch”. Similar asymmetries are reported for a full scale experiment on the same geometry along with others as diverse as production models of a luxury and mid-sized saloon; basic car shapes and a simple body. In one case a physical explanation is proposed, based on the degeneration of an unstable symmetric wake structure.
2007-05-15
Technical Paper
2007-01-2304
G. C. Peng
Vehicle wind noise is becoming increasingly important to customer satisfaction. Early wind noise assessment is critical to get things right during the early design phase. In this paper, SEA modeling technique is used to predict vehicle interior noise caused by the exterior turbulence. Measured surface turbulence pressures over vehicle greenhouse panels are applied as wind noise load. SEA representation of wind noise load case is investigated. It has been found that current SEA wind noise load case over-estimates at frequencies below window glass coincident frequency. A new concept of noise source pole index is introduced and a new wind noise load coupling has been developed. Comparison with vehicle wind tunnel measurements shows that the proposed load case significantly improved prediction accuracy.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0188
Prashant Khapane, Uday Ganeshwade, Kevin Carvalho
Abstract Vehicle water wading capability refers to vehicle functional part integrity (e.g. engine under-tray, bumper cover, plastic sill cover etc.) when travelling through water. Wade testing involves vehicles being driven through different depths of water at various speeds. The test is repeated and under-body functional parts are inspected afterwards for damage. Lack of CAE capability for wading equates to late detection of failure modes which inevitably leads to expensive design change, and potentially affects program timing. It is thus of paramount importance to have a CAE capability in this area to give design loads to start with. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is used to model a vehicle travelling through water at various speeds. A non-classical CFD approach was deemed necessary to model this. To validate the method, experimental testing with a simplified block was done and then verified with CFD modeling.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2463
Christopher Price, Arash Hamzehloo, Pavlos Aleiferis, David Richardson
Flash-boiling of sprays may occur when a superheated liquid is discharged into an ambient environment with lower pressure than its saturation pressure. Such conditions normally exist in direct-injection spark-ignition engines operating at low in-cylinder pressures and/or high fuel temperatures. The addition of novel high volatile additives/fuels may also promote flash-boiling. Fuel flashing plays a significant role in mixture formation by promoting faster breakup and higher fuel evaporation rates compared to non-flashing conditions. Therefore, fundamental understanding of the characteristics of flashing sprays is necessary for the development of more efficient mixture formation. The present computational work focuses on modelling flash-boiling of n-Pentane and iso-Octane sprays using a Lagrangian particle tracking technique.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8029
Chrysostomos-Alexandros Bekakos, George Papazafeiropoulos, Dan J. O'Boy, Jan Prins, George Mavros
Abstract A novel semi-analytical solution has been developed for the calculation of the static and dynamic response of an off road tire interacting with a deformable terrain, which utilizes soil parameters independent of the size of the contact patch (size-independent). The models involved in the solution presented, can be categorized in rigid and/or pneumatic tires, with or without tread pattern. After a concise literature review of related methods, a detailed presentation of the semi-analytical solution is presented, along with assumptions and limitations. A flowchart is provided, showing the main steps of the numerical implementation, and various test cases have been examined, characterized in terms of vertical load, tire dimensions, soil properties, deformability of the tire, and tread pattern. It has been found that the proposed model can qualitatively capture the response of a rolling wheel on deformable terrain.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0145
Edward Palmer, Wilko Jansen
Abstract In order to specify a brake system that will have robust performance over the entire range of expected vehicle drive cycles it is vital that it has sufficient thermal inertia and dissipation to ensure that component temperatures are kept within acceptable limits. This paper presents a high fidelity CAE (computer aided engineering) technique for predicting the temperature of the front brake and the surrounding suspension components whilst installed on vehicle. To define the boundary conditions the process utilizes a coupled unsteady CFD (computational fluid dynamics) and thermal solver to accurately predict the convective heat transfer coefficients across a range of vehicle speeds. A 1-D model is used to predict the brake energy inputs as well as the vehicle speed-time curves during the drive cycle based on key vehicle parameters including wide-open-throttle performance, drive train losses, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag etc.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1578
Nicholas Simmonds, Panagiotis Tsoutsanis, Dimitris Drikakis, Adrian Gaylard, Wilko Jansen
Abstract Simulations are presented which fully couple both the aerodynamics and cooling flow for a model of a fully engineered production saloon car (Jaguar XJ) with a two-tier cooling pack. This allows for the investigation of the overall aerodynamic impact of the under-hood cooling flow, which is difficult to predict experimentally. The simulations use a 100 million-element mesh, surface wrapped and solved to convergence using a commercially available RANS solver (STARCCM+). The methodology employs representative boundary conditions, such as rotating wheels and a moving ground plane. A review is provided of the effect of cooling flows on the vehicle aerodynamics, compared to published data, which suggest cooling flow accounts for 26 drag counts (0.026 Cd). Further, a sensitivity analysis of the pressure drop curves used in the porous media model of the heat exchangers is made, allowing for an initial understanding of the effect on the overall aerodynamics.
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