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Viewing 1 to 30 of 39
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0217
Eiji Kuroda, Kenzo Moriya, Masaru Yano, Shogo Watanabe, Hidenori Hirata, Kenji Otsuka
Japan Automobile Research Institute has devised and evaluated the various fuel consumption measurement methods for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). The examination covers the methods based on measurement of electrical current, hydrogen pressure/temperature, weight and flow rate that are expected to be the same accuracy and convenience as conventional measurement methods such as carbon balance method or fuel flow measurement method. As a result of examining the measurement accuracy for each method with a sonic nozzle used as a standard, it is found that both the pressure method and the weight method fulfill the target accuracy of ±1% and that the flow method is able to improve the accuracy by means of calibration with hydrogen. Also, as a result of applying each method to the fuel consumption test of FCVs, the relative error between the pressure method and weight method is within ±1%.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0609
Takaaki Kitamura, Takayuki Ito
This paper proposes a new mixing-controlled, low temperature combustion (LTC) approach for high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engines. The purpose of this approach is to avoid the excessively high pressure-rise rate (PRR) of premixed, kinetics-controlled LTC and to enable the low nitrogen oxides (NOx) combustion to operate over the wide speed and load range of the engine. To address the soot/noise trade-off at high load LTC operating conditions, the pressure modulated multiple-injection coupled with swirl control was applied. This injection strategy enables the injection of high pressure (HP) main spray into the local high temperature region of the already burning low pressure (LP) pilot spray injected from the neighboring injection hole. By employing this injection strategy, the equivalence ratio (φ) distribution of mixture is drastically varied during main combustion processes.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-39-7220
Tetsuya Suzuki, Kazuki Shimamura, Yasumasa Maeda
It is becoming more and more necessary to achieve a sustainable low-carbon society by mobility not depending on oil. Electric vehicles are appropriate for such a society, but expensive battery cost and long charging time prohibit the promotion of EVs. One of the solutions is minimizing battery usage by ultra-low fuel efficiency, so we developed an ultrahigh-efficient electric commuter concept car “C-ta”, which requires as small a battery as possible. We assumed that drivers would use the car as a second car for short-distance daily use, such as commuting, shopping, transportation of family, etc. In order to improve fuel efficiency, we mainly considered an ultra-light weight body and chassis, to which CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) greatly contributes, ultra-low rolling resistance tires, and highly accurate vehicle control technology with four in-wheel motors.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970742
Seiji Hayashi, Motoaki Akai, Nobuo Iwai, Yoshio Hamano
Intermittent Dual-fluid Exhaust Burner (IDEB) has been developed to reduce emissions from methanol fueled vehicles during the warm-up period after a cold start. The IDEB does not need any special fuel injector or blower, and has been built mainly through software modification of an ECU. An FTP mode test while operating an IDEB confirmed that the catalyst temperature was rapidly increased to significantly reduce the emissions to meet a level of ULEV standards.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980531
Toshiyuki Seko, Eiji Kuroda, Yoshio Hamano
A new combustion system targeting a drastic decrease in NOx emission and a brake specific energy consumption equivalent to that of a DI diesel engine has been developed. In this new combustion system, a lean burn system using early injection was employed to reduce NOx emission and an auto-ignition DI engine system was employed to achieve the low energy consumption. Methanol was used as the fuel for reducing NOx emission. The objective of this study is to clarify the possibility of the system for the auto-ignition of a premixed lean mixture of methanol fuel. This study shows that the gas temperature at ignition, Tig, is the predominant factor affecting auto-ignition. Auto-ignition occurs when Tig exceeds approximately 1000K. The methanol lean burn system in an auto-ignition DI engine drastically decreased NOx emission with almost the same brake specific energy consumption as a diesel engine in the middle load region.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0123
Hideaki Osada, Yuzo Aoyagi, Kazuaki Shimada, Kenichi Akiyama, Yuichi Goto, Hisakazu Suzuki
The engine in the research is a single cylinder DI diesel using the emission reduction techniques such as high boost, high injection pressure and broad range and high quantity of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The study especially focuses on the reduction of particulate matter (PM) under the engine operating conditions. In the experiment the authors measured engine performance, exhaust gases and mass of PM by low sulfur fuel such as 3 ppm and low sulfur lubricant oil such as 0.26%. Then the PM components were divided into soluble organic fraction (SOF) and insoluble organic fraction (ISOF) and they were measured at each engine condition. The mass of SOF was measured from the fuel fraction and lubricant oil fraction by gas chromatography. Also each mass of soot fraction and sulfate fraction was measured as components of ISOF. The experiment was conducted at BMEP = 2.0 MPa as full load condition of the engine and changing EGR rate from 0% to 40 %.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3312
Seiji Togawa, Shuzo Nemoto, Hidetsugu Yamamoto, Kiyotaka Nakamura, Masatoshi Miura, Takashi Hashimoto, Satoru Yoshida, Ken Matsuura
Emission regulations for diesel-powered vehicles have been gradually tightening. Installation of after-treatment devices such as diesel particulate filters (DPF), NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalysts, and so on is indispensable to satisfy rigorous limits of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Japan Clean Air Program II Oil Working Group (JCAPII Oil WG) has been investigating the effect of engine oil on advanced diesel after-treatment devices. First of all, we researched the impact of oil-derived ash on continuous regeneration-type diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF), and already reported that the less sulfated ash in oil gave rise to lower pressure drop across CR-DPF [1]. In this paper, impact of oil-derived sulfur and phosphorus on NSR catalyst was investigated using a 4L direct injection common-rail diesel engine with turbo-intercooler. This engine equipped with NSR catalyst meets the Japanese new short-term emission regulations.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3303
Takehiro Tsuchiya, Hitoshi Shiotani, Shinichi Goto, Gen Sugiyama, Akira Maeda
The Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry has conducted conformity tests of diesel fuel containing Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) to amend diesel fuel standards in Japan. The objective of the tests is to examine appropriate specifications of diesel fuel containing FAME for automotive use for existing vehicles in the Japanese market. The conformity testing includes verification of fuel system component compatibility, tail pipe emissions, and characterization of the reliability and durability of the engine system, including the fuel injection system. In designing the conformity tests, the maximum FAME concentration was 5%. Most of the new standards are essentially equivalent to EN14214, but the total acid number (TAN) of specific acids, and oxidation stability of the new standards for diesel fuel containing FAME, are different from EN14214.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3397
Yoshio Tonegawa, Makoto Oguchi, Kenji Tsuchiya, Sousuke Sasaki, Takahiko Ohashi, Yuichi Goto
A prototype CNG engine for heavy-duty trucks has been developed. The engine had sufficient output in practical use, and the green-house gas emission rate was below that of the base diesel engine. Furthermore, the NOx emission rate was reduced to 0.16 g/kWh in the JE05 mode as results of having fully adjusted air fuel ratio control. The measured emission characteristics of particles from the prototype CNG engine demonstrated that oil consumption was related to the number of particles. Moreover, when oil consumption is at an appropriate level, the accumulation mode particles are significantly reduced, and the nuclei mode particles are fewer than those of diesel-fueled engines.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3448
Atsushi Kameoka, Kenji Tsuchiya
Ferrocene is used as an antiknock additive to replace lead alkyls. To clarify the influence of one metal additive, ferrocene, on engine, following experiments were carried out. The insulation resistance of spark plugs was measured, deposits in the engine were analyzed, and an exhaust emission and fuel economy tests were conducted using gasoline containing ferrocene. The deposit, which contained iron oxides, adhered to the combustion chamber, spark plugs, and exhaust pipe when the engine operated with gasoline containing ferrocene. When vehicles operated with gasoline containing ferrocene, fuel consumption increased and the exhaust temperature rose. In addition, an abnormal electrical discharge pattern was observed in spark plugs operating at high temperatures. Iron-oxide of Fe3O4 is changed into Fe2O3 under high temperatures. Discharge current flows in iron oxides including Fe2O3 because the conductivity of Fe2O3 increases at high temperatures.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3381
Keiichi Koseki, Mitsuaki Wakita, Nobuhiro Okabe, Takashi Kaneko, Manabu Watanabe, Kaoru Horie, Tsutomu Kikuchi, Kuniaki Atsuta, Hideshi Aiko, Atsushi Kameoka, Akihiko Honma
Clarifying the impact of ETBE 8% blended fuel on current Japanese gasoline vehicles, under the Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAPII) we conducted exhaust emission tests, evaporative emission tests, durability tests on the exhaust after-treatment system, cold starting tests, and material immersion tests. ETBE 17% blended fuel was also investigated as a reference. The regulated exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx) didn't increase with any increase of ETBE content in the fuel. In durability tests, no noticeable increase of exhaust emission after 40,000km was observed. In evaporative emissions tests, HSL (Hot Soak Loss) and DBL (Diurnal Breathing Loss) didn't increase. In cold starting tests, duration of cranking using ETBE 8% fuel was similar to that of ETBE 0%. In the material immersion tests, no influence of ETBE on these material properties was observed.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0688
Ryuichi Hirotani, Toshihiro Terada, Yousuke Tamura, Hiroyuki Mitsuishi, Shogo Watanabe
The current hydrogen storage systems for fuel-cell vehicles are mainly a compressed hydrogen storage type, but it is known that the temperature inside the tank commonly increases while the tank is being filled with hydrogen. This study examines filling methods that prevent the temperature from exceeding the designed temperature of the tank. In order to propose a filling method that suppresses the temperature rise inside the tank and achieves filling within a short time, fast-filling tests were conducted on test tanks designed for fast filling of fuel cell vehicles. The detailed influences of the differences in type of tank and filling pressure on the rate of the internal temperature increase were investigated. Thermal responses were measured at various parts inside and outside the tank while varying the filling pressure, type of tank, tank capacity, filling time, and filling pattern, using a test tank that allows multi-point measurement of the internal temperature.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0435
Jinji Suzuki, Yohsuke Tamura, Kimio Hayano, Koichi Oshino, Shogo Watanabe
Fuel cell vehicles represent a new system, and their safety has not yet been fully proved comparing with present automobile. Thorough safety evaluation is especially needed for the fuel system, which uses hydrogen as fuel, and the electric system, which uses a lot of electricity. The fuel cell stacks that are to be loaded on fuel cell vehicles generate electricity by reacting hydrogen and oxygen through electrolytic polymer membranes which is very thin. The safety of the fuel and electric systems should also be assessed for any abnormality that may be caused by electrolytic polymer membranes for any reasons. The purpose of our tests is to collect basic data to ultimately establish safety standards for fuel cell stacks. Methanol pool flame exposure tests were conducted on stationary use fuel cell stacks of two 200W to evaluate safety in the event of a fire.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3828
Kenji Morita, Kazuki Shimamura, Gen Sugiyama, Masahiko Hori, Yukihiko Itai, Shigeo Sekiyama, Akira Motooka, Masakazu Sasaki, Koichi Suenaga
Ultra-low energy consumption and ultra-low emission vehicle technologies have been developed by combining petroleum-alternative clean energy with a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system. Their component technologies cover a wide range of vehicle types, such as passenger cars, delivery trucks, and city buses, adsorbed natural gas (ANG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and dimethyl ether (DME) as fuels, series (S-HEV) and series/parallel (SP-HEV) for hybrid types, and as energy storage systems (ESSs), flywheel batteries (FWBs), capacitors, and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Evaluation tests confirmed that the energy consumption of the developed vehicles is 1/2 of that of conventional diesel vehicles, and the exhaust emission levels are comparable to Japan's ultra-low emission vehicle (J-ULEV) level.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1944
Masahiko Hori, Makoto Oguchi
Four urea SCR systems were developed and evaluated on a C/D and on the road to investigate their potential for Japanese emission regulations in 2005 and beyond. Test results showed that NOx conversion ratios were 50 to 70% during the Japanese D13 mode cycle, and the ratios under the transient driving cycle were lower than those tested during a steady state. Unregulated emissions, such as benzene, aldehyde and benzo[a]pyrene, existed either at a trace level using the oxidation catalyst, or lower than a base diesel engine, when no oxidation catalyst was used. The health effects of particulate matter emitted from the SCR system were almost the same as those from conventional diesel engines, as evaluated by the Ames test and in vitro micronucleus test. Thermal degradation products, such as cyanuric acid and melamine, were two to four figures lower compared with the toxicological information of Safety Information Resources Inc. (SIRI).
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1887
Shuzo Nemoto, Yoshiaki Kishi, Ken Matsuura, Masatoshi Miura, Seiji Togawa, Takao Ishikawa, Takashi Hashimoto, Tsuyoshi Yamazaki
Impact of oil-derived ash on the pressure drop of continuous regeneration-type diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF) was investigated through 600hrs running test at maximum power point on a 6.9L diesel engine, which meets the Japanese long-term emission regulations enacted in 1998, using approximately 50ppm sulfur content fuel. Sulfated ash content of test oils were varied as 0.96, 1.31, and 1.70 mass%, respectively. During the running test, the exhaust pressure drop through CR-DPF was measured. And after the test, the ventilation resistance through CR-DPF was also evaluated before and after the baking process, which was applied to eliminate the effect of soot accumulated in CR-DPF. The results revealed that the less sulfated ash in oil gave rise to lower pressure drop across CR-DPF. According to microscope examination of the baked DPF, ash was mainly accumulated on the wall surface of CR-DPF, and that seemed to be related to the magnitude of pressure drop caused by ash.
2003-05-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-1864
Satoshi Yamazaki, Kazuhiko Suzuki, Hiroshi Hirai, Yasuo Yoshikawa, Hitoshi Kunimi, Shinji Kobayashi
Air Quality Modeling Working Group developed two models to evaluate effects of automobile emission reduction measures on air quality improvement: Urban Air Quality Simulation Model in which secondary aerosol formation processes have been incorporated, and Roadside Air Quality Simulation Model in which micro-scale traffic flow has been taken into consideration. Concretely, a model has been built up for estimating SPM concentration in ambient air in which high concentrated air pollutants have been contained during summer and winter. The model has been built up by using UAM (Urban Airshed Model) as base model, and the following modification has been made to the base model. First, ISSOROPIA (secondary inorganic aerosol equilibrium model) has been added to the base model, and a secondary organic aerosol formation/reaction model (SOA model) has been incorporated into the model.
2003-05-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-1869
Akiyoshi Morita, Gen Sugiyama
Fuels of wide range of density and viscosity were tested by using a DI diesel engine that conforms to present Japanese regulations. A total of 9 fuels was tested. Six test fuels were commercial automotive diesel fuel available in Japan. In order to expand the density range, test fuels of kerosene, high-density diesel fuel and automotive diesel fuel in Singapore were also included. The density range was 0.796 to 0.856 (g/cm3), and the viscosity range was 1.52 to 5.44 (mm2/s). The test mode was Japanese D13. Also, some fuels were tested by the Japanese transient test mode. Moreover, fuel spray was observed by an optical method to clarify the relationship between viscosity and Sauter mean diameter.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3092
Kouseki Sugiyama, Makihiko Mori, Masataka Kajiwara, Masahiro Fukumoto, Shinichi Goto
In this research, a test apparatus (VPT-HFRR) for evaluating lubricity was manufactured at an arbitrary pressure according to the lubricity test method (HFRR) for diesel fuel. The lubricity of LPG blended fuel (LBF) for diesel engines was examined using VPT-HFRR., This was a value close to that of diesel fuel, and when a suitable lubricity had been maintained, it was checked. Prototype trucks were manufactured and their durability was examined. After a run of 70,000km or more, no serious trouble had occurred, and when LBF was maintained at a suitable lubricity, it was checked.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0463
Toshihiro Terada, Hiroshi Yoshimura, Yohsuke Tamura, Hiroyuki Mitsuishi, Shogo Watanabe
If a compressed hydrogen tank for vehicles is filled with hydrogen gas more quickly, the gas temperature in the tank will increase. In this study, we conducted hydrogen gas filling tests using the TYPE 3 and TYPE 4 tanks. During the tests, we measured the temperature of the internal liner surface and investigated its relationship with the gas temperature in the tank. We found that the gas temperature in the upper portion of the TYPE 4 tank rose locally during filling and that the temperature of the internal liner surface near that area also rose, resulting in a temperature higher than the gas temperature at the center of the tank. To keep the maximum temperature in the tank below the designed temperature (85°C) during filling and examine the representative tank internal temperatures, it is important to examine filling methods that can suppress local rises of tank internal temperature.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0465
Eiji Kuroda, Noboru Yoshimura, Hisao Tagami, Masaru Yano, Shogo Watanabe, Masafumi Sasaki
The hydrogen consumption of fuel cell vehicles (FCV) can be measured by the gravimetric, pressure and flow methods within a ±1% error. These are the methods acknowledged by ISO and SAE [1, 2], but require the test vehicles to be modified in order to supply hydrogen from an external, rather than the onboard tank. Consequently, technical assistance of the vehicle manufacturer is necessary for this modification, while various components in the test vehicle must be readjusted. For these reasons, a measurement method free of vehicle modification is in great demand. The present study therefore developed an “oxygen balance method” which determines the amount of hydrogen that has reacted with oxygen in the fuel cell stack by measuring the oxygen concentration in exhaust gas.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4083
Yasunori Sogawa, Hisaya Hattori, Nobuhiro Yanagisawa, Mitsuru Hosoya, Takeshi Shoji, Yasunori Iwakiri, Tetsuya Yamashita, Tomoaki Ikeda, Shigeyuki Tanaka, Ko Takahashi, Teruo Suzuki, Toru Nakajima, Yoshio Tonegawa
Newly designed laboratory measurement system, which reproduces particle number size distributions of both nuclei and accumulation mode particles in exhaust emissions, was developed. It enables continuous measurement of nano particle emissions in the size range between 5 and 1000 nm. Evaluations of particle number size distributions were conducted for diesel vehicles with a variety of emission aftertreatment devices and for gasoline vehicles with different combustion systems. For diesel vehicles, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (urea-SCR) system and catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) were evaluated. For gasoline vehicles, Lean-burn Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI), Stoichiometric DISI and Multi Point Injection (MPI) were evaluated. Japanese latest transient test cycles were used for the evaluation: JE05 mode driving cycle for heavy duty vehicles and JC08 mode driving cycle for light duty vehicles.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4082
Hisaya Hattori, Yasunori Sogawa, Nobuhiro Yanagisawa, Mitsuru Hosoya, Takeshi Shoji, Yasunori Iwakiri, Tetsuya Yamashita, Tomoaki Ikeda, Shigeyuki Tanaka, Ko Takahashi, Teruo Suzuki, Toru Nakajima, Yoshio Tonegawa
In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-2008
Masaru Yano, Eiji Kuroda, Hisao Tagami, Keisuke Kuroda, Shogo Watanabe
Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI) have developed the flow method as an easy way of measuring hydrogen consumption of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) in real-time. A 2004 study on fuel consumption of five models of FCVs, measured by thermal flowmeters and based on gravimetric method, exhibited measurement errors within ±1% range for three models, but the errors were as large as -8% for two models that showed significant pulsation in hydrogen consumption flow. Assuming that the pulsation is the cause of errors in the flow method, we analyzed influences of pulsation in each flowmeter from two points (frequency and amplitude) and found that pulsation indeed caused flowmeter errors. Expansion chambers (Buffers) and throttle valves (regulators) were confirmed to have an effect in attenuating pulsation. Amplitude of pulsation shrunk to one tenths when such pulsation-reducing instruments were introduced between pulsating FCVs and flowmeters and were put to test.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-2039
Keiichi Koseki, Aruto Hayashi, Kazuki Fukuda, Mitsuaki Wakita, Nobuhiro Okabe, Manabu Watanabe, Tsutomu Kikuchi, Kuniaki Atsuta, Hideshi Aiko, Atsushi Kameoka, Masaru Kohakura
JCAPII gasoline workgroup reported vehicle emission study to comprehend the impact of ETBE blending. In previous study, we focused on the compatibility of ETBE blended gasoline with Japanese current gasoline vehicles in-use. Based on recent discussion with ETBE 8% blended gasoline into the market, more information becomes necessary. In this second report, we studied to comprehend the actual emission impact using realistic model fuels using several base stocks. Fuel properties of T50, T90 and aromatic compound content were selected through discussions. Specifications were changed within the range of the market. Both ETBE 0% and 8% were combined for these fuel matrixes. In total, eight fuels and two reference fuels were tested. Two J-ULEV vehicles (one MPI, and a stoichiometric-SIDI) were procured as representatives. We discussed quantitative and qualitative impact toward emissions. Data regarding CO2 and fuel economy change were also reported.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-1952
Toshiaki Kakegawa, Takashi Kaneko, Shinji Hara, Shigeo Sembokuya, Osamu Nakamura, Masahiko Shibuya, Hiroyuki Itoyama, Masanori Okada, Gen Sugiyama, Tsutomu Hasegawa
Diesel emissions are significant issue worldwide, and emissions requirements have become so tough that. the application of after-treatment systems is now indispensable in many countries To meet even more stringent future emissions requirements, it has become apparent that the improvement of market fuel quality is essential as well as the development in engine and exhaust after-treatment technology. Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAP II) is being conducted to assess the direction of future technologies through the evaluation of current automobile and fuel technologies and consequently to realize near zero emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction. In this program, effects of fuel properties on the performance of diesel engines and a vehicle equipped with two types of diesel NOx emission after-treatment devices, a Urea-SCR system and a NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst system, were examined.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0582
Naoki Kurimoto, Naoki Watanabe, Shinya Hoshi, Satoru Sasaki, Masashi Matsumoto
Abstract A methodology for simulating effect of international variations in fuel compositions on spray combustion is proposed. The methodology is validated with spray combustion experiments with real fuels from three different countries. The compositions of those fuels were analyzed through GC×GC and H-NMR. It was found that ignition delay times, flame region and flame luminosity were significantly affected by the compositional variations. For the simulation, an evaporation surrogate consisting of twenty two species, covering basic molecular types and a wide range of carbon numbers, is developed. Each species in the evaporation surrogate is then virtually converted to a reaction surrogate consisting of n-hexadecane, methylcyclohexane and 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene so that combustion reactions can be calculated with a published kinetic model. The virtual species conversion (VSC) is made so as to take over combustion-related properties of each species of evaporation surrogates.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1865
Kouseki Sugiyama, Masataka Kajiwara, Masahiro Fukumoto, Makihiko Mori, Shinichi Goto, Tomoko Watanabe
In this study, a MPT-HFRR (Multi-Pressure/Temperature High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig) was manufactured based on a diesel fuel lubricity test apparatus. The MPT-HFRR was designed to be used for conventional test methods as well as for liquefied gas fuel tests. Lubricity tests performed on a calibration standard sample under both atmospheric pressure and high pressure produced essentially constant values, so it was determined that this apparatus could be used for assessing the lubricity of fuel. Using this apparatus, the improvement of lubricity due to the addition of a DME (Dimethyl Ether) fuel additive was investigated. It was found that when 50ppm or more of a fatty acid lubricity improver was added, the wear scar diameter converged to 400μm or less, and a value close to the measured result for Diesel fuel was obtained. The lubricity obtained was considered to be generally satisfactory.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2375
Akihiro Niwa, Shogo Sakatani, Eriko Matsumura, Takaaki Kitamura
Abstract In the urea SCR system, urea solution is injected by injector installed in the front stage of the SCR catalyst, and NOx can be purified on the SCR catalyst by using NH3 generated by the chemical reaction of urea. NH3 is produced by thermolysis of urea and hydrolysis of isocyanic acid after evaporation of water in the urea solution. But, biuret and cyanuric acid which may cause deposit are sometimes generated by the chemical reactions without generating NH3. Spray behavior and chemical reaction of urea solution injected into the tail-pipe are complicated. The purpose of this study is to reveal the spray behavior and NH3 generation process in the tail-pipe, and to construct the model capable of predicting those accurately. In this report, the impingement spray behavior is clarified by scattered light method in high temperature flow field.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2373
Jun Kaniyu, Shogo Sakatani, Eriko Matsumura, Takaaki Kitamura
Abstract Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is a very effective aftertreatment device to limit particulate emissions from diesel engines. As the amount of soot collected in the DPF increases, the pressure loss increases. Therefore, DPF regeneration needs to be performed. Injected fuel into the exhaust line upstream of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), hydrocarbons are oxidized on the DOC, which increases the exhaust gas temperature at the DPF inlet. It is also necessary that the injected fuel is completely vaporized before entering the DOC, and uniformly mixed with the exhaust gases in order to make the DOC work efficiency. However, ensuring complete evaporation and an optimum mixture distribution in the exhaust line are challenging. Therefore, it is important that the fuel spray feature is grasped to perform DPF regeneration effectively. The purpose of this study is the constructing a simulation model.
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