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2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2827
Keith S. Novak, Charles J. Phillips, Eric T. Sunada, Gary M. Kinsella
NASA launched two rovers in June and July of 2003 as a part of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project. MER-A (Spirit) landed on Mars in Gusev Crater at 15 degrees South latitude and 175 degrees East longitude on January 4, 2004 (Squyres, et al., Dec. 2004). MER-B (Opportunity) landed on Mars in Terra Meridiani at 2 degrees South latitude and 354 degrees East longitude on January 25, 2004 (Squyres, et al., Aug. 2004). Both rovers have well exceeded their design lifetime (90 Sols) by more than a factor of 5. Spirit and Opportunity are still healthy and continue to execute their roving science missions at the time of this writing. This paper discusses rover flight thermal performance during the surface missions of both vehicles, covering roughly the time from the MER-A landing in late Southern Summer (aereocentric longitude, Ls = 328, Sol 1A) through the Southern Winter solstice (Ls = 90, Sol 255A) to nearly Southern Vernal equinox (Ls = 160, Sol 398A).
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2828
Pradeep Bhandari, Gajanana Birur, Michael Pauken, Anthony Paris, Keith Novak, Mauro Prina, Brenda Ramirez, David Bame
The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL1) mission to land a large rover on Mars is being planned for Launch in 2009. As currently conceived, the rover would use a Multi-mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) to generate about 110 W of electrical power for use in the rover and the science payload. Usage of an MMRTG allows for a large amount of nearly constant electrical power to be generated day and night for all seasons (year around) and latitudes. This offers a large advantage over solar arrays. The MMRTG by its nature dissipates about 2000 W of waste heat. The basic architecture of the thermal system utilizes this waste heat on the surface of Mars to maintain the rover's temperatures within their limits under all conditions. In addition, during cruise, this waste heat needs to be dissipated safely to protect sensitive components in the spacecraft and the rover.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2880
M. A. Ryan, M. L. Homer, H. Zhou, K. Manatt, A. Manfreda, A. Kisor, A. V. Shevade, S. P. S. Yen
An array-based sensing system based on 32 polymer/carbon composite conductometric sensors is under development at JPL. Until the present phase of development, the analyte set has focused on organic compounds (common solvents) and a few selected inorganic compounds, notably ammonia and hydrazine. The present phase of JPL ENose development has added two inorganics to the analyte set: mercury and sulfur dioxide. Through models of sensor-analyte response developed under this program coupled with a literature survey, approaches to including these analytes in the ENose target set have been determined.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2932
David Newcombe, Tara Stuecker, Myron La Duc, Kasthuri Venkateswaran
Previous studies indicated evidence of opportunistic pathogens in samples obtained during missions to the International Space Station (ISS). This study utilized TaqMan quantitative PCR to determine specific gene abundance in potable and non-potable ISS waters. Probe and primer sets specific to the small subunit rRNA genes were designed and used to elucidate overall bacterial rRNA gene numbers. In addition, primer-probe sets specific for Burkholderia cepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were optimized and genes of these two opportunistic pathogens quantified in the pre- and post-flight drinking water as well as coolant waters. This Q-PCR approach supports findings of previous culture-based studies however; the culture based studies may have underestimated the microbial burden of ISS drinking water.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2933
Tara Stuecker, David Newcombe, Myron T. La Duc, Eva Murdock, Randall Sumner, Kasthuri Venkateswaran
Certain Eubacteria enter a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state upon encountering unfavorable environmental conditions. VBNC cells do not divide on conventional media yet remain viable and in some cases retain virulence. Here, we describe the VBNC state of two opportunistic pathogens previously isolated from ISS potable waters, Burkholderia cepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Artificially inoculated microcosms were exposed to the biocidal agents copper (CuSO4) and iodine (I2) in an attempt to induce nonculturablility. Viability was assessed via fluorescent microscopy (direct viable count assay coupled with BacLight™ staining) and metabolic activity was monitored by quantifying both intracellular ATP and transcribed rRNA (reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR). Culturablility was lost in both B. cepacia and S. maltophilia within two days of exposure to copper or high concentrations of iodine (6 or 8 ppm).
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2543
A. V. Shevade, M. A. Ryan, M. L. Homer, A. K. Kisor, K. S. Manatt, L. M. Lara
Simultaneous measurements were made for particle releases and off-gassing products produced by heating electrical wires. The wire samples in these experiments were heated to selected temperatures in a heating chamber and responses to vapor releases were recorded by the JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) and an Industrial Scientific ITX gas-monitor; particles released were detected by a TSI P-Trak particle counter. The temperature range considered for the experiment is room temperature (24−26°C) to 500 °C. The results were analyzed by overlapping responses from the ENose, ITX gas sensors and P-Trak, to understand the events (particle release/off-gassing) and sequence of events as a function of temperature and to determine qualitatively whether ENose may be used to detect pre-combustion event markers.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2390
Jose I. Rodriguez, Howard Tseng, Padma Varanasi, Burt Zhang
Launched on India's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft on October 22, 2008, JPL's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument has successfully completed over six months of operation in space. M3 is one in a suite of eleven instruments, six of which are foreign payloads, flying onboard the Indian spacecraft. Chandrayaan-1, managed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in Bangalore, is India's first deep space mission. Chandrayaan-1 was launched on the upgraded version of India's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-XL) from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, SHAR, Sriharikota, India. The primary science objective of the M3 instrument is the characterization and mapping of the lunar surface composition in the context of its geologic evolution. Its primary exploration goal is to assess and map the Moon mineral resources at high spatial resolution to support future targeted missions.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2438
Glenn T. Tsuyuki, Chern-Jiin Lee
The Mars Scout Phoenix Lander successfully landed in the Martian northern latitude on May 25, 2008. The Robotic Arm, which was designed to dig and to transfer soil samples to other Lander instruments, contained a number of actuators that had specific operational windows on the Martian surface due to the bearing lubricant. The deployment of the Robotic Arm was planned for Sol 2 (Mars days are referred to “Sols”). A few weeks before Mars landing, the Robotic Arm operations team learned that a strict flight rule had been imposed. It specified that the deployment shall be accomplished when the actuators were at or above −25°C since the deployment activity was qualified with the actuators at −40°C. Furthermore, the deployment plan identified a window of opportunity between 13:00 Local Solar Time (LST, equivalent to dividing the Sol into 24 equal Martian hours) and 15:30 LST.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2437
Pradeep Bhandari, Gajanana Birur, Paul Karlmann, David Bame, Yuanming Liu, A. J. Mastropietro, Jennifer Miller, Michael Pauken, Gani Ganapathi, Robert Krylo, Brad Kinter
The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission to land a large rover on Mars is being prepared for Launch in 2011. A Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) on the rover provides an electrical power of 110 W for use in the rover and the science payload. Unlike the solar arrays, MMRTG provides a constant electrical power during both day and night for all seasons (year around) and latitudes. The MMRTG dissipates about 2000 W of waste heat to produce the desired electrical power. One of the challenges for MSL Rover is the thermal management of the large amount of MMRTG waste heat. During operations on the surface of Mars this heat can be harnessed to maintain the rover and the science payload within their allowable limits during nights and winters without the use of electrical survival heaters. A mechanically pumped fluid loop heat rejection and recovery system (HRS) is used to pick up some of this waste heat and supply it to the rover and payload.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2419
Gani B. Ganapathi, Eric T. Sunada, Gajanana C. Birur, Jennifer R. Miller, Ryan Stephan
NASA's proposed lunar lander, Altair, will be exposed to vastly different external temperatures following launch till its final destination on the moon. In addition, the heat rejection is lowest at the lowest environmental temperatures (0.5 kW @ 4K) and highest at the highest environmental temperature (4.5 kW @ 215K). This places a severe demand on the radiator design to handle these extreme turn-down requirements. A radiator with digital turn-down capability is currently under study at JPL as a robust means to meet the heat rejection demands and provide freeze protection while minimizing mass and power consumption. Turndown is achieved by independent control of flow branches with isolating latch valves and a gear pump to evacuate the isolated branches. A bench-top test was conducted to characterize the digital radiator concept. Testing focused on the demonstration of proper valve sequencing to achieve turn-down and recharge of flow legs.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2522
M. A. Ryan, K. S. Manatt, S. Gluck, A. V. Shevade, A. K. Kisor, H. Zhou, L. M. Lara, M. L. Homer
The Third Generation ENose is an air quality monitor designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 – 30 °C, relative humidity from 25 – 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. This device was installed and activated on ISS on Dec. 9, 2008 and has been operating continuously since activation. Data are downlinked and analyzed weekly. Results of analysis of ENose monitoring data show the short term presence of low concentration of alcohols, octafluoropropane and formaldehyde as well as frequent short term unknown events.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2462
Glenn T. Tsuyuki, Elisabeth L. Morse, Siu-Chun Lee, John D. Bernardin
The Mars Science Laboratory will be the next Martian mobility system that is scheduled to launch in the fall of 2011. The ChemCam Instrument is a part of the MSL science payload suite. It is innovative for planetary exploration in using a technique referred to as laser breakdown spectroscopy to determine the chemical composition of samples from distances of up to about 9 meters away. ChemCam is led by a team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements in Toulouse, France. The portion of ChemCam that is located inside the Rover, the ChemCam Body Unit contains the imaging charged-coupled device (CCD) detectors. Late in the design cycle, the ChemCam team explored alternate thermal design architectures to provide CCD operational overlap with the Rover's remote sensing instruments. This operational synergy is necessary to enable planning for subsequent laser firings and geological context.
1994-06-01
Technical Paper
941263
Darrell L. Jan, Gerald E. Voecks, Naresh K. Rohatgi
Abstract In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration(NASA), a laboratory has been established at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to evaluate the characteristics of chemical sensors which are candidates for use in a controlled chemical processing life support system. Such a facility is required for characterizing those sensors under development as well as those commercially available but whose functional properties are typically based upon operating in industrial environments that will not be completely synonomous with space operations. Space environments, such as an orbiting station or lunar base, will generally have different sensor requirements than terrestrial applications with respect to size, multifunctionality, sensitivity, reliability, temperature, ruggedness, mass, consumables, life, and power requirements. Both commercially available and developmental moisture sensors have been evaluated.
1998-07-13
Technical Paper
981684
Gajanana C. Birur, Pradeep Bhandari
One of the new technologies successfully demonstrated on the recent Mars Pathfinder mission was the active Heat Rejection System (HRS). This system consisted of a mechanically pumped cooling loop, which actively controlled the temperatures of the various parts of the spacecraft. A single phase Refrigerant 11 liquid was mechanically circulated through the lander and cruise electronics box heat exchangers. This liquid transferred the excess heat to an external radiator on the cruise stage. This is the first time in unmanned spacecraft history that an active heat rejection system of this type has been used on a long duration spacecraft mission. Pathfinder was launched in December 1996 and landed on the Martian surface on July 4, 1997. The system functioned flawlessly during the entire seven months of flight from Earth to Mars. A life test set up of the cooling loop was used to verify the life of the system.
1998-07-13
Technical Paper
981685
H. J. Eisen, L. C. Wen, G. Hickey, D. F. Braun
The Sojourner Rover landed on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997 as part of the Mars Pathfinder Mission. The mission lasted almost three months during which the thermal design of the Rover was tested. This paper summarizes the Rover's design and performance as well as post-mission model correlation.
1998-07-13
Technical Paper
981598
Michael C. Storrie-Lombardi, James L. Lambert, Mark S. Borchert, Akio Kimura, James Roseto, Richard J. Bing
We have elicited a reliable Raman spectral signature for glucose in rabbit aqueous humor across mammalian physiological ranges in a rabbit model stressed by recent myocardial infarction. The technique employs near infrared Raman laser excitation at 785 nm, multivariate analysis, non-linear artificial neural networks and an offset spectra subtraction strategy. Aqueous humor glucose levels ranged from 37 to 323 mg/dL. Data were obtained in 80 uL samples to anticipate the volume constraints imposed by the human and rabbit anterior chamber of the eye. Total sample collection time was 10 seconds with total power delivered to sample of 30 Mw. Spectra generated from the aqueous humor were compared qualitatively to artificial aqueous samples and an excitation offset technique was devised to counteract broadband background noise partially obscuring the glucose signature.
1998-07-13
Technical Paper
981564
M. A. Ryan, M. L. Homer, M. G. Buehler, K. S. Manatt, B. Lau, D. Karmon, S. Jackson
A miniaturized electronic nose has been constructed at JPL in collaboration with Caltech. This array of conductometric sensors has been trained to detect and quantify the presence of vapors in the air; the compounds detected have been found as contaminants in shuttle air. This device has potential application as a miniature, distributed device for monitoring and controlling the constituents in air.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2063
R. E. Freeland, R. G. Helms, M. M. Mikulas
Early development of concepts for space structures up to 1000 meters in size was initiated in the early 1960's and carried through the 1970's. The enabling technologies were self-deployables, on-orbit assembly, and on-orbit manufacturing. Because of the lack of interest due to the astronomical cost associated with advancing the on-orbit assembly and manufacturing technologies, only self-deployable concepts were subsequently pursued. However, for over 50 years, potential users of deployable antennas for radar, radiometers, planar arrays, VLBF and others, are still interested and constantly revising the requirements for larger and higher precision structures. This trend persists today. An excellent example of this trend is the current DARPA/SPO ISAT Program that applies self-deployable structures technology to a 300 meter long active planar array radar antenna. This ongoing program has created a rare opportunity for innovative advancement of state-of-the-art concepts.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2064
Paul M. McElroy, Andrea E. Hoyt Haight, Peter B. Rand, Tanya Shkindel, Ronald E. Allred, Paul B. Willis
The overall goal of this program was the development of a 10 m. diameter, self-deployable antenna based on an open-celled rigid polyurethane foam system. Advantages of such a system relative to current inflatable or self-deploying systems include high volumetric efficiency of packing, high restoring force, low (or no) outgassing, low thermal conductivity, high dynamic damping, mechanical isotropy, infinite shelf life, and easy fabrication with methods amenable to construction of large structures (i.e., spraying). As part of a NASA Phase II SBIR, Adherent Technologies and its research partners, Temeku Technologies, and NASA JPL/Caltech, conducted activities in foam formulation, interdisciplinary analysis, and RF testing to assess the viability of using open cell polyurethane foams for self-deploying antenna applications.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2179
M. A. Ryan, A. V. Shevade, C. J. Taylor, M. L. Homer, A. D. Jewell, A. Kisor, K. S. Manatt, S. P. S. Yen, M. Blanco, W. A. Goddard
An array-based sensing system based on polymer-carbon composite conductometric sensors is under development at JPL for use as an environmental monitor in the International Space Station. Sulfur dioxide has been added to the analyte set for this phase of development. Using molecular modeling techniques, the interaction energy between SO2 and polymer functional groups has been calculated, and polymers selected as potential SO2 sensors. Experiment has validated the model and two selected polymers have been shown to be promising materials for SO2 detection.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2035
Gajanana C. Birur, Pradeep Bhandari, Mauro Prina, David P. Bame, Andre H. Yavrouian, Gary A. Plett
Future planetary science missions planned for Mars are expected to be more complex and thermally challenging than any of the previous missions. For future rovers, the operational parameters such as landing site latitudes, mission life, distance traversed, and rover thermal energy to be managed will be significantly higher (two to five times) than the previous missions. It is a very challenging problem to provide an effective thermal control for the future rovers using traditional passive thermal control technologies. Recent investigations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have shown that mechanical pump based fluid loops provide a robust and effective thermal control system needed for these future rovers. Mechanical pump based fluid loop (MPFL) technologies are currently being developed at JPL for use on such rovers. These fluid loops are planned for use during spacecraft cruise from earth to Mars and also on the Martian surface operations.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2033
Chern-Jiin Lee, Glenn T. Tsuyuki
Phoenix, NASA's first Mars Scouts mission, will be launched in 2007 and will soft-land inside the Martian Arctic Circle, between north 65° and 72° North latitude, in 2008 to study the water history and to search for habitable zones. Similar to the IDD (Instrument Deployment Device) on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), Phoenix has a Robotic Arm (RA) which is equipped with a scoop to dig into the icy soil and to deliver the soil samples to instruments for scientific observations and measurements. As with MER, the actuators and the bearings of the Phoenix RA in a non-operating condition can survive the cold Martian night without any electrical power or any thermal insulation. The RA actuators have a minimum operating allowable flight temperature (AFT) limit of -55°C, so, warm-up heaters are required to bring the temperatures of all the RA actuators above the operating AFT limit prior to early morning operation.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2310
M. T. Pauken, G. M. Kinsella, K. S. Novak, G. T. Tsuyuki, C. J. Phillips
In January 2004, two Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) landed on the surface of Mars to begin their mission as robotic geologists. A year prior to these historic landings, both rovers and the spacecraft that delivered them to Mars, were completing a series of environmental tests in facilities at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This paper describes the test program undertaken to validate the thermal design and verify the workmanship integrity of both rovers and the spacecraft. The spacecraft, which contained the rover within the aeroshell, were tested in a 7.5 m diameter thermal vacuum chamber. Thermal balance was performed for the near earth (hot case) condition and for the near Mars (cold case) condition. A solar simulator was used to provide the solar boundary condition on the solar array. IR lamps were used to simulate the solar heat load on the aeroshell for the off-sun attitudes experienced by the spacecraft during its cruise to Mars.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2415
Anthony D. Paris, Pradeep Bhandari, Gajanana C. Birur
Mechanically pumped single-phase fluid loops are well suited for transporting and rejecting large amounts of waste heat from spacecraft electronics and power supplies. While past implementations of such loops on spacecraft have used moderate operating temperatures (less than 60ºC), higher operating temperatures would allow equivalent heat loads to be rejected by smaller and less massive radiators. A high temperature (100 to 150ºC) mechanically pumped fluid loop is currently being investigated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for use on future Mars missions. This paper details the trade study used to select the high temperature working fluid for the system and the initial development testing of loop components.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2416
Daniel P. Thunnissen, Glenn T. Tsuyuki
A method for determining margins in conceptual-level design via probabilistic methods is described. The goal of this research is to develop a rigorous foundation for determining design margins in complex multidisciplinary systems. As an example application, the investigated method is applied to conceptual-level design of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) cruise stage thermal control system. The method begins with identifying a set of tradable system-level parameters. Models that determine each of these tradable parameters are then created. The variables of the design are classified and assigned appropriate probability density functions. To characterize the resulting system, a Monte Carlo simulation is used. Probabilistic methods can then be used to represent uncertainties in the relevant models. Lastly, results of this simulation are combined with the risk tolerance of thermal engineers to guide in the determination of margin levels.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2411
Glenn T. Tsuyuki, Arturo Avila, Henry I. Awaya, Robert J. Krylo, Keith S. Novak, Charles J. Phillips
The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), were launched in June and July of 2003, respectively, and successfully landed on Mars in early and late January of 2004, respectively. The flight system architecture implemented many successful features of the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) system: A cruise stage that transported an entry vehicle that housed the Lander, which in turn, used airbags to cushion the Rover during the landing event. The initial thermal design approach focused on adopting the MPF design wherever possible, and then concentrating on the totally new Rover thermal design. Despite a fundamentally sound approach, there were several salient lessons learned. Some were due to differences from MPF, while others were caused by other means. These lessons sent a clear message: thermal design continues to be a system engineering activity. In each major flight system assembly, there were excellent examples of this recurring theme.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2412
Keith S. Novak, Gary M. Kinsella, Robert J. Krylo, Eric T. Sunada
As part of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched two rovers in June and July of 2003 and successfully landed both of them on Mars in January of 2004. The cruise stage of each spacecraft (S/C) housed most of the hardware needed to complete the cruise from Earth to Mars, including the propulsion system. Propulsion lines brought hydrazine propellant from tanks under the cruise stage to attitude-control thrusters located on the periphery of the cruise stage. Hydrazine will freeze in the propellant lines if it reaches temperatures below 1.7°C. Thermal control of the propulsion lines was a mission critical function of the thermal subsystem; a frozen propellant line could have resulted in loss of attitude control and complete loss of the S/C.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2413
Gani Ganapathi, Gajanana Birur, Glenn Tsuyuki, Robert Krylo
Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission launched two spacecraft to Mars in June and July of 2003 and landed two rovers on Mars in January 2004. A Heat Rejection System (HRS) based on a mechanically pumped single-phase liquid cooling system was used to reject heat from electronics to space during the seven months cruise from Earth to Mars. Even though most of this HRS design was similar to the system used on Mars Pathfinder in 1996, several key modifications were made in the MER HRS design. These included the heat exchanger used in removing the heat from electronics, design of venting system used to vent the liquid prior to Mars entry, inclusion of pressure transducer in the HRS, and the spacecraft radiator design. Extensive thermal/fluids modeling and analysis were performed on the MER HRS design to verify the performance and reliability of the system. The HRS design and performance was verified during the spacecraft system thermal vacuum tests.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2685
Jerry M. Millard, Taylor W. Luan
The Cassini spacecraft will make 45 targeted flybys of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. 25 flybys will have a relatively low closest approach target altitude in Titan's atmosphere. An operational thermal control strategy has been developed for these flybys. The challenge met was to provide flyby operational thermal control that enabled science and remained within design limitations and Project constraints. Thermal engineers adopted a Systems-level approach that insured appropriate risk mitigation and information accuracy. This paper focuses on the technical thermal control evaluation and strategy, the Systems-level approach taken, and lessons learned and recommendations in an operations environment.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2688
Michael T. Pauken, Gaj Birur, Michael Nikitkin, Faisal Al-Khabbaz
A Small Loop Heat Pipe (SLHP) featuring a wick of only 1.27 cm (0.5 inches) in diameter has been designed for use in spacecraft thermal control. It has several features to accommodate a wide range of environmental conditions in both operating and non-operating states. These include flexible transport lines to facilitate hardware integration, a radiator capable of sustaining over 100 freeze-thaw cycles using ammonia as a working fluid and a structural integrity to sustain acceleration loads up to 30 g. The small LHP has a maximum heat transport capacity of 120 Watts with thermal conductance ranging from 17 to 21 W/°C. The design incorporates heaters on the compensation chamber to modulate the heat transport from full-on to full-stop conditions. A set of start up heaters are attached to the evaporator body using a specially designed fin to assist the LHP in starting up when it is connected to a large thermal mass.
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