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Viewing 1 to 18 of 18
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2880
M. A. Ryan, M. L. Homer, H. Zhou, K. Manatt, A. Manfreda, A. Kisor, A. V. Shevade, S. P. S. Yen
An array-based sensing system based on 32 polymer/carbon composite conductometric sensors is under development at JPL. Until the present phase of development, the analyte set has focused on organic compounds (common solvents) and a few selected inorganic compounds, notably ammonia and hydrazine. The present phase of JPL ENose development has added two inorganics to the analyte set: mercury and sulfur dioxide. Through models of sensor-analyte response developed under this program coupled with a literature survey, approaches to including these analytes in the ENose target set have been determined.
1998-07-13
Technical Paper
981685
H. J. Eisen, L. C. Wen, G. Hickey, D. F. Braun
The Sojourner Rover landed on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997 as part of the Mars Pathfinder Mission. The mission lasted almost three months during which the thermal design of the Rover was tested. This paper summarizes the Rover's design and performance as well as post-mission model correlation.
1998-07-13
Technical Paper
981598
Michael C. Storrie-Lombardi, James L. Lambert, Mark S. Borchert, Akio Kimura, James Roseto, Richard J. Bing
We have elicited a reliable Raman spectral signature for glucose in rabbit aqueous humor across mammalian physiological ranges in a rabbit model stressed by recent myocardial infarction. The technique employs near infrared Raman laser excitation at 785 nm, multivariate analysis, non-linear artificial neural networks and an offset spectra subtraction strategy. Aqueous humor glucose levels ranged from 37 to 323 mg/dL. Data were obtained in 80 uL samples to anticipate the volume constraints imposed by the human and rabbit anterior chamber of the eye. Total sample collection time was 10 seconds with total power delivered to sample of 30 Mw. Spectra generated from the aqueous humor were compared qualitatively to artificial aqueous samples and an excitation offset technique was devised to counteract broadband background noise partially obscuring the glucose signature.
1998-07-13
Technical Paper
981564
M. A. Ryan, M. L. Homer, M. G. Buehler, K. S. Manatt, B. Lau, D. Karmon, S. Jackson
A miniaturized electronic nose has been constructed at JPL in collaboration with Caltech. This array of conductometric sensors has been trained to detect and quantify the presence of vapors in the air; the compounds detected have been found as contaminants in shuttle air. This device has potential application as a miniature, distributed device for monitoring and controlling the constituents in air.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2064
Paul M. McElroy, Andrea E. Hoyt Haight, Peter B. Rand, Tanya Shkindel, Ronald E. Allred, Paul B. Willis
The overall goal of this program was the development of a 10 m. diameter, self-deployable antenna based on an open-celled rigid polyurethane foam system. Advantages of such a system relative to current inflatable or self-deploying systems include high volumetric efficiency of packing, high restoring force, low (or no) outgassing, low thermal conductivity, high dynamic damping, mechanical isotropy, infinite shelf life, and easy fabrication with methods amenable to construction of large structures (i.e., spraying). As part of a NASA Phase II SBIR, Adherent Technologies and its research partners, Temeku Technologies, and NASA JPL/Caltech, conducted activities in foam formulation, interdisciplinary analysis, and RF testing to assess the viability of using open cell polyurethane foams for self-deploying antenna applications.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2179
M. A. Ryan, A. V. Shevade, C. J. Taylor, M. L. Homer, A. D. Jewell, A. Kisor, K. S. Manatt, S. P. S. Yen, M. Blanco, W. A. Goddard
An array-based sensing system based on polymer-carbon composite conductometric sensors is under development at JPL for use as an environmental monitor in the International Space Station. Sulfur dioxide has been added to the analyte set for this phase of development. Using molecular modeling techniques, the interaction energy between SO2 and polymer functional groups has been calculated, and polymers selected as potential SO2 sensors. Experiment has validated the model and two selected polymers have been shown to be promising materials for SO2 detection.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3149
A. V. Shevade, M. L. Homer, H. Zhou, A. D. Jewell, A. K. Kisor, K.S. Manatt, J. Torres, J. Soler, S.-P.S. Yen, M. A. Ryan, M. Blanco, W. A. Goddard
The capabilities of the JPL Electronic Nose have been expanded to include characteristics required for a Technology Demonstration schedule on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2008-2009 [1,2]. Concurrently, to accommodate specific needs on ISS, the processes, tools and analyses which influence all aspects of development of the device have also been expanded. The Third Generation ENose developed for this program uses two types of sensor substrates, newly developed inorganic and organic sensor materials, redesigned electronics, onboard near real-time data analysis and power and data interfaces specifically for ISS. This paper will discuss the Third Generation ENose with a focus on detection of mercury in the parts-per-billion range.
2008-06-29
Journal Article
2008-01-2044
M. A. Ryan, A. V. Shevade, A. K. Kisor, K. S. Manatt, M. L. Homer, L. M. Lara, H. Zhou
The Third Generation ENose is an air quality monitor designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station. It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 °C, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The abilities of the device to detect ten analytes, to reject confounders as “unknown” and to deconvolute mixtures of two analytes under varying environmental conditions has been tested extensively in the laboratory. Results of ground testing showed an overall success rate for detection, identification and quantification of analytes of 87% under nominal temperature and humidity conditions and 83% over all conditions.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2037
Jose I. Rodriguez, Howard Tseng, Burt Zhang, Arthur Na-Nakornpanom, Robert S. Leland
The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument is scheduled for launch in 2008 onboard the Indian Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft. The mission is managed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in Bangalore, India and is India's first flight to the Moon. M3 is being developed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the Discovery Program Office managed by Marshall Space Flight Center. M3 is a state-of-the-art instrument designed to fulfill science and exploratory objectives. Its primary science objective is to characterize and map the lunar surface composition to better understand its geologic evolution. M3's primary exploration goal is to assess and map the Moon mineral resources at high spatial resolution to support future targeted missions. M3 is a cryogenic near infrared imaging spectrometer with spectral coverage of 0.4 to 3.0 μm at 10 nm resolution with high signal to noise ratio, spatial and spectral uniformity.
2008-06-29
Journal Article
2008-01-2090
A. V. Shevade, M. A. Ryan, A. K. Kisor, K. S. Manatt, M. L. Homer, L. M. Lara
Polymers are one of the major constituents in electrical components. A study investigating pre-combustion off-gassing and particle release by polymeric materials over a range of temperatures can provide an understanding of thermal degradation prior to failure which may result in a fire hazard. In this work, we report simultaneous measurements of pre-combustion vapor and particle release by heated polymeric materials. The polymer materials considered for the current study are silicone and Kapton. The polymer samples were heated over the range 20 to 400°C. Response to vapor releases were recorded using the JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) and Industrial Scientific's ITX gas monitor configured to detect hydrogen chloride (HCl), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Particle release was monitored using a TSI P-TRAK particle counter.
2008-06-29
Journal Article
2008-01-2119
Jose I. Rodriguez, Howard Tseng, Burt Zhang
The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument is one in a suite of twelve instruments which will fly onboard the Indian Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2008. Chandrayaan-1 is India's first mission to the Moon and is being managed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in Bangalore, India. Chandrayaan-1 overall scientific objective is the photo-selenological and the chemical mapping of the Moon. The primary science objective of the M3 instrument is the characterization and mapping of the lunar surface composition in the context of its geologic evolution. Its primary exploration goal is to assess and map the Moon mineral resources at high spatial resolution to support future targeted missions. It is a “push-broom” near infrared (IR) imaging spectrometer with spectral coverage of 0.4 to 3.0 μm at 10 nm resolution with high signal to noise ratio, spatial and spectral uniformity.
1999-08-02
Technical Paper
1999-01-2447
Frank Deligiannis, Richard Ewell, James Gittens
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Mars Exploration Program Office is currently planning a series of exciting missions to the Red Planet. During each launch opportunity, the missions to Mars will include a Rover mission. During the earlier Rover missions to Mars such as the Mars Pathfinder mission carrying the Sojourner Rover in 1997, the main rover power source was a solar array. The power subsystem of the Sojourner Rover included a solar panel for power during the day, a non-rechargeable lithium battery for power during the night, and a power electronics board for power conditioning and distribution. Starting with the year 2003 the rover missions to Mars will incorporate a rechargeable energy storage device rather than a non-rechargeable power source. Included in the power electronics board, will be a battery controller/charger. The battery controller/charger will be able to monitor and control three parallel 4-cell battery strings.
1999-08-02
Technical Paper
1999-01-2639
B. V. Ratnakumar, M. C. Smart, R. Ewell, S. Surampudi, R. Marsh
In contrast to the primary batteries (lithium thionyl chloride) on the Sojourner Mars Rover and the upcoming 2001 Mars Rover, the Mars Sample Return (MSR) Athena Rover will utilize rechargeable lithium ion batteries, following the footsteps of MSP 2001 Lander. The MSR Athena Rover will contain a rechargeable lithium ion battery of 16 V and a total energy of 150 Wh. The mass and volume of the projected power system will be a maximum of 3 kg and 2 liters, respectively. Each battery consists of twelve cells (6-7 Ah), combined in three parallel strings of four cells (16 V) each, such that the capability of the Rover shall be maintained even in the event of one string failure. In addition to usual requirements of high specific energy and energy density and long cycle life (100 cycles), the battery is required to operate at wide range of temperatures, especially at sub-zero temperatures down to -20°C.
1999-08-02
Technical Paper
1999-01-2638
M. C. Smart, B. V. Ratnakumar, L. Whitcanack, S. Surampudi, J. Byers, R. Marsh
NASA requires lightweight rechargeable batteries for future missions to Mars and the outer planets that are capable of operating over a wide range of temperatures, with high specific energy and energy densities. Due to the attractive performance characteristics, lithium-ion batteries have been identified as the battery chemistry of choice for a number of future applications, including Mars rovers and landers. The Mars 2001 Lander (Mars Surveyor Program MSP 01) will be among one of the first missions which will utilize lithium-ion technology. This application will require two lithium-ion batteries, each being 28 V (eight cells), 25 Ah and 8 kg. In addition to the requirement of being able to supply at least 200 cycles and 90 days of operation upon the surface of Mars, the battery must be capable of operation (both charge and discharge) at temperatures as low as -20°C.
1999-08-02
Technical Paper
1999-01-2704
M. A. Ryan, V. B. Shields, R. H. Cortez, L. Lara, M. L. Homer, R. M. Williams
The lifetime of an AMTEC electrode is predicted from the rate of grain growth in the electrode. The rate of growth depends on several physical characteristics of each material, including the rate of diffusion of the material on itself. Grain growth rates for rhodium-tungsten and titanium nitride electrodes have been determined, and have been used to predict operating lifetimes of AMTEC electrodes. For lifetimes of 10 years or more, RhxW electrodes may be used at any operating temperature supportable by the electrolyte. TiN electrodes may be used in AMTEC cells only at operating temperatures under 1150 K.
2001-07-09
Technical Paper
2001-01-2279
Gregory S. Hickey, Shyh-Shiuh Lih, Wei Shih
This is Part 3 of a development program to evaluate candidate nonablative aeroshell designs. The primary goal of this C/C aeroshell development task was to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of a lightweight C/C non-ablative aeroshell design that integrates advanced C/C materials and structural configurations. The thermal performance was evaluated by Arc Jet testing at NASA Ames of representative structural models. In this phase of the program, new carbon-carbon materials and structural core designs were evaluated, as well as an alternative aerogel material. The test models were composed of a quasi-isotropic Carbon/Carbon(C/C) front face sheet (F/S), eggcrate or honeycomb core, C/C back F/S, Carbon and resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogel insulation. Part One of this work [1] demonstrated the feasibility through arc-jet testing and Part Two [2] included analytical modeling of the test geometry to validate the design.
2000-10-31
Technical Paper
2000-01-3668
M. C. Smart, B. V. Ratnakumar, L. Whitcanack, S. Surampudi, R. Marsh
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
892373
Terry Scharton, Dennis Kern, Gloria Badilla
The advent of lightweight fairings for new spacecraft and the increased thrust of new launch vehicles have intensified the need for better techniques for predicting and for reducing the low frequency noise environment of spacecraft at lift-off. This paper presents a VAPEPS (VibroAcoustic Payload Environment Prediction System) parametrical analysis of the noise reduction of spacecraft fairings and explores a novel technique for increasing the low frequency noise reduction of lightweight fairings by approximately 10 dB.
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