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Viewing 1 to 30 of 41
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0087
Hiroki Iino, Kenji Shigetoyo, Mari Nagae, Norimasa Iida
In HCCI Engine, HCCI combustion characteristics come under the influence of change of compression speed corresponding to engine speed. The purpose of this study is to investigate mechanism of influence of engine speed on HCCI combustion characteristics by using numerical analysis. At first, the Influence of engine speed was showed. And then, In order to clarified the mechanism of influence of engine speed, results of kinetics computations were analyzed to investigate the elementary reaction path for heat release at transient temperatures by using contribution matrix.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0086
Chao Shi, Kenichiro Nagai, Norimasa Iida
Delaying CA50(Crank Angle of 50% Heat Release) of the HCCI engine to expansion stroke can lead to high indicated thermal efficiency as well as the avoidance of knocking. However, this method could induce the problem of cycle variability. In this study, the cycle-to-cycle variation of a HCCI engine fueled with DME was investigated. Experimental parameters of each cycle, such as in-cylinder temperature, pressure and gas flow rate, were recorded by fast response system, and analyzed consequently. Moreover, the interdependency between the combustion and the performance parameters were evaluated.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0085
Daisuke Shirota, Norimasa Iida
Thermal and mixing stratifications have been thought as one of the ways to avoid an excessive pressure rise on HCCI combustion. The purpose of this research is to investigate the potential of thermal and mixing stratifications for reducing PRR (Pressure Rise Rate) on HCCI combustion. The pre-mixture with thermal and mixing stratifications is charged in RCM (Rapid Compression Machine). After that, the pre-mixture is compressed and in that process, in-cylinder gas pressure and chemiluminescence images are obtained and analyzed. Furthermore, experimental results are compared with the computational results calculated by using multi-zone model for analyzing these mechanisms.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1619
Yutaka Takada, Norifumi Takada, Norimasa Iida
In order to clarify the reason why NOx emissions factor becomes higher at vehicle acceleration at intersections etc, two freight vehicles, that have EGR system for the reduction of NOx, were tested by an on-board NOx measurement system. Higher NOx emissions factor was observed in operations in lower-gear operation for each vehicle. Since the engine speed change was higher in the operation of lower gears, NOx emissions characteristics were analyzed in view of engine torque, NOx mass emissions and EGR rate, considering engine speed change. It was found that lower-gear operations made the engine speed change higher and the EGR rate lower. This seems to be one of the factors to engender the intensive NOx pollution at roadsides.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0097
Taketora Naiki, Norimasa Iida, Cedric Lhomme
Theoretically, homogeneous charge compression engines (HCCI) are able to grant a high thermal efficiency, as well as a low NOx and particulate emissions. This ability is mainly due to the combustion process, which, contrary to both Diesel and Gasoline engine, is homogeneous in time and space within the combustion chamber. But despite these advantages, the engine operating condition is limited by the narrow boundaries of misfire at low load and knocking at high load. For that matter, one of the numerous ways of overcoming knocking is to deliberately create fuel inhomogeneities within the combustion chamber, since it has proved to lengthen combustion duration and to drastically reduce maximum pressure rise rate (PRR). Nevertheless, though the global effects of fuel inhomogeneities on PRR have been studied, we lack information that explains this phenomenon.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0008
Ocktaeck Lim, Norimasa Iida, Gyubaek Cho, Jamsran Narankhuu
CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine is using CNG as a main fuel, and injects diesel only a little as an ignition priming. In this study, remodeling an existing diesel engine into dual-fuel engine that can inject diesel with high pressure by CRDI (Common Rail Direct Injection), and injecting CNG at intake port for premixing. The results show that CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine satisfied coordinate torque and power with conventional diesel engine. And CNG alternation rate is over 89% in all operating ranges of CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine. PM emission is lower 94% than diesel engine, but NOx emission is higher than diesel engine. The output of dual fuel mode is 95% by the diesel mode. At this time, amount of CO₂ and PM are decreased while CO, NOx, and THC are increased. In NEDC mode, exhaust gases except NOx are decreased.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0061
Yongil Oh, Ocktaeck Lim, Gangchul Kim, Norimasa Iida
The research shows the experimental results for a free piston linear engine according to operation conditions of the linear engine and the structure of linear generator for generating electric power. The powerpack used in this paper consists of the two-stroke free piston linear engine, linear generators and air compressors. Each parameter of fuel input heat, equivalence ratio, spark timing delay, electrical resistance and air gap length were set up to identify the combustion characteristics and to examine the performance of linear engine. The linear engine was fueled with propane. In the course of all linear engine operations, intake air was inputted under the wide open throttle state. Air and fuel mass flow rate were varied by using mass flow controller and these were premixed by pre-mixing device. Subsequently, pre-mixture was directly supplied into each cylinder.
2012-10-23
Journal Article
2012-32-0076
Dong Won Jung, Norimasa Iida
This study computationally investigates the combined effects of EGR and boost pressure on HCCI autoignition using iso-octane, PRF50 and n-heptane. The computations were conducted using the single-zone model of CHEMKIN included in CHEMKIN-PRO with detailed chemical-kinetics mechanisms for iso-octane, PRF and n-heptane from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). To better reproduce the state of EGR addition in real engine, the EGR composition is determined after several combustion cycles under the constant amount of fuel. All data points were acquired with a CA50 of 5°CA aTDC by adjusting initial temperature to remove the effect of combustion phasing, which can influence on HCCI autoignition from any effect of the EGR and boost pressure themselves. The results show that EGR increases the burn duration and reduces the maximum pressure-rise rate with lower peak of maximum heat-release rates for all fuels even for a boost pressure, which accelerates a HCCI autoignition propensity.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0077
Narankhuu Jamsran, Ocktaeck Lim, Norimasa Iida
This work has been investigated the potential of in-cylinder EGR stratification for reducing the pressure rise rate of DME HCCI engines, and the coupling of both thermal stratification and fuel stratification. The numerical analyses were done by using five-zone version of CHEMKIN-II kinetics rate code, and kinetic mechanics for DME. The effects of inert components were used for the presence of EGR in calculation. Three cases of EGR stratification were tested on both thermal stratification and fuel stratification at the fixed initial temperature, pressure and fueling rate at BDC. In order to explore the appropriate stratification of EGR, EGR width was employed from zero to thirty percent. Firstly, EGR homogeneity case which means EGR width zero was examined. Secondly, EGR is located densely in hotter zone for combining with thermal stratification or in richer zone for a combination with fuel stratification. Lastly, the case was judged inversely with the second case.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2038
Hosei Nagano, Yuji Nagasaka, Akira Ohnishi, Kazuki Watanabe, Yu Oikawa, Koji Yamaguchi
A lightweight 100 W-class deployable radiator with environment-adaptive functions has been investigated. This radiator - Reversible Thermal Panel (RTP) - is composed of flexible high thermal conductive materials and a passive reversible actuator, and it changes its function from a radiator to a solar absorber by deploying/stowing the reversible fin upon changes in the heat dissipation and thermal environment. The RTP is considered one of the candidates of thermal control methodology for the Japanese Venus mission “Planet-C”, which will be launched in 2010 to save its survival heater power. In this paper, design and fabrication of the RTP proto-model (PM) and the test results of deployment/stowing characteristics in an atmospheric condition are reported. Thermal performance estimation with thermal analytical model of the RTP PM is also presented.
2005-10-12
Technical Paper
2005-32-0062
Masato Ikemoto, Yuichiro Kojima, Norimasa Iida
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine attracts much attention because of its high thermal efficiency and low NOx, PM emissions. On the other hand, Di-Methyl Ether (DME) is expected as one of alternative fuel for the internal combustion engines. In this study, four-stroke HCCI engine running on DME is developed to make it realistic application in production engines. This paper shows construction of the control method using both internal EGR at high temperature and external EGR at low temperature and estimates the performance of developed HCCI engine. Besides combustion characteristics of DME and the effects of EGR are researched with experiment and numerical calculation with elementary reactions. As a result, developed HCCI engine got comparable high thermal efficiency to conventional diesel engine but much lower Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) than that. Meanwhile it can be said that DME is suitable fuel for the HCCI engines in combustion characteristics.
2006-11-13
Technical Paper
2006-32-0045
Tetsuo Ohmura, Masato Ikemoto, Norimasa Iida
The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is possible to achieve high thermal efficiency and low emissions. One of the main challenges with HCCI engines is structuring the systems to control combustion phasing, crank angle of 50% heat release (CA50), for keeping high thermal efficiency and avoiding an excessive rate of pressure rise which causes knocking, when operating conditions vary. Though some HCCI combustion control systems, for example Variable Valve Timing System and Variable Compression Ratio System, have been suggested, these control systems are complex and heavy. In this study, for the development of a lightweight and small-sized generator HCCI engine fuelled with Dimethyl Ether (DME) which is low-emission and easy to autoignite, a simple HCCI combustion control system is suggested, and the control system is evaluated experimentally.
2006-11-13
Technical Paper
2006-32-0046
Jumpei Ozaki, Norimasa Iida
The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effects of in-cylinder gas temperature stratification on reducing the pressure-rise rate in HCCI combustion. HCCI combustion was investigated using an optically accessible engine and direct visualization of the combustion chemiluminescence. The engine was fueled with Di-Methyl Ether. Computational work was conducted on the gas compression and expansion strokes in HCCI engine with simple 0-dimensinal multi-zones model. When fuel inhomogeneous charging in experiment, maximum heat release rate decreased. Combustion duration got longer. Maximum pressure-rise rate decreased. Chemiluminescence, of which transition was identified from the side of intake valve to the side of exhaust valve, was observed. It is need for total moderate heat release to get local moderate combustion with not overall but continuous combustion in chamber.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3319
Ock Taeck Lim, Hiroaki Nakano, Norimasa Ilda
The HCCI combustion mode poses its own set of narrow engine operating by knocking. In order to solve this, inhomogeneity method of mixture and temperature is suggested. The purpose of this research is to get fundamental knowledge about the effect of thermal stratification on HCCI combustion of n-Heptane/iso-Octane-Air mixture. The temperature stratification is made by buoyancy effect in combustion chamber of RCM. The analysis items are pressure, temperature of in-cylinder gas and combustion duration. In addition, the structure of flames using the two dimensional chemiluminescence's images by a framing camera are analyzed. Under stratification, the LTR starting time and the HTR starting time are advanced than that of homogeneous. Further, the LTR period of homogeneous conditions became shorter than that of the stratified conditions. . With the case of homogeneous condition, the luminosity duration becomes shorter than the case of stratified condition.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1902
Kengo Kumano, Norimasa Iida
In the HCCI Engine, inhomogeneity in fuel distribution and temperature in the pre-mixture exists microscopically, and has the possibility of affecting the ignition and combustion process. In this study, the effect of charge inhomogeneity in fuel distribution on the HCCI combustion process was investigated. Two-dimensional images of the chemiluminescence were captured by using a framing camera with an optically accessible engine in order to understand the spatial distribution of the combustion. DME was used as a test fuel. By changing a device for mixing air and fuel in the intake manifold, inhomogeneity in fuel distribution in the pre-mixture was varied. The result shows that luminescence is observed in a very short time in a large part of the combustion chamber under the homogeneous condition, while luminescence appears locally with considerable time differences under the inhomogeneous condition.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0149
Susumu Sato, Daesu Jun, Soonpyo Kweon, Daisuke Yamashita, Norimasa Iida
In this study, attention was paid to the method of mixing fuel to solve one of problems of the HCCI engine, which is the avoidance of knocking. The objectives of the work reported in this paper were to research the characteristics of HCCI combustion of the Methane/DME/air pre-mixture in the experiment and to check the oxidation reaction in two cases: when DME was used as an ignition accelerator for the Methane/air pre-picture, and when Hydrogen was used as ignition accelerator. Furthermore, from these results reference was made about basic specifications required fuel for an HCCI engine.
2004-09-27
Technical Paper
2004-32-0095
Norimasa Iida, Yudai Yamasaki, Susumu Sato, Kengo Kumano, Yuichiro Kojima
In the HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine, a mixture of fuel and air is supplied to the cylinder and auto-ignition occurs resulting from compression. This method can expand the lean flammability limit, realizing smokeless combustion and also having the potential for realizing low NOx and high efficiency. The optimal ignition timing is necessary in order to keep high thermal efficiency. The Ignition in the HCCI engine largely depends on the chemical reaction between the fuel and the oxidizer. Physical methods in conventional engines cannot control it, so a chemical method is demanded. Combustion duration is maintained properly to avoid knocking. In addition, the amount of HC and CO emissions must be reduced. The objective of this study is to clarify the following through calculations with detailed chemical reactions and through experiment with the 2-stroke HCCI engine: the chemical reaction mechanism, and HC and CO emission mechanisms.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2471
Hosei Nagano, Yuji Nagasaka, Akira Ohnishi
This paper describes a new passive thermal control device-a Reversible Thermal Panel (RTP)-which changes its function reversibly from a radiator to a solar absorber by deploying/stowing the radiator/absorber reversible fin. The RTP consists of Highly Oriented Graphite Sheets (HOGSs), which have characteristics of high thermal conductivity, flexibility and light weight, as thermal transport units, which can transport the heat from equipment to reversible fin, and of a Shape - Memory Alloy (SMA) as a passively rotary actuator to deploy/stow the reversible fin. The RTP prototype model was designed and fabricated using HOGSs, a honeycomb base palate, and a prototype reversible rotary actuator. The heat rejection performance of the RTP as a radiator and the heat absorption performance as an absorber were evaluated by thermal vacuum tests and thermal analyses. The autonomous thermal controllability achieved using the prototype rotary actuator was also evaluated.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3241
Hosei Nagano, Akira Ohnishi, Ken Higuchi, Kan Matsumoto, Yu Oikawa, Kazuki Watanabe, Yuji Nagasaka
This paper experimentally and analytically evaluates the heat rejection/retention performance of a reversible thermal panel (RTP) which can autonomously change thermal performance depending on its own thermal conditions. The RTP is considered as a candidate methodology for thermal control of Venus mission, PLANET-C, in order to save survival heater power. An RTP prototype was tested and evaluated. An analytical thermal model of the RTP was also developed, and basic performances of the RTP were evaluated. Thermal performance of the RTP when applied to the longwave camera (LIR) of the PLANET-C was evaluated with an analytical thermal model as functions of fin deployment directions and rear surface properties of the RTP's fin. The analytical results showed that the RTP can save heater power in comparison to a conventional radiator.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-1870
Hiroaki NAKANO, Ock Taeck LIM, Norimasa IIDA
A significant drawback to HCCI engines is the knocking caused by rapid increases in pressure. Such knocking limits the capacity for high-load operation. To solve this problem, thermal stratification in the combustion chamber has been suggested as possible solution. Thermal stratification has the potential to reduce the maximum value of the rate of pressure increase combustion by affecting the local combustion start time and extending the duration of combustion. The purpose of this study was to experimentally obtain fundamental knowledge about the effect of thermal stratification on the HCCI combustion process. Experiments were conducted in a rapid compression machine (RCM) equipped with a quartz window to provide optical access to the combustion chamber. The machine was fueled with DME, n-Butane, n-Heptane and iso-Octane, all of which are currently being investigated as alternative fuels and have different low temperature characteristics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0701
Katsuya Matsuura, Keito Nakano, Keisuke Shimizu, Norimasa Iida, Yoshihisa Sato
Abstract Knock is a factor hindering enhancement of the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines, and is an unsteady phenomenon that does not necessarily occur each cycle. In addition, the heat release history of the flame also fluctuates from cycle to cycle, and the auto-ignition process of the unburned mixture (end-gas), compressed by the global increase in pressure due to release of chemical energy, is affected by this fluctuation. Regarding auto-ignition of the end-gas, which can be the origin of knock, this study focused on the fluctuation of the flame heat release pattern, and used a zero-dimensional (0D) detailed chemical reaction calculation in an attempt to analyze and examine the consequence on the end-gas compression and auto-ignition process of changes in the i) start of combustion, ii) combustion duration and iii) center of heat release of the flame.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690136
Kazunari Komotori, Eiichi Watanabe
In order to increase the air charge of crankcase-scavenged two-stroke cycle engines, the relations between delivery ratio and engine speed were investigated on a rotary disc-valve inlet port engine and on a conventional piston-valve inlet port engine by varying through wide limits the angle area and timing of the inlet port. For the inlet port configuration tested on the first engine, it was found that there was an optimum cut angle of the rotary disc valve, which produced a certain angle area. To improve the delivery ratio characteristics at a given speed, it was not necessary to change this angle area; it was effective to change only the timing of the inlet port by shifting the disc valve around the crankshaft. For the piston-valve inlet port engine, the results showed that a wide, low port, which was also found to have a higher flow coefficient, produced a higher delivery ratio over the entire engine speed range than a narrow, high port.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1968
Ock Taeck Lim, Naofumi Sendoh, Norimasa Iida
The purpose of this research is to get fundamental knowledge and to experimentally understand about combustion characteristics of the fuel mixture. This paper shows the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) characteristics of a mixture of n-Heptane and iso-Octane in a rapid compression machine. The experimental matrixes cover the n-Heptane mixing ratios, rn-Heptane, ranging from 0 to 100vol% and the equivalence ratios ranging from 0.1 to 0.6. The experimental study on the effect of mixing fuels focuses on the low temperature oxidation reaction temperatures, TL, the high temperature oxidation reaction temperatures, TH, the low temperature oxidation reaction starting times, tL, the high temperature oxidation reaction starting times, tH, and the degeneration period. The results show that as rn-Heptane decreases, tL and tH become longer and TL and TH increase by 30K. As the equivalence ratio increases, tL becomes longer but tH is not a function of equivalence ratio.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1978
Yuichiro Kojima, Norimasa Iida
The exhaust gas composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and combustion completion was investigated in a 2-stroke Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. The experiment was performed using n-Butane as a typical pure fuel to easily identify the origin of exhaust gas components. The effect of maximum gas temperature on combustion completion was investigated by both the experiment and the calculation. From the measurements of unburned n-Butane emission, the thickness of the quenching layer was estimated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0677
Dongwon Jung, Kosaku Sasaki, Kenji Sugata, Masayoshi Matsuda, Takeshi Yokomori, Norimasa Iida
Abstract Improving the thermal efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engine is strongly required due to its widespread use but considerably less efficiency than that of compression ignition (CI) engine. Although lean SI engine operation can offer substantial improvements of the thermal efficiency relative to that of traditional stoichiometric SI operation, the cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion increases with the level of air dilution, and becomes unacceptable. To improve the stability of lean operation, this study examines the effects of spark discharge pattern and tumble level on cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion at lean limits. The spark discharge pattern was altered by a custom inductive ignition system using ten spark coils and the tumble level was increased by a custom adapter installed in the intake port (tumble adapter).
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1805
Dongwon Jung, Norimasa Iida
The characteristics of cycle-to-cycle variations of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) with combustion-phasing retard have been investigated experimentally and computationally in an homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine using dimethyl ether (DME). The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) passage for external EGR and a two-stage exhaust cam for rebreathed EGR. To understand the chemical effects of rebreathed EGR, which is assumed to contribute to the autoignition enhancement, the computations were performed with a single-zone model of CHEMKIN using a chemical-kinetic mechanism developed by combining DME mechanism and NOx submechanism.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1788
Hiroshi Mizokami, Mina Nishi, Norimasa Iida
HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine has a problem which causes knocking when the maximum PRR (Pressure Rise Rate) reaches a certain level because it takes the form of combustion of simultaneous multi-point ignition by compression of the air-fuel pre-mixture. This study focused on stratified charge of fuel in combustion chamber. This method disperses the timing of local ignition. The distribution of fuel concentration is measured by using LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence). As a result, the maximum PRR is reduced by stratified charge of fuel. In addition, it is confirmed that the dispersion of combustion timing depends on the dispersion of fuel concentration.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1883
Sejun Lee, Norimasa Iida, Takahiro Sako
This study tried to find a potential of dedicated EGR (d-EGR) system added to the four-cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine to decrease heat loss (Qheatloss) and improve thermal efficiency (ηth). Test fuels were chosen by methane and propane. PREMIX code in CHEMKIN-PRO was employed to calculate laminar burning velocity (SL) and flame temperature (Tf). Wiebe function and Wocshni's heat transfer coefficient were considered to calculate ηth. The results show that the d-EGR system increased ηth and it was higher than that of stoichiometric combustion of conventional SI engines due to the low Tf and fast SL.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1866
Keito Negoro, Yuichi Seki, Mina Nishi, Norimasa Iida, Katsuya Matsuura, Yoshihisa Sato
Nowadays, highly super charging is required corresponded to downsizing concept for improving thermal efficiency in direct-injected spark ignition (DISI) engine. However, highly super charging increases the possibility of super-knock caused by pre-ignition. Recently, in many studies, the reason of pre-ignition has been investigated but the reason why pre-ignition leads such strong knocking called super-knock has not been investigated. In DISI engine, it is estimated that there is more inhomogeneity of equivalence ratio and temperature of air-fuel mixture than it in port injection SI engine. In this study, factors which decide self-ignition timing was reviewed and the influence of inhomogeneity of air-fuel mixture to super-knock was investigated based on numerical calculation.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1848
Shoma Tsuboi, Akira Kojima, Mina Nishi, Norimasa Iida, Fumiya Shimizu, Yudai Yamasaki, Ryo Hasegawa
The dynamics model and model-based controller (LQG servo controller) have been constructed to improve performance of diesel engine in transient condition. The input parameters of the model are fuel quantity of main injection, timing of main injection, fuel quantity of pilot injection, timing of pilot injection, external EGR ratio and boost pressure. The parameters that are succeeded between cycles to express transient condition are residual gas temperature and of residual oxygen. In the model, one cycle is discretized into 10 representative points. The precision of the accuracy of the model and the responsiveness of the controller were confirmed.
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