Viewing 1 to 30 of 33
Technical Paper
Andrew Baker, Gregory W. Davis
Affordable clean snowmobile technology has been developed. The goals of this design included reducing exhaust emissions to levels which are below the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2012 standard. Additionally, noise levels were to be reduced to below the noise mandates of 78 dB(A). Further, this snowmobile can operate using any blend of gasoline and ethanol from E0 to E85. Finally, achieving these goals would be a hollow victory if the cost and performance of the snowmobile were severely compromised. Snowmobiling is, after all, a recreational sport; thus the snowmobile must remain fun to drive and cost effective to produce. The details of this design effort including performance data are discussed in this paper. Specifically, the effort to modify a commercially available snowmobile using a two cylinder, four-stroke engine is described. This snowmobile was modified to run on a range of ethanol blended fuels using a closed-loop engine control system.
Technical Paper
Janet Brelin-Fornari, Karl Majeske, Terri Lynch-Caris
Application of cervical spine range of motion data and related anthropometric measures of the head and neck include physical therapy, product design, and computational modeling. This study utilized the Cervical Range of Motion device (CROM) to define the normal range of motion of the cervical spine for subjects five (5) through ten (10) years of age. And, the data was collected and analyzed with respect to anatomical measures such as head circumference, face height, neck length, and neck circumference. This study correlates these static anthropometric measures to the kinematic measurement of head flexion, extension, lateral extension, and rotation.
Technical Paper
Jared Ruckman, Edward Hodgson, Gregory Quinn
Mechanical counter-pressure (MCP) spacesuit designs have been a promising, but elusive alternative to historical and current gas pressurized spacesuit technology since the Apollo program. One of the important potential advantages of the approach is enhanced mobility as a result of reduced bulk and joint torques, but the literature provides essentially no quantitative joint torque data or quantitative analytical support. Decisions on the value of investment in MCP technology and on the direction of technology development are hampered by this lack of information since the perceived mobility advantages are an important factor. An experimental study of a simple mechanical counter-pressure suit (elbow) hinge joint has been performed to provide some test data and analytical background on this issue to support future evaluation of the technology potential and future development efforts.
Technical Paper
Juan R. Pimentel
The application of DO-178B for the verification and validation of the safety-critical aspects of a steer-by-wire sub-system of a vehicle by using a spiral development model is discussed. The project was performed within a capstone design course at Kettering University. Issues including lessons learned regarding requirements, specifications, testing, verification, and validation activities as required by DO-178B are summarized.
Technical Paper
Marcus Hartwig, Justin Via, Kiran Govindswamy, Etim Ubong
The combustion process in an IC engine is of significant importance for its noise and vibration characteristics in the vehicle. Describing the combustion process with thermodynamic metrics typically demands extensive instrumentation of the engine to obtain the cylinder pressure from the combustion chamber. This time consuming task often requires, that the engine be removed from the vehicle, instrumented with pressure transducers, and then either reinstalled in the vehicle and tested or installed in a test cell and evaluated. This paper describes a new relatively simple approach towards examining important combustion parameters. The technique is based on statistical analysis of the crankshaft's speed fluctuation. This approach requires relatively simple instrumentation of the engine and is therefore more applicable for vehicle level investigations.
Technical Paper
Chad Swartz, Jason Sanger, Brian Schickel, Sumit Kaul, John Stimpson, Adam Grobelny, Gregory W. Davis
Kettering University's entry for the 2006 Clean Snowmobile challenge utilizes a Polaris FST Switchback. This snowmobile having a two cylinder, four-stroke engine has been modified to run on ethanol (E-85). The student team has designed and built a new exhaust system which features customized catalytic converters to minimize engine out emissions. A number of improvements have been made to the track to reduce friction and diminish noise.
Technical Paper
David Rising, Jason Kane, Nick Vernon, Joseph Adkins, Craig Hoff, Janet Brelin-Fornari
The objective of this study was to determine risk of injury to the driver during a frontal impact in a Formula SAE vehicle. Formula SAE is a collegiate student design competition where every year universities worldwide build and compete with open-wheel formula-style race cars. Formula SAE 2006 rules stipulate the use of an impact attenuator to absorb energy in the event of a frontal impact. These rules mandated an average deceleration not to exceed 20-g from a speed of 7.0 m/s (23 ft/s), but do not specify a specific time or pulse shape of the deceleration. The pulse shapes tested in this study included an early high-g, constant-g, and late high-g pulse. The tests were performed using the deceleration sled at the Kettering University Crash Safety Center. Using industry standard practices, this study examined the driver's risk of injury with regard to neck and femur loads, head and chest accelerations, as well as kinematic analysis using high speed video.
Technical Paper
T. M. Cameron, T. McCombs, S. Tersigni, T.-C. Jao
Sliding contact between friction surfaces occurs in numerous torque transfer elements: torque converter clutches, shifting clutches, launch or starting clutches, limited slip differential clutches, and in the meshing of gear teeth under load. The total temperature in a friction interface is the sum of the equilibrium temperature with no sliding and a transient temperature rise, the flash temperature, caused by the work done while sliding. In a wet shifting clutch the equilibrium temperature is typically the bulk oil temperature and the flash temperature is the temperature rise during clutch engagement. The flash temperature is an important factor in the performance and durability of a clutch since it affects such things as the reactivity of the sliding surfaces and lubricant constituents (e.g., oxidation) and thermal stress in the components. Knowing how high the flash temperature becomes is valuable for the formulation of ATF, gear oil, engine oil and other lubricants.
Technical Paper
Pinhas Barak, Nataraj Panakanti, Tarun Desai
The kinematics and kinetics of a seven degree of freedom vehicle ride model with independent front and rear suspension are developed. Lagrange's equation is used to obtain the mathematical model of the vehicle. The equations of motion are transformed to state space equations in Linear Time Invariant (LTI) form. The effect of Chassis Design Factors (CDF) such as stabilizer bars, stiffness', Dynamic Index in Pitch (DIP) and mass ratio on the vehicle ride quality are investigated. The ride quality of the 3 dimensional vehicle that includes bounce, pitch, roll and unsprung masses motion is demonstrated in time domain response. The vehicle is considered as a Multi-Input-Multi-Output System (MIMO) subjected to deterministic ground inputs. Outputs of interest for the ride quality investigation are vertical and angular displacement and vertical accelerations. Numerical computer simulation analysis is performed using MATLAB® software.
Technical Paper
James Link, Ken Helberg, Karim Nasr
There are many opportunities in a current automotive HVAC case for improved performance, and cost savings. Based on these opportunities, a new HVAC case design has been developed. This new design is smaller and lighter than current cases while meeting many of the performance requirements. The case also features a unique plenum design for air distribution to the three modes, panel, floor, and defrost. The results of simulation and laboratory testing confirmed the concept of the new HVAC design.
Technical Paper
Suramya Naik, Bassem Ramadan
With many advantages of GDI technology, one major disadvantage is high HC emissions. The primary goal of this study is to determine the optimum values of engine parameters that would result in maximum power output from a GDI engine, with complete combustion, minimum hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, and minimum specific fuel consumption. A two-dimensional engine geometry with a piston-bowl was selected for faster engine CFD simulations. The first part involves a study of the affect of engine parameters on performance and HC emissions. The parameters considered were, equivalence ratio (mass of injected fuel), injection timing, ignition timing, engine RPM, spray cone angle, and velocity of fuel injection. The second part of the study involves determining the optimum values of fuel mass injected, injection timing, and ignition timing in order to maximize power output while limiting the amount of fuel left unburned after the end of the expansion process.
Technical Paper
Bassem H. Ramadan, Charles L. Gray, Fakhri J. Hamady, Karl H. Hellman, Harold J. Schock
Numerical simulations of lean Methanol combustion in a four-stroke internal combustion engine were conducted on a high-compression ratio engine. The engine had a removable integral injector ignition source insert that allowed changing the head dome volume, and the location of the spark plug relative to the fuel injector. It had two intake valves and two exhaust ports. The intake ports were designed so the airflow into the engine exhibited no tumble or swirl motions in the cylinder. Three different engine configurations were considered: One configuration had a flat head and piston, and the other two had a hemispherical combustion chamber in the cylinder head and a hemispherical bowl in the piston, with different volumes. The relative equivalence ratio (Lambda), injection timing and ignition timing were varied to determine the operating range for each configuration. Lambda (λ) values from 1.5 to 2.75 were considered.
Technical Paper
Bassem H. Ramadan, Charles L. Gray, Fakhri J. Hamady, Karl H. Hellman, Harold J. Schock
Three-dimensional transient simulations using KIVA-3V were conducted on a 4-stroke high-compression ratio, methanol-fueled, direct-injection (DI) engine. The engine had two intake ports that were designed to impart a swirling motion to the intake air. In some cases, the intake system was modified, by decreasing the ports diameter in order to increase the swirl ratio. To investigate the effect of adding shrouds to the intake valves on swirl, two sets of intake valves were considered; the first set consisted of conventional valves, and the second set of valves had back shrouds to restrict airflow from the backside of the valves. In addition, the effect of using one or two intake ports on swirl generation was determined by blocking one of the ports.
Technical Paper
Theresa Atkinson, John Cooper, Biren Patel, Patrick Atkinson
Rollover crashes are responsible for a significant proportion of traffic fatalities each year, while they represent a relatively small proportion of all motor vehicle collisions. The purpose of this study was to focus on rollover events from an occupant's perspective to understand what type of industry test method, ATD, computer based model, and injury assessment measures are required to provide occupant protection during rollovers. Specific injuries most commonly experienced in rollovers along with the associated injury sources were obtained by review of 1998-2000 NASS-CDS records. These data suggest that models capable of predicting the likelihood of brain injuries, specifically subarachnoid and subdural hemorrhage, are desirable. Ideally, the model should also be capable of predicting the likelihood of rib fractures, lung contusions and shoulder (clavicular and scapular) fractures, and facet, pedicle, and vertebral body fractures in the cervical spine.
Journal Article
T. M. Cameron, T. C. Jao, C. Hewette, T. McCombs, D. DeGonia
A model and simulation results are presented for the torsional dynamics of a rear wheel driveline while the vehicle is coasting in a turn. The model includes the effects of road load and powertrain drag, limited slip differential clutch friction, the inertias of the vehicle, wheels, axles, differential carrier, and driveshaft, the final drive ratio, torsional stiffnesses of the axles and driveshaft, vehicle track width, and radius of the turn. The dynamics of coasting in a turn differ from powered driving due to changes in the inertia loading the driveshaft, the damping effect of the disengaged transmission, and nonlinearities in the clutch friction. Specific focus is given to vibration in the axles and driveshaft due to variations in the torque-speed slope of the clutches, which is determined by the slope of the friction coefficient ‘μ’ versus sliding speed ‘v’ in the limited slip clutches.
Technical Paper
Pinhas Barak, Xiaowei Ng, Kranthi Gadde
Modeling and simulation of dynamic systems is not always a simple task. In this paper, the mathematical model of a 4 Degree Of Freedom (DOF) ride model is presented using a bond-graph technique with state energy variables. We believe that for the physical model as described in this research, the use of a bond-graph approach is the only feasible solution. Any attempt to use classical methods such as Lagrange equations or Newton's second law, will create tremendous difficulties in the transformation of a set of second order linear differential equations to a set of first order differential equations without violating the existence and the uniqueness of the solution of the differential equations, the only approach is the elimination of the damping of the tires, which makes the model unrealistic. The bond-graph model is transformed to a mathematical model. Matlab is used for writing a computer script that solves the engineering problem.
Technical Paper
Bassem H. Ramadan, Philip C. Lundberg, Russell P. Richmond
This paper includes a numerical and experimental study of fluid flow in automotive catalytic converters. The numerical work involves using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to perform three-dimensional calculations of turbulent flow in an inlet pipe, inlet cone, catalyst substrate (porous medium), outlet cone, and outlet pipe. The experimental work includes using hot-wire anemometry to measure the velocity profile at the outlet of the catalyst substrate, and pressure drop measurements across the system. Very often, the designer may have to resort to offset inlet and outlet cones, or angled inlet pipes due to space limitations. Hence, it is very difficult to achieve a good flow distribution at the inlet cross section of the catalyst substrate. Therefore, it is important to study the effect of the geometry of the catalytic converter on flow uniformity in the substrate.
Technical Paper
T. M. Cameron, R. Iyer, T. McCombs, H. Maelger, T. Rollin, S. Tersigni, T.-C. Jao
Multiple plate disc clutches are used extensively for shifting gears in automatic transmissions. In the active clutches that engage or disengage during a shift the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) and friction material experience large changes in pressure, P, sliding speed, v, and temperature, T. The coefficient of friction, μ, of the ATF and friction material is a function of these variables so μ = μ(P,v,T) also changes during clutch engagement. These changes in friction coefficient can lead to noise or vibration if the ATF properties and clutch friction material are improperly matched. A theoretical understanding of what causes noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) in shifting clutches is valuable for the development of an ATF suitable for a particular friction material. Here we present a theoretical model that identifies the slope, ∂μ/∂T, of the coefficient of friction with respect to temperature as a major contributor to the damping in a clutch during engagement.
Technical Paper
T. M. Cameron, C. Hewette, T. McCombs, D. DeGonia, T. C. Jao
The torsional natural frequencies of axles equipped with limited slip differential clutches depend on whether or not the tires and clutches are slipping since the effective inertia at each end of the axle is different for slipping and non-slipping conditions. Limited slip axle vibrations are typically analyzed for one tire slipping and the other not since that is the case for which the limited slip clutches are used. Vibrations often arise, however, during normal turning when both drive tires have good traction.
Technical Paper
Chaitanya Wadkar, Bassem H. Ramadan
Abstract A numerical and experimental study of the use of air motion control, piston bowl shape, and injector configuration on combustion and emissions in diesel engines has been conducted. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of flow control within the piston bowl during compression to enhance fuel air mixing to achieve a uniform air-fuel mixture to reduce soot and NO emissions. In addition to flow control different piston bowl geometries and injector spray angles have been considered and simulated using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and experiments. The results include cylinder pressure and emissions measurements and contour plots of fuel mass fraction, soot, and NO. The results show that soot and NO emissions can be reduced by proper flow control and piston bowl design.
Technical Paper
Kiran Patil, Javad Baqersad, Jennifer Bastiaan
Abstract Tires are one of the major sources of noise and vibration in vehicles. The vibration characteristic of a tire depends on its resonant frequencies and mode shapes. Hence, it is desirable to study how different parameters affect the characteristics of tires. In the current paper, experimental modal tests are performed on a tire in free-free and fixed conditions. To obtain the mode shapes and the natural frequencies, the tire is excited using a mechanical shaker and the response of the tire to the excitation is measured using three roving tri-axial accelerometers. The mode shapes and resonant frequencies of the tire are extracted using LMS PolyMax modal analysis. The obtained mode shapes in the two configurations are compared using Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) to show how mode shapes of tires change when the tire is moved from a free-free configuration to a fixed configuration. It is shown that some modes of the tire are more sensitive to boundary conditions.
Technical Paper
Subrata Roy, Phillip Cho, Fred Périé
A comprehensive finite element methodology is developed to predict the compressible flow performance of a non-symmetric 7-blade axial flow fan, and to quantify the source strength and sound pressure levels at any location in the system. The acoustic and flow performances of the fan are predicted simultaneously using a computational aero-acoustic technique combining transient flow analysis and noise propagation. The calculated sound power levels compare favorably with the measured sound power data per AMCA 300-96 code.
Technical Paper
Gregory W. Davis, Joseph Bouboulis, Edward Heil
This paper describes the experiments conducted to determine the effect of high energy multiple spark discharge (MSD) ignition systems and spark plug electrode design, on the cold start performance of a vehicle which was converted for dedicated operation on E85 (a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel. Tests were conducted using three different ignition configurations; original equipment manufacturer (OEM) ignition and spark plugs, high energy multiple spark discharge (MSD) ignition with OEM, J-type spark plugs, and high energy MSD ignition with surface gap electrode spark plugs. The high energy MSD ignition with OEM spark plugs showed a significant improvement in cold start performance over the OEM ignition. The addition of the surface gap spark plugs caused a decrease in cold start performance. Despite this, the surface gap spark plugs produced higher ending coolant temperature than the other configurations.
Technical Paper
Raghu Echempati, J. Roby, J. B. Katona, E. Cramlet, A. Hudson, J. Howell, B. Thisse, P. Smith
The objective of this paper is to determine the whirling bending critical speeds of pultruded composite shafts in simply supported boundary conditions. Theoretical studies have been carried using Patran to determine the natural frequencies and the mode shapes for the Jeffcot and Kikuchi rigid rotor models. A tabletop experimental apparatus has been fabricated and the bending critical speeds have been measured for various span lengths between the supports. The results of this study may be useful in identifying whether pultruded composite shafts can be employed as drive shafts in automotive or other industries.
Technical Paper
Bassem H. Ramadan, Fakhri J. Hamady, Charles L. Gray, Karl H. Hellman, Harold J. Schock
A numerical study on the combustion of Methanol in a directly injected (DI) engine was conducted. The study considers the effect of the bowl-in-piston (BIP) geometry, swirl ratio (SR), and relative equivalence ratio (λ), on flame propagation and burn rate of Methanol in a 4-stroke engine. Ignition-assist in this engine was accomplished by a spark plug system. Numerical simulations of two different BIP geometries were considered. Combustion characteristics of Methanol under swirl and no-swirl conditions were investigated. In addition, the amount of injected fuel was varied in order to determine the effect of stoichiometry on combustion. Only the compression and expansion strokes were simulated. The results show that fuel-air mixing, combustion, and flame propagation was significantly enhanced when swirl was turned on. This resulted in a higher peak pressure in the cylinder, and more heat loss through the cylinder walls.
Technical Paper
Erin Kampman, Gregory Davis, Jeremy Taylor, Kyle Schwulst
Kettering University's entry in the 2002 Clean Snowmobile Challenge involves the installation of a fuel injected four-stroke engine into a conventional snowmobile chassis. Exhaust emissions are minimized through the use of a catalytic converter and an electronically controlled closed-loop fuel injection system, which also maximizes fuel economy. Noise emissions are minimized by the use of a specifically designed engine silencing system and several chassis treatments. Emissions tests run during the SAE collegiate design event revealed that a snowmobile designed by Kettering University produces lower unburned hydrocarbon (1.5 to 7 times less), carbon monoxide (1.5 to 7 times less), and oxides of nitrogen (and 5 to 23 times less) levels than the average automobile driven in Yellowstone National Park. The Kettering University entry also boasted acceleration performance better than the late-model 500 cc two-stroke snowmobile used as a control snowmobile in the Clean Snowmobile testing.
Technical Paper
Srihari Vijayakumar, Ram Chandran
This paper deals with a DC motor driven Electric Power Assisted Steering system integrating a manual rack and pinion steering system. The DC motor is controlled by an electronic controller and connected to the steering system through a set of gears. The DC motor and the steering were modeled using principles of bond graphs and combined with Controller to form the system model. The state equations describing the system were developed using the bond graphs. The performance of the system was simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The electronic controller develops an output voltage to control the DC motor, considering vehicle speed and Steering Column torque inputs. This paper used a regression-weighted function to describe the operation of the controller. Transient and steady state performance characteristics of the system were evaluated including its damping characteristics.
Technical Paper
Juan R. Pimentel
While many current vehicle network systems for body bus applications use event triggered analysis processes, the deterministic point of view raises concerns about system timing due to message latency. This paper studies the latency performance characteristics of a typical body bus vehicle network using event triggered analysis over the CAN bus.
Technical Paper
Basem Alzahabi, Scott C. Simon
The transmission mount in a powertrain mounting system is often a primary path for noise. This is especially the case when the transmission is mounted directly to the body without the benefit of a structural frame or isolation between the bracket and body. Since most transmissions generate frequencies above 150Hz, the transmission mount system becomes a likely noise path for this and higher frequencies. A combination of very stiff transmission bracket and very soft rubber mount between the transmission bracket and the transmission would help this problem. In this paper the development an optimally designed transmission mount for a longitudinally mounted powertrain is presented. The development procedure of such a design considers the transmission mount as part of the total system.
Technical Paper
Srihari Vijayakumar, Pinhas Barak
Vehicle Dynamics play an important role in responsiveness of a vehicle. The performance of a vehicle depends on its ride and handling characteristics [1]. Handling is a measure of the directional response of a vehicle and one of the important characteristics from the vehicle dynamics point of view. The directional response of a vehicle depends on the dynamics of the steering system. A good steering control provides an accurate feedback about how the vehicle reacts to the road. In this paper, the powerful techniques of Bond graphs and state equations [2] are used to design and analyze the dynamics of a manual rack and pinion steering system. The author obtains the transfer function between the Angle of rotation of front tire and the Angle of rotation of steering wheel. The overall steering ratio of the bond graph modeled steering system is compared with the overall ratio of a similar vehicle to validate the model.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 33


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