Viewing 1 to 30 of 37
Technical Paper
Jinyoung Jang, Kiseon Yang, Choongsik Bae
Dimethyl ether (DME) as a high cetane number fuel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a high octane number fuel were supplied together to evaluate the controllability of combustion phase and improvement of power and exhaust emission in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. Each fuel was injected at the intake port and in the cylinder separately during the same cycle, i.e., DME in the cylinder and LPG at the intake port, or vice versa. Direct injection timing was varied from 200 to 340 crank angle degree (CAD) while port injection timing was fixed at 20 CAD. In general, the experimental results showed that DME direct injection with LPG port injection was the better way to increase the IMEP and reduce emissions. The direct injection timing of high cetane number fuel was important to control the auto-ignition timing because the auto-ignition was occurred at proper area, where the air and high cetane number fuel were well mixed.
Technical Paper
Sanghoon Kook, Choongsik Bae, Paul C. Miles, Dae Choi, Michael Bergin, Rolf D. Reitz
Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
Technical Paper
Jinwook Lee, Kyoungdoug Min, Kernyong Kang, Choongsik Bae
The More precise control of the multiple-injection is required in common-rail injection system of direct injection diesel engine to meet the low NOx emission and optimal PM filter system. The main parameter for obtaining the multiple-injections is the mechanism controlling the injector needle energizing and movement. In this study, a piezo-driven diesel injector, as a new method driven by piezoelectric energy, has been applied with a purpose to develop the analysis model of the piezo actuator to predict the dynamics characteristics of the hydraulic component (injector) by using the AMESim code and to evaluate the effect of this control capability on spray formation processes. Aimed at simulating the hydraulic behavior of the piezo-driven injector, the circuit model has been developed and verified by comparison with the experimental results.
Technical Paper
Yongrae Kim, Kyoungdoug Min, Min Soo Kim, Suk Ho Chung, Choongsik Bae
A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for a gasoline surrogate was developed and validated in this study for CAI (Controlled Auto Ignition) combustion. The gasoline surrogate was modeled as a blend of iso-octane, n-heptane, and toluene. This reduced mechanism consisted of 44 species and 59 reactions, including main reaction paths of iso-octane, n-heptane, and toluene. The ignition delay times calculated from this mechanism showed a good agreement with previous experimental data from shock tube measurement. A rapid compression machine (RCM) was developed and used to measure the ignition delay times of gasoline and surrogate fuels in the temperature range of 890K ∼ 1000K. The RCM experimental results were also compared with the RCM simulation using the reduced mechanism. It was found that the chemical reaction started before the end of the compression process in the RCM experiment. And the ignition delay time of the suggested gasoline surrogate was similar to that of gasoline.
Technical Paper
Sanghoon Kook, Choongsik Bae, Paul C. Miles, Dae Choi, Lyle M. Pickett
The effects of charge dilution on low-temperature diesel combustion and emissions were investigated in a small-bore single-cylinder diesel engine over a wide range of injection timing. The fresh air was diluted with additional N2 and CO2, simulating 0 to 65% exhaust gas recirculation in an engine. Diluting the intake charge lowers the flame temperature T due to the reactant being replaced by inert gases with increased heat capacity. In addition, charge dilution is anticipated to influence the local charge equivalence ratio ϕ prior to ignition due to the lower O2 concentration and longer ignition delay periods. By influencing both ϕ and T, charge dilution impacts the path representing the progress of the combustion process in the ϕ-T plane, and offers the potential of avoiding both soot and NOx formation.
Technical Paper
Seoksu Moon,, Jaejoon Choi,, Essam Abo-Serie,, Choongsik Bae,
The spray behavior of direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines is crucial for obtaining the required mixture distribution for optimal engine combustion. The spray characteristics of DISI engines are affected by many factors. In this study, the effect of injector temperature was particularly investigated. Spray images from slit injectors using Mie scattering and shadowgraph techniques showed that spray penetration decreases and spray width increases at higher injector temperature. However, opposite trend has been observed for the spray structure from swirl injector. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) results showed, for both injectors, a reduction in droplet sizes at higher injector temperatures. The effect of injector temperature using the slit injector on engine combustion during cold start and warming-up operating conditions was also investigated. Successive flame images using high speed camera, engine-out emissions and performance data have been analyzed.
Technical Paper
Jinyoung Jang, Kitae Yeom, Choongsik Bae
Combustion in engines can be controlled by the amount of residual gas, which has high temperature and heat capacity compared with fresh charge. Residual gas also acts like a dilution gas during combustion period. Accordingly, combustion duration increases, while the peak combustion temperature and nitrogen oxides (NOx) decreases. Amount of residual gas is affected by pressure difference between exhaust and intake, valve timing and engine speed. The main objective of this work is to identify the effects of exhaust throttle, valve timing and load conditions on residual gas fraction and engine performance. The intake valve open timing was varied freely under fixed exhaust valve close (EVC) timing. Additionally, exhaust throttle has been installed in the exhaust manifold to build up the exhaust back-pressure allowing extra amount of exhaust gases to be admitted into the cylinder during the valve overlap duration.
Technical Paper
Cheolwoong Park, Sanghoon Kook, Choongsik Bae
Diesel fuel injection system is the most important part of the direct-injection diesel engine and, in recent years, it has become one of the critical technologies for emission control with the help of electronically controlled fuel injection. Common rail injection system has great flexibility in injection timing, pressure and multi-injections. Many studies and applications have reported the advantages of using common rail system to meet the strict emission regulation and to improve engine performance for diesel engines. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of pilot-, post- and multiple-fuel injection strategies on engine performance and emissions. The study was carried out on a single cylinder optical direct injection diesel engine equipped with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. Spray and combustion evolutions were visualized through a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera.
Technical Paper
Youngmin Woo, Kitae Yeom, Choongsik Bae, Seungmook Oh, Kernyong Kang
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and lean burn utilize the diluents into the engine cylinder to control combustion leading to enhanced fuel economy and reduced emissions. However, the occurrence of excessive cyclic variation with high diluent rates, brings about an undesirable combustion instability within the engine cylinder resulting in the deterioration of both engine performance and emissions. Proper stratification of mixture and diluents could improve the combustion stability under high diluent environment. EGR stratification within the cylinder was made by adopting a fast-response solenoid valve in the midst of EGR line and controlling its timing and duty. With EGR in both homogeneous mode and stratified mode, in-cylinder pressure and emissions were measured. The thermodynamic heat release analysis showed that the burning duration was decreased in case of stratified EGR. It was found that the stratification of EGR hardly affected the emissions.
Journal Article
Jinyoung Jang, Kiseon Yang, Kitae Yeom, Choongsik Bae, Seungmook Oh, Kernyong Kang
The combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a DME fueled HCCI engine were investigated. Different fuel injection strategies were tested under various injection quantities and timings with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The combustion phase in HCCI was changed by an in-cylinder direct injection and EGR, due to changes in the in-cylinder temperature and mixture homogeneity. The gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEPgross) increased and the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions decreased as the equivalence ratio was augmented. The IMEPgross with direct injection was greater than with the port injection due to retarded ignition timing resulting from latent heat of direct injected DME fuel. It was because that most of burn duration was completed before top dead center owing to higher ignitability for DME with high cetane number. However, HC and CO emissions were similar for both injection locations.
Technical Paper
In Uk Hwang, Ha Na Yu, Seong Su Kim, Dai Gil Lee, Jung Do Suh, Sung Ho Lee, Sae Hoon Kim, Byung Ki Ahn
PEMFC (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell) is expected to be one of the major power source for the future passenger vehicle as it features high power density and short starting time in addition to its own environment-friendly characteristics. The bipolar plate is a multi-functional component that mechanically separates unit cells, offering flow paths for hydrogen, oxygen, and coolant through complicated channels engraved on it. Besides, it composes an electrical circuit from an anode to the adjacent cathode. High modulus pitch-based carbon fiber composite is of high potential for the bipolar plate application due to its excellent mechanical, electrical, and chemical properties. This paper presents the thermo-mechanical properties of the high modulus pitch-based carbon-fiber composite material required for bipolar plate application, as well as the method to manufacture the bipolar plate.
Technical Paper
Kitae Yeom, Choongsik Bae
The combustion, knock characteristics and exhaust emissions in an engine were investigated under homogeneous charge compression ignition operation fueled with liquefied petroleum gas with regard to variable valve timing and the addition of di-methyl ether. Liquefied petroleum gas was injected at an intake port as the main fuel in a liquid phase using a liquefied injection system, while a small amount of di-methyl ether was also injected directly into the cylinder during the intake stroke as an ignition promoter. Different intake valve timings and fuel injection amount were tested in order to identify their effects on exhaust emissions, combustion and knock characteristics. The optimal intake valve open timing for the maximum indicated mean effective pressure was retarded as the λTOTAL was decreased. The start of combustion was affected by the intake valve open timing and the mixture strength (λTOTAL) due to the volumetric efficiency and latent heat of vaporization.
Technical Paper
Hyeonsook Yoon, Kitae Yeom, Choongsik Bae
Dimethyl-ether combustion with pilot injection was investigated in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common-rail injection system. Combustion characteristics and emissions were tested with dimethyl-ether and compared with diesel fuel. The main injection timing was fixed to have the best timings for maximum power output. The total injected fuel mass corresponded to a low heating value of 405 joules per cycle at 800 rpm. The fuel quantity and the injection timing of the pilot injection were varied from 8 to 20% of the total injected mass and from 50 to 10 crank angle degrees before the main injection timing, respectively. Ignition delay decreased with pilot injection. The effects of pilot injection were less significant with DME combustion than with diesel. Pilot injection caused the main combustion to increase in intensity resulting in decreased emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter.
Technical Paper
Seoksu Moon, Hyeonsook Yoon, Choongsik Bae, Essam F. Abo-Serie
The spray characteristics of a swirl injector for direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines were investigated for the generation of robust and well-atomized swirl spray. A highly-inclined tapered nozzle is applied as a test nozzle and the spray characteristics are compared with conventional nozzle and L-step nozzle. When the taper angle is 70°, an opened hollow cone spray is formed. This spray does not collapse with increasing fuel temperature and back pressure conditions. However, the taper angle should be optimized to avoid forming a locally rich area and to increase the spray volume. The droplet size of 70° tapered nozzle spray shows a value similar to that of the original swirl spray in the horizontal mainstream while it shows an increased value in the vertical mainstream. The deteriorated atomization characteristics of the tapered nozzle spray are improved by applying high fuel temperature injection without causing spray collapse.
Technical Paper
Sangwook Han, Euijoon Shim, Jinyoung Jang, Jungseo Park, Choongsik Bae, Jongnam Park, Hyunok Kim
Low temperature diesel combustion with a large amount of exhaust gas recirculation in a direct injection diesel engine was investigated. Tests were carried out under various engine speeds, injection pressures, injection timings, and injection quantities. Exhaust emissions and brake specific fuel consumption were measured at different torque and engine speed conditions. High rates of exhaust gas recirculation led to the simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxide and soot emissions due to a lower combustion temperature than conventional diesel combustion. However, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions increased as the combustion temperature decreased because of incomplete combustion and the lack of an oxidation reaction. To overcome the operating range limits of low temperature diesel combustion, increased intake pressure with a modified turbocharger was employed.
Technical Paper
Seokhwan Lee, Choongsik Bae, Robert Prucka, Gerald Fernandes, Zoran Filipi, Dennis N. Assanis
One of the major problems limiting the accuracy of piezoelectric transducers for cylinder pressure measurements in an internal-combustion (IC) engine is the thermal shock. Thermal shock is generated from the temperature variation during the cycle. This temperature variation results in contraction and expansion of the diaphragm and consequently changes the force acting on the quartz in the pressure transducer. An empirical equation for compensation of the thermal shock error was derived from consideration of the diaphragm thermal deformation and actual pressure data. The deformation and the resulting pressure difference due to thermal shock are mainly a function of the change in surface temperature and the equation includes two model constants. In order to calibrate these two constants, the pressure inside the cylinder of a diesel engine was measured simultaneously using two types of pressure transducers, in addition to instantaneous wall temperature measurement.
Technical Paper
Seungwoo Kang, Wonkyu Cho, Choongsik Bae, Youngho Kim
Abstract This paper investigated the influence of the injector nozzle geometry on fuel consumption and exhaust emission characteristics of a light-duty diesel engine with 250 MPa injection. The engine used for the experiment was the 0.4L single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The diesel fuel injection equipment was operated under 250MPa injection pressure. Three injectors with nozzle hole number of 8 to 10 were compared. As the nozzle number of the injector increased, the orifice diameter decreased 105 μm to 95 μm. The ignition delay was shorter with larger nozzle number and smaller orifice diameter. Without EGR, the particulate matter(PM) emission was lower with larger nozzle hole number. This result shows that the atomization of the fuel was improved with the smaller orifice diameter and the fuel spray area was kept same with larger nozzle number. However, the NOx-PM trade-offs of three injectors were similar at higher EGR rate and higher injection pressure.
Technical Paper
Yongjin Jung, Julien Manin, Scott A. Skeen, Lyle M. Pickett
Multi-hole diesel fuel injectors have shown significant transients in spreading angle during injections, different than past fundamental research using single-hole injectors. We investigated the effect of a this transient spreading angle on combustion parameters such as ignition delay and lift-off length by comparing a three-hole nozzle (Spray B) and single-hole nozzle (Spray A) with holes of the same size and shape as targets for the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). With the temperature distribution for a target plume of Spray B characterized extensively in a constant-volume combustion chamber, the ignition delay and lift-off length were measured and compared. Results show that the lift-off length of Spray B increases and grows by approximately 1.5 mm after the initial stages of ignition, in an opposite trend compared to Spray A where the lift-off length decreases with time.
Technical Paper
Hyunwook Park, Jaeheun Kim, Choongsik Bae
The effects of hydrogen ratio and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion and emissions in a hydrogen/diesel dual-fuel premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) engine were investigated. The control of combustion phasing could be improved using hydrogen enrichment and EGR due to the retarded combustion phasing with a higher hydrogen ratio. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) was increased with a higher hydrogen ratio because the hydrogen enrichment intensified the high temperature reactions and thus decreased the combustion duration. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were reduced significantly in a hydrogen/diesel dual-fuel PCCI mode with a similar NOx emissions level as that of the diesel PCCI mode.
Technical Paper
Jinyoung Jung, Chansoo Park, Choongsik Bae
Transient tests in a 2.0 liter in-line 4 cylinder downsizing gasoline direct injection engine were conducted under various transient conditions in order to investigate effects of lower rotational inertia of titanium aluminide alloy (TiAl) turbine wheel on engine and turbocharger performances. As a representative result, fast boost pressure build up was achieved in case of TiAl turbocharger compared to Inconel turbocharger. This result was mainly due to lower rotational inertia of TiAl turbine wheel. Engine torque build up response was also improved with TiAl turbocharger even though engine torque response gap between both turbochargers was slightly reduced due to retarded combustion phase. In addition, with advanced ignition timing, fuel consumption became less than that of Inconel turbocharger with similar engine torque response.
Technical Paper
Julien Manin, Yongjin Jung, Scott A. Skeen, Lyle M. Pickett, Scott E. Parrish, Lee Markle
This work investigates the injection processes of an eight-hole direct-injection gasoline injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) effort on gasoline sprays (Spray G). Experiments are performed at identical operating conditions by multiple institutions using standardized procedures to provide high-quality target datasets for CFD spray modeling improvement. The initial conditions set by the ECN gasoline spray community (Spray G: Ambient temperature: 573 K, ambient density: 3.5 kg/m3 (∼6 bar), fuel: iso-octane, and injection pressure: 200 bar) are examined along with additional conditions to extend the dataset covering a broader operating range. Two institutes evaluated the liquid and vapor penetration characteristics of a particular 8-hole, 80° full-angle, Spray G injector (injector #28) using Mie scattering (liquid) and schlieren (vapor).
Technical Paper
Choongsik Bae, Jinsuk Kang
Spray characteristics of diesel fuel injection is one of the most important factors in diesel combustion and pollutant emissions especially in HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) diesel engines where the interval between the evaporation of atomized fuel and the onset of combustion is relatively short. An investigation into various spray characteristics from different holes of VCO nozzles was performed and its results were compared to standard sac nozzle. The global characteristics of spray, including spray angle, spray tip penetration, and spray pattern were measured from the spray images which were frozen by an instantaneous photography with a spark light source. For better understanding of spray behavior, SMD of the fuel sprays from each hole in the multi hole nozzles were measured with back light imaging while the sprays from the other holes were covered by a purpose-built nozzle cap.
Technical Paper
Changsoo Jang, Sangmin Choi, Choongsik Bae, Jooyoung Kim, Seungkook Baik
Prototype intermittent swirl-generating nozzles for gasoline direct injection application were fabricated by modifying MPI injector nozzles. Design parameters include geometric configuration of nozzle internal flow passage such as orifice diameter and length, needle geometry and swirler passage designs. Operating parameters are considered such as injection pressure, ambient pressure, injected fuel mass and duration of injector opening. Performances of the nozzles have been characterized in terms of static and transient flow rate, initial and overall spray angle, penetration, mean droplet diameter and drop size distribution. Computational fluid dynamic modeling of internal flow for the nozzles provided additional insight in addition to the experimental measurements. Sprays from the prototype nozzle used for measurement in this study exhibited the general features of swirl injection sprays.
Technical Paper
Changgi Kim, Choongsik Bae, Sangmin Choi
Influence of the inter-ring crevice, the volume between the top and second piston rings, on unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emission was experimentally and numerically investigated. The ultimate goal of this study was to estimate the level of UHC emission induced by the blow-up of inter-ring mixture, i.e., unburned gases trapped in the inter-ring crevice. In the experiments, the inter-ring mixture was extracted to the crankcase during the late period of expansion and the early period of exhaust stroke through the engraved grooves on the lower part of cylinder wall. Extraction of the mixture resulted in the significant reductions of UHC emission in proportion to the increments of blowby flow rate, without any losses in efficiency and power. This experimental study has confirmed the importance of inter-ring crevice on UHC emission in an SI engine and established a relationship between the inter-ring mixture and UHC emission.
Technical Paper
Youngkyo Chung, Choongsik Bae, Sangmin Choi, Kumjung Yoon
A new concept of misfire detection in spark ignition engines using a wide-range oxygen sensor is introduced. A wide-range oxygen sensor, installed at the confluence point of the exhaust manifold, was adopted to measure the variation in oxygen concentration in case of a misfire. The signals of the wide-range oxygen sensor were characterized over the various engine-operating conditions in order to decide the monitoring parameters for the detection of the misfire and the corresponding faulty cylinder. The effect of the sensor position, the transient response characteristics of the sensor and the cyclic variation in the signal fluctuation were also investigated. Limited response time of a commercially available sensor barely allowed to observe misfire. It was found that a misfiring could be distinguished more clearly from normal combustion through the differentiation of the sensor response signal. The differentiated signal has twin peaks for a single misfiring in a cylinder.
Technical Paper
Changup Kim, Choongsik Bae
The concentrations of individual exhaust hydrocarbon species were measured as a function of air-fuel ratio and EGR in a 2-liter four-cylinder engine using a gas chromatography, for natural gas and LPG. NMHC in addition to the species of HC, other emissions such as CO2, CO and NOx were at 1800rpm for two compression ratios (8.6 and 10.6) and various EGR ratios up to 7%. Fuel conversion efficiencies were also investigated together with emissions to study the effect of engine parameters on the combustion performances in gas engines especially under the lean burn conditions. It was found that CO2 emission decreased leaner mixture strength, the higher compression ratio and certainly with smaller C value of fuel. HC emissions from LPG engine consisted primarily of propane (larger 60%), ethylene and propylene, while main emissions from natural gas were methane (larger than 60%), ethane, ethylene and propane on the average.
Technical Paper
Doh-Hyoung Kim, Youngjin Park
This paper describes the modeling of dual hybrid electric vehicle drivetrain and proposes a hybrid control system for controlling the drivetrains. In dual hybrid electric drivetrains, the energy from the engine passes through the planetary gear set and is split into the generator and motor paths. A complete dual hybrid electric drivetrain system model is developed. The modeling process is discussed for each of the major components of dual hybrid electric drivetrain, such as planetary gear transmission, gasoline engine, motor, generator and vehicle dynamics. Integrated nonlinear model and effects of parameter variations are also studied. The hybrid control system which is a discrete-event system interacting with a continuous-state system, is suitable for modeling and control of the systems that have state jumps and dynamics changes. In this paper, on/off state of engine is treated as a discrete state of HEV system and, velocities and torques, etc., as continuous states.
Technical Paper
Jun Yu, Jookwang Lee, Choongsik Bae
Dimethyl Ether (DME) has been considered as one of the most attractive alternative fuels for compression ignition engine. Its main advantage in compression-ignition engine application is high efficiency of diesel cycle with soot free combustion though conventional fuel injection system has to be modified due to the intrinsic properties of the DME. Experimental study of the DME and conventional diesel spray employing a common-rail type fuel injection system with a sac type injector was performed in a constant volume vessel pressurized by nitrogen gas. A CCD camera was employed to capture time series of spray images, so that spray cone angles and penetrations of the DME spray were characterized and compared with those of diesel. Intermittent hesitating DME spray appeared at injection pressures of 25MPa and 40MPa in both atmospheric and 3MPa chamber pressures.
Technical Paper
Tongwon Lee, Choongsik Bae, Changsoo Byoun, Daeho Yun, Hyuntak Jang
In order to reduce hydrocarbon emission in gasoline engine, especially during warming-up period, it is necessary to estimate the fuel and fuel product flow rate in the emission gas. The intake airflow rate should also be estimated. A strategy was proposed to estimate air fuel ratio in a spark ignition engine. The mass of air in the cylinder was determined by filling-emptying method, and the fuel in the intake manifold and cylinder was estimated by the “wall-wetting” effect calculation. The use of graphical dynamic system control software is becoming more popular as automotive engineers strive to reduce the time to develop new control systems. The rapid prototype engine controller has been developed by using MATLAB, SIMULINK, REAL TIME WORKSHOP, xPC Target, and WATCOM C++. The sensor data from the engine will be transferred to computer, and the fuel delivery will be calculated.
Technical Paper
Tongwon Lee, Choongsik Bae, Stanislav V. Bohac, Dennis N. Assanis
Wall wetting of injected fuel onto the intake manifold and cylinder wall causes unpredictable transient behavior of air-fuel mixing which results in a significant emission of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emission during cold start operation. Heated exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensors cannot measure the air-fuel ratio (A/F) of exhaust gas during cold start condition. Precise and fast estimation of air/fuel ratio of the exhaust gas is required to elucidate the wall wetting phenomena and subsequent HC formation. Refined A/F estimation can enable the control of fuel injection minimizing HC emissions during cold start conditions so that HC emissions can be minimized. A new estimator for A/F of the exhaust gas has been developed. The A/F estimator described in this study utilizes measured exhaust gas temperature and general engine parameters such as engine speed, airflow, coolant temperature, etc.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 37


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