Viewing 1 to 30 of 46
Technical Paper
Jacobus Huijssen, Raphael Hallez, Bert Pluymers, Stijn Donders, Wim Desmet
Prediction of the drive-by noise level in the early design stage of an automotive vehicle is feasible if the source signatures and source-receiver transfer functions may be determined from simulations based on the available CAD/CAE models. This paper reports on the performance of a drive-by noise synthesis procedure in which the transfer functions are numerically evaluated by employing the Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method (FMBEM). The proposed synthesis procedure first computes the steady-state receiver contributions of the sources as appearing from a number of vehicle positions along the drive path. In a second step, these contributions are then combined into a single transient signal from a moving vehicle for each source-receiver pair by means of a travel time correction.
Technical Paper
Paola Diglio, Greg Falbo, Jaimin Bai, Jianmin Gu
Current CAE modeling and simulation techniques in the time domain allow, by now, very accurate prediction of many ride-comfort performances of the cars. Nevertheless, the prediction of the steering wheel rotation vibration excited by, for instance, wheel unbalance or asymmetric obstacle impact, often runs into the difficulty of modeling the steering line with sufficient accuracy. For a classic rack and pinion, hydraulic assisted steering line, one of the challenges is to model the complex and non linear properties - stiffness, friction and damping - of the rack-rack case system. This paper proposes a rack model, thought for easy implementation in complex multi-body models, and an identification procedure of its parameters, based on measurements, in the operational range of the wheel unbalance excitation. The measurements have been gathered by specific tests on the components and the test set-up is also shown here.
Technical Paper
Paolo di Carlo, Paola Diglio, Giancarlo Conti, Thomas Mitchell, Greg Falbo, Jaimin BAI, Jianmin GU
This paper presents a CAE based approach to accurately simulate and optimize Ride and Handling metrics. Because of the wide range of vehicle phenomena involved, across the variety of frequency ranges, it is essential that the vehicle model includes proper representation of the dynamic properties of the various subsystems (e.g. tires, steering, PT, etc.) Precise correlation between test and simulation for standalone vehicle components and systems is achieved by replicating in the MBS (Multi-body Simulation) the same tests and boundary conditions. This allows the analyst to correctly define those crucial elements and parameters which have the greatest effect on the R&H attribute to be investigated. Setting up the simulation to correctly represent only one single maneuver simulation at a time would not allow the analyst to consider how the dynamic properties of the chassis design variables should be tuned to achieve to best balance and trade-offs.
Technical Paper
Alvaro C. Michelotti, Andre L. Paza, Allan Maurici, Cristiano Foppa, John S. Drabison, Zachary Morris, Russell E. Monahan
Alternators usually have a solid pulley to connect it to the Front-End Accessory Drive (FEAD) system. Current stringent emissions regulations and fuel economy push for new alternatives to meet goals such as, for instance, reduced idle speed and engine downsizing. However, achieving these goals could ultimately generate NVH issues, such as belt slip chirp noise, or reduced accessory-drive support bearing life due to the high vibration levels in the FEAD. Furthermore, increased demand for on-board electric/electronics systems are requiring the use of larger alternators, with bigger inertia, becoming an additional source of vibration.
Technical Paper
Antonio Vecchio, Herman Van der Auweraer, Peter Kindt, Tom Houthoofdt, Paul Sas
This paper presents the results of an experimental test campaign carried out on a city bus powered by serial hybrid power train. The driveline system combines an Internal Combustion Engine with a battery pack and two electric motors. Tests were aimed at identifying the salient signal characteristics of the noise spectra recorded during operating conditions and to assess the acoustic comfort in the passenger compartment. Transfer Path Analysis technique was applied to identify airborne and structure borne vibro-acoustic loads, to measure transfer functions linking source locations to target locations and to estimate the internal vibro-acoustic comfort in operating conditions.
Technical Paper
Hunor Etele Erdelyi, Dirk Roesems, Alessandro Toso, Stijn Donders
This paper presents a method and corresponding software implementation for powertrain (PWT) mounting system layout design for decoupling rigid-body modes in the torque roll axis system. The novelty in the proposed method is that it requires a minimal set of inputs for determining mount topology, orientation and stiffness properties for decoupling powertrain modes, and as such it can be used at early design stages, unlike the conventional approaches based on analysis and optimization techniques. Consequently, PWT mounts can be positioned and oriented close to their optimal configuration, allowing to develop more realistic full vehicle models for conceptual (or early stage) designs and to run a more accurate dynamic analysis concerning secondary ride and vibrations. The proposed methodology is illustrated on a powertrain mounting system design example case.
Technical Paper
Manfred Baecker, Axel Gallrein, Michael Hack, Alessandro Toso
During the last ten years, there is a significant tendency in automotive design to use lower aspect ratio tires and meanwhile also more and more run-flat tires. In appropriate publications, the influences of these tire types on the dynamic loads - transferred from the road passing wheel center into the car - have been investigated pretty well, including comparative wheel force transducer measurements as well as simulation results. It could be shown that the fatigue input into the vehicle tends to increase when using low aspect ratio tires and particularly when using run-flat tires. But which influences do we get for the loading and fatigue behavior of the respective rims? While the influences on the vehicle are relatively easy to detect by using wheel force transducers, the local forces acting on the rim flange (when for example passing a high obstacle) are much more difficult to detect (in measurement as well as in simulation).
Technical Paper
Marcos S. Lenzi, Giambattista Stigliano, Stijn Donders, Bert Pluymers, Wim Desmet
The development of new design tools to predict the vibro-acoustic behavior within the vehicle development process is of essential importance to achieve better products in an ever shorter timeframe. In this paper, an energy flow post-processing tool for structural dynamic analysis is presented. The method is based on the conversion of conventional finite element (FE) results into energy quantities corresponding with each of the vehicle subcomponents. Based on the global dynamic system behavior and local subcomponent descriptions, one can efficiently evaluate the energy distribution and analyze the vibro-acoustic behavior in complex structures. By using energy as a response variable, instead of conventional design variables as pressure or velocity, one can obtain important information regarding the understanding of the vibro-acoustic behavior of the system.
Technical Paper
Masafumi Kyuse, Kohei Umehara, Rabah Hadjit
A multi-body dynamics model that considers elastic deformation of the body was formulated in order to predict transient body deformation, a factor that affects handling. A comparative analysis with body deformation during handling maneuvers identified using a modal forced response method was conducted, and a good correlation was obtained between vehicle dynamic performance, transient body deformation, and the body modal contribution factor.
Technical Paper
Herman Van der Auweraer, Karl Janssens
Vehicles with electrified powertrains are being introduced at an increasing pace. On the level of interior sound, one is often inclined to assume that NVH problems in EV have disappeared together with the combustion engine. Three observations demonstrate that this is not the case. First of all, only the dominant engine sound disappears, not the noise from tire, wind or auxiliaries, which consequently become increasingly audible due to the removal of the broadband engine masking sound. Secondly, new noise sources like tonal sounds from the electro-mechanical drive systems emerge and often have, despite their low overall noise levels, a high annoyance rating. Thirdly, the fact that engine/exhaust sounds are often used to contribute to the “character” of the vehicle leads to an open question how to realize an appealing brand sound with EV. Hybrid vehicles are furthermore characterized by mode-switching effects, with impact on both continuity feeling and sound consistency problems.
Technical Paper
William Crego Prescott, Gert Heirman, Matthew furman, Joris De Cuyper, Ludger Dragon, Andre Lippeck, Horst Brauner
Digital or virtual prototyping by means of a multibody simulation model (MBS) is a standard part of the automotive design process. A high-fidelity model is built and often correlated against test data to increase its accuracy. Once built the MBS model can then be used for high fidelity analysis in ride comfort, handling as well as durability. Next to the MBS model, current industry practice is to develop a reduced degree of freedom model for the design and validation of control or intelligent systems. The models used in the control system design are required to execute in hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations where it is necessary to run real-time. The reason for the creation of the reduced degree of freedom models so far has been that the high-fidelity or off-line model does not execute fast enough to be used in an HIL simulation.
Technical Paper
Arnaud Courjal, Karthik Balachandran
Stringent legislation by governmental agencies concerning human exposure to noise and vibrations on the one hand and the growing consumer awareness and need for comforts on the other hand are forcing automotive manufacturers to improve their products. Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) techniques and software tools enable virtual optimization thereby eliminating the need to build and test expensive prototypes. Deterministic, element-based approaches as the Finite Element (FE) and/or Boundary Element (BE) methods have become the tools of choice for analyzing the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of vehicles. However, these two techniques are limited to low-frequency applications due to the need for high mesh densities at mid and high frequencies resulting in higher computational costs and higher numerical errors associated with the polynomial approximations of the acoustic field variables. This paper discusses two types of approaches, viz.
Technical Paper
Herman Van der Auweraer, Christophe Liefooghe, Jan Leuridan, Paul Sas
Optimal design changes to solve vibration induced fatigue failures can only be derived by including structural dynamics considerations into the fatigue lifetime calculation process. Such an integrated design approach to resonance fatigue problems has been developed within the EC Esprit Project 2486 DYNAMO. Also an integration of crack initiation and crack growth calculations has been realised. This integrated dynamic analysis/fatigue analysis procedure is demonstrated in the paper by means of a resonance fatigue problem of a car.
Technical Paper
W. Hendricx, D. Vandenbroeck
As powertrain noise is better and better controlled, road inputs become more important. The trend to mount 6 cylinder engines in smaller cars also emphasizes the importance of road induced noise. A method to qualify and quantify the different contributions is presented and illustrated. This methodology is based on a novel combination of existing technology: transferpath analysis, traditionally used for ranking of powertrain inputs on one hand and principal component analysis, traditionally used for visualisation of operating shapes in a multiple uncorrelated input environment. As suspension inputs represent multiple incoherent sources, the classical vector summation used in noise path analysis is not applicable. On the other hand, root mean square summation of all contributions does not keep track of phase relations between suspension-body connections which are important in the understanding of the global picture.
Technical Paper
Jan Leuridan, Willy Bakkers
“Noise and vibration are not invented here!”. Undesirable structural dynamic behaviour is normally experienced on final assemblies, by which time the underlying cause of the problem is difficult to solve intuitively. Solving the problems classically involves the partial breakdown of assemblies and the application of various structural dynamics testing and analysis procedures. Preferably, noise and vibration problems should be avoided by designing the product right the first time, by the use of various integrated analysis and testing disciplines, from the component level to the final assembly. Such an approach is referred to, in a broader sense, by trendy themes as concurrent engineering, forward engineering, simultaneous engineering.... This paper analyzes trends in analytical and experimental structural dynamics toward better integration of the various discipline oriented techniques that are currently used.
Technical Paper
Stefan Lammens, Marc Brughmans, Jan Leuridan, Paul Sas
. This paper presents a model updating method based on experimental receptances. The presented method minimises the so called ‘indirect receptance difference’. First, the reduced analytical dynamic stiffness matrix is expressed as an approximate, linearised function of the updating parameters. In a numerically stable, iterative procedure, this reduced analytical dynamic stiffness matrix is changed in such a way that the analytical receptances match the experimental receptances at the updating frequencies. The updating frequencies are a set of selected frequency points in the frequency range of interest. Some considerations about an optimal selection of the updating frequencies are given. Finally, a mixed static-dynamic reduction scheme is discussed. Dynamic reduction of the analytical dynamic stiffness matrix at each updating frequency is physically exact, but it involves a great computational effort.
Technical Paper
Stefan Lammens, Marc Brughmans, Jan Leuridan, Paul Sas
. This paper presents two applications of the RADSER model updating technique (ref. 1). The RADSER technique updates finite element model parameters by solution of a linearised set of equations that optimise the Reduced Analytical Dynamic Stiffness matrix based on Experimental Receptances. The first application deals with the identification of the dynamice characteristics of rubber mounts. The second application validates a coarse finite element model of a subframe of a Volvo 480.
Technical Paper
Stijn Donders, Roberto d’Ippolito, Herman Van der Auweraer, Michael Hack, Nick Tzannetakis, Laszlo Farkas, Wim Desmet
While CAE methods allow improving nominal product design using virtual prototypes, uncertainty and variability in properties and manufacturing processes lead to scatter in actual performances. Uncertainty must hence be incorporated in the CAE process to guarantee the robustness and reliability of the design. This paper presents an overview of uncertainty-based design in automotive and aerospace engineering. Fuzzy methods take uncertainty into account, whereas reliability analysis and a reliability-based design optimization framework can deal with variability. Key enabling technologies to alleviate the computational burden, such as workflow automation, substructuring and design of experiments, are discussed, and industrial applications are presented.
Technical Paper
Refaat Y. Yakoub, Michele Corrado, Aniello Forcelli, Teresa Pappalardo, Stefan Dutre
The objective of this paper is to present the development and the use of a numerical model to predict noise radiated from manual gearboxes due to gear rattle using Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) technologies. This CAE process, as outlined in this paper, includes measured data, computational flexible multibody dynamics, and vibro-acoustic analysis. The measured data is used to identify and reproduce the input excitation which is primarily generated from engine combustion forces. The dynamic interaction of the gearbox components, including flywheel, input/output shafts, contacting gear-pairs, bearings, and flexible housing is modeled using flexible multibody techniques. The acoustic response to the vibration of the gearbox housing is then predicted using vibro-acoustic techniques. These different technologies are augmented together to produce a virtual gearbox that can be used in noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance evaluations.
Technical Paper
Hideki Kido, Hiroyuki Kuwahara, Eike Brechlin, Rene Boonen
In order to accurately estimate the intake sound pressure level, it is important to improve the accuracy of the air cleaner simulation model and precisely estimate the sound source of the intake. It has been confirmed that the modeling accuracy of an air cleaner can be improved by considering the vibro-acoustic coupling. Meanwhile, the sound source of the intake depends not only on the engine specifications, but on the intake system and even the exhaust system design. In this reported example, since it is difficult to estimate the sound source of the intake only by calculation, due to the aforementioned reasons, actual measurements were carried out to define the sound source. The method is such that the sound source is modeled by acoustic impedance and volume velocity in the engine, and the acoustic impedance is measured using an impedance tube. Then, the sound pressure at the intake opening is measured.
Technical Paper
B. Vandenplas, K. Gotoh, S. Dutre
Driveline torsional vibration in vehicles equipped with an automatic gearbox can lead to increased fuel consumption. At low rpm the torque converter of the automatic gearbox is active. The earlier the torque converter can be disengaged and bypassed by a lock-up clutch, the better the efficiency of the engine. Torsional vibrations in the drivetrain could prevent this early locking of the torque convertor and thus lead to a higher fuel consumption. Furthermore, these torsional vibrations can also lead to lower driver comfort. In order to improve the efficiency and the passenger comfort, a hybrid approach has been developed to predict the torsional vibrations of a full vehicle during a run-up manoeuvre on a chassis dyno, including transient effects. The hybrid approach is based on multi body modeling of the full car in LMS DADS, taking into account the flexibility of all major components of the powertrain.
Technical Paper
H.Y. Isaac Du, Jia-Shiun Chen, Keith D. Moss, Joe Zamora
The work presented in this paper outlines the design and development of a compliant sprocket for balancer drives in an effort to reduce the noise levels related to chain-sprocket meshing. An experimental observation of a severe chain noise around a resonant engine speed with the Dual-Mass Flywheel (DMF) and standard build solid (fixed) balancer drive sprocket. Torsional oscillation at the crankshaft nose at full load is induced by uneven running of crankshaft with a dual-mass flywheel system. This results in an increase of the undesirable impact noise caused by the meshing between the chain-links and the engagement/disengagement regions of sprockets, and the clatter noise from the interaction between the vibrating chain and the guides. This paper evaluates and discusses the benefits that the compliant sprocket design provided. A multi-body dynamics system (MBS) model of the balancer chain drive has been developed, validated, and used to investigate the chain noise.
Journal Article
H.Y. Isaac Du, Xiangming Fang, Jia-Shiun Chen, Keith D. Moss, William C. Prescott
The work presented in this paper outlines the development of a simulation model to aid in the design and development of a compliant sprocket for balancer drives. A design with dual-mass flywheel and a crank-mounted compliant chain sprocket greatly reduces interior noise levels due to chain meshing. However, experimental observations showed the compliant sprocket can enter into resonance and generate excessive vibration energy during startup. Special features are incorporated into the compliant sprocket design to absorb and dissipate this energy. Additional damper spring rate, high hysteresis and large motion angle that overlap the driving range may solve the problem during engine start-up period. This work develops a simulation model to help interpret the measured data and rank the effectiveness of the design alternatives. A Multibody dynamics system (MBS) model of the balancer chain drive has been developed, validated, and used to investigate the chain noise.
Technical Paper
T. Geluk, P. J. G. van der Linden, S. Bonnet
Impact noise, inside a car, due to tire-launched gravel on the road can lead to loss of quality perception. Gravel noise is mainly caused by small-sized particles which are too small to be seen on the road by the driver. The investigation focuses on the identification of the mechanisms of excitation and transfer. The spatial distribution of the particles flying from a tire is determined, as well as the probable impact locations on the vehicle body-panels. Finally the relative noise contributions of the body-panels are estimated by adding the panel-to-ear transfer functions. This form of Transfer-Path-Analysis allows vehicle optimization and target setting on the level of the tires, exterior panel treatment and isolation.
Technical Paper
Jeffrey A. Morgan, Maruthi R. Dhulipudi, Refaat Y. Yakoub, Alan D. Lewis
This paper presents four methodologies for modeling gear mesh excitations in simple and compound planetary gear sets. The gear mesh excitations use simplified representations of the gear mesh contact phenomenon so that they can be implemented in a numerically efficient manner. This allows the gear mesh excitations to be included in transmission system-level, multibody dynamic models for the assessment of operating noise and vibration levels. After presenting the four approaches, a description is made regarding how they have been implemented in software. Finally, example models are used to do a comparison between the methods
Technical Paper
Juliette Florentin, Francois Durieux, Yukihisa Kuriyama, Toyoki Yamamoto
The firewall design of a BMW1 is optimized for interior noise and weight using a Hybrid Interior Noise Synthesis (HINS) approach. This method associates a virtual firewall with a test based body model. A vibro-acoustic model of the firewall panel, including trim elements and full vehicle boundary conditions, is used for predictions in the 40 Hz - 400 Hz range. The short calculation time of this set-up allows multiple design iterations. The firewall noise is reduced by 0.9 dB and its mass by 5.1% through structural changes. Crashworthiness is maintained at its initial level using advanced steel processing. The total interior noise shows improvement in the 90 Hz - 140 Hz range.
Technical Paper
Koen Vansant, Raphaël Hallez, Hadrien Bériot, Michel Tournour, Gert Massa, Stijn Donders, Herman Van der Auweraer
Acoustic performance of vehicle engines is a real challenge for powertrain design engineers. Quiet engines are required to reduce noise pollution and satisfy pass-by noise regulations, but also to improve the driving comfort. Simulation techniques such as the Boundary Element Method (BEM) have already been available for some time and allow predicting the vibro-acoustic response of engines. Although the accuracy of these simulation techniques has been proven, a challenge still remains in the required computation time. Given the large amount of speeds for a full engine run-up and the need to cover a large frequency range, computation times are significant, which limits the possibility to perform many design iterations to optimize the system. In 2001, Acoustic Transfer Vectors (ATV) [1] have been presented to adequately deal with multiple rpm. The ATV provide the acoustic response for unit surface velocities and are therefore independent from the engine's actual surface vibrations.
Technical Paper
Stijn De Bruyne, Herman Van Der Auweraer, Jan Anthonis
Active suspension systems aim at increasing safety by improving vehicle ride and handling performance while ensuring superior passenger comfort. Good control of this active system can only be achieved by providing the control algorithm with reliable and accurate signals for the required quantities. This paper presents the design and development of a state estimator that accurately provides the information required by a sky-hook controller, using a minimum of sensors. The vehicle inertial parameters are estimated by an algorithm based on Monte Carlo simulations and anthropometric data. All state updating is performed using Kalman filters. The resulting performance enhancement has been proven during test drives.
Journal Article
Marko Nagode, Michael Hack
In the last decades the development time of vehicles has been drastically reduced due to the application of advanced numerical and experimental methods. Specifications concerning durability and other functional attributes for every new model improve for every vehicle. In particular, for machines and components under variable multiaxial loading, fatigue evaluation is one of the most important steps in the design process. Appropriate material testing and simulation is the key to efficient life prediction. However, the life of automotive components, power plants and other high-temperature facilities depends mostly on thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). This is due to the normally variable service conditions, which contain the phases of startup, full load, partial load and shut-down.
Technical Paper
Fan Li, Stephen D. Sibal, Ian Francis McGann, Raphael Hallez
With the introduction of hybrid vehicles and the associated elimination of engine and exhaust masking noises, sounds from other sources is becoming more noticeable. Fuel tank sloshing is one of these sources. Fuel sloshing occurs when a vehicle is accelerated in any direction and can create noise that may be perceived as a quality issue by the customer. To reduce slosh noise, a fuel tank has to be carefully designed. Reduction in slosh noise using test- based methods can be very costly and timely. This paper shows how, using the combination of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic), FE (Finite Element) and Acoustic simulation methods, the radiated fuel tank slosh noise performance can be evaluated using CAE methods. Although the de-coupled fluid /structure interaction (FSI) method was used for the examples in this paper, the acoustic simulation method is not limited to the decoupled FSI method.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 46


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