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Viewing 1 to 30 of 33
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1823
Vladimir V. Vantsevich, Dieter Barz, John Kubler, Aaron Schumacher
To evaluate traction and velocity performance and other operational properties of a vehicle requires data on some tire parameters including the effective rolling radius in the driven mode (no torque on a wheel), the effective radii in the drive mode (torque applied to the wheel), and also the tire longitudinal elasticity. When one evaluates vehicle performance, these parameters are extremely important for linking kinematic parameters (linear velocity and tire slip coefficient) with dynamic parameters (torque and traction net force) of a tired wheel. This paper presents an experimental method to determine the above tire parameters in laboratory facilities. The facilities include Lawrence Technological University's 4x4 vehicle dynamometer with individual control of each of the four wheels, Kistler RoaDyn® wheel force sensors that can measure three forces and three moments on a wheel, and a modern data acquisition system. The experimental data are also presented in the paper.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0554
Rafaa Esmaael, Vernon Fernandez
An accurate prediction of elasto-plastic cyclic deformation becomes extremely important in design optimization. It also leads to more accurate fatigue life prediction and hence weight savings. In paper presents a two-stage notch root prediction method. This is based on a correction expression to Neuber's rule notch strain amplitude as the first stage, and a linear interpolation scheme as the second stage. The accuracy of this method is assessed by comparing the predicted results with the results obtained from elasto-plastic finite element analysis. Various types of steels with different yield strengths were used in this study. Notch deformation behavior under cyclic variable amplitude loading conditions was monitored for a double notched flat plate and a circumference notched round bar to cover plain stress and plain strain conditions. Elastic as well as elasto-plastic finite element analyses are performed.
1998-11-16
Technical Paper
983077
John G. Fowler, Badih A. Jawad
A unique differential assembly was needed for the Lawrence Technological University (LTU) SAE Formula race car. Specifically, a differential was required that had torque sensing capabilities, perfect reliability, high strength, light weight, the ability to withstand inertia and shock loading, a small package, no leaks, the ability to support numerous components. In that regard, an existing differential was selected that had the torque sensing capabilities, but had deficiencies that needed to be fixed. Those deficiencies included the following: Differential unit was over 4 kg unmounted, with no housing. This was considered too heavy, when housed properly. Bearing surface was provided on only one end of the carrier. This design provides insufficient bearing surface to support either the differential housing or half-shafts The internal drive splines integral to the case are not optimized for a perpendicular drive/axle arrangement, such as, a chain drive.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1572
Kelvin Shih
A low cost fault tolerant and redundant multiplex wiring system specifically designed for automotive applications is described in this paper. Although there are many multiplex wiring systems are being used to simplify the car wiring harness, but very few are low cost, fault tolerant and redundant at the same time. Most of the system address mainly the protocol and software issues and neglected the reliability of the multiplex wiring system. This paper addresses the fault tolerant and redundancy of the system and use hardware based integrated circuit to convert from parallel to serial at the transmitter side and serial to parallel at the receiver side.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0864
Vladimir V. Vantsevich
All-wheel drive (AWD) vehicle performance considerably depends not only on total power amount needed for the vehicle motion in the given road/off-road conditions but also on the total power distribution among the drive wheels. In turn, this distribution is largely determined by the driveline system and its mechanisms installed in power dividing units. They are interwheel, interaxle reduction gears, and transfer cases. The paper presents analytical methods to evaluate the energy and, accordingly, fuel efficiency of vehicles with any arbitrary number of the drive wheels. The methods are based on vehicle power balance equations analysis and give formulas that functionally link the wheel circumferential forces with slip coefficients and other forces acting onto an AWD vehicle. The proposed methods take into consideration operational modes of vehicles that are tractive mode, load transportation, or a combination of both.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0224
Kelvin Shih
There are more and more LEDs being used in an automobile to replace the incandescent lamps. All those applications require high brightness LED work at high ambient temperature. However, the luminous flux output of a LED is directly related to its junction temperature. Higher the LED junction temperature, lower the luminous output from the LED. In order to efficiently apply LED to an automotive application the temperature effects on luminous flux must be accounted for in any design of a LED assembly. A LED junction temperature measurement system is described in this paper to measure the differential junction temperature between a reference LED and the LED under test. And the results are used to improve the LED assembly design.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1218
Waseem Jaradat, Joseph Hassan, Guy Nusholtz, Khalil Taraman, Sanaa Taraman
This paper analyzes the difference in impact response of the forehead of the Hybrid III and THOR-NT dummies in free motion headform tests when a dummy strikes the interior trim of a vehicle. Hybrid III dummy head is currently used in FMVSS201 tests. THOR-NT dummy head has been in development to replace Hybrid III head. The impact response of the forehead of both the Hybrid III dummy and THOR dummy was designed to the same human surrogate data. Therefore, when the forehead of either dummy is impacted with the same initial conditions, the acceleration response and consequently the head Injury criterion (HIC) should be similar. A number of manufacturing variables can affect the impacted interior trim panels. This work evaluates the effect of process variation on the response in the form of Head Injury Criterion (HIC).
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0253
Michael Brusoe, Zlatko Penzar, Chris Riedel
This paper proposes and evaluates improvements to a crash simulation of a fuel delivery module in a fuel tank. The simulations were performed in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. Deviations between the original simulation and test data were studied and reasons for the deviations hypothesized. These reasons stemmed from some of the simplifying assumptions of the model. Improvements consisted of incorporating plasticity and strain rate effects into the material models. Performance criteria were also directly incorporated into the material models such that non-performing portions of the model could be deactivated during the simulation. Finally, solid-fluid interactions were added into the simulation to include the momentum transfer from fuel to the fuel delivery module. It was previously thought that effects of a crash would be most severe on the module when the fuel tank was empty and the module was full with fuel.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1447
Steve Sobolak, Badih Jawad
A study was performed to determine the effects of varying the wall thickness and material glass fiber concentration for parallel and perpendicular shrinkage rates for a constrained thin-walled box shaped component. An analysis of the shrinkage for the bottom portion of a 3 dimensional constrained thin walled injection molded component was performed using measurements made from bitmap images of the components that were obtained from a traditional flatbed scanner. The shrinkage rates were determined by comparing mold cavity hatch lines to the correlating transposed hatch lines on the plastic molded component. The perpendicular and parallel shrinkage rates were determined and are discussed as a function of thickness and glass fiber content. A wide range of processing control factors was used in the study.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0781
Naji E. Gebara, Badih Jawad, Peter Szymanski
Controlling the Cost of Variance is essential to the manufacturing process of Printed Circuit Board Assembly for low volume high mix production. The material variance is identified as the additional components and resources consumed beyond the minimum required to complete the project. This Quantity Variance occurs at the effects of defects at key steps of the manufacturing process. Such occurrences result in the need to purchase additional components for the completion of the order. These additional components termed Quantity Variance alter the sequence of the manufacturing process affecting quality, timely delivery of the job and directly impacting company profitability.
2006-12-05
Technical Paper
2006-01-3648
Jonathan Wood, Badih Jawad, Chris Riedel
Chromium Molybdenum Steel (AISI 4130), commonly referred to as “Chrome Moly”, is one of the most popular materials used in the construction of tubular space frames and chassis components for racing applications. Its high strength, light weight and comparably low material cost make the reasons for its popularity quite obvious. However, there is one problem that is commonly overlooked: maintaining the strength component of Chrome Moly in areas exposed to high levels of heat followed by rapid cooling during welding. This paper seeks to better understand the affects of cooling due to welding on the strength of Chrome Moly tubing.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0528
Hassan Choucair, Badih Jawad
The reliability of engine valve springs is a very important issue from the point of view of warranty. This paper presents a combined experimental and statistical analysis for predicting the fatigue limit of high tensile engine valve spring material in the presence of non-metallic inclusions. Experimentally, Fatigue tests will be performed on valve springs of high strength material at different stress amplitudes. A model developed by Murakami and Endo, which is based on the fracture mechanics approach, Extreme value statistics (GUMBEL Distribution) and Weibull Distribution will be utilized for predicting the fatigue limit and the maximum inclusion size from field failures. The two approaches, experimental and theoretical, will assist in developing the S-N curve for high tensile valve spring material in the presence of non-metallic inclusions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1611
Elankathiravan Mathivanan, David Gasior, Liping Liu, Kingman Yee, Yawen Li
Abstract In the present work, the effect of various nanofluids on automotive engine cooling was experimentally studied. Al2O3, TiC, SiC, MWNT (multi-walled nanotube), and SiO2 nanoparticles with average diameter ranging between 1 and 100 nm were mixed with distilled water to form nanofluids. An ultrasonic generator was used to generate uniform particle dispersion in the fluid. A compatibility test was carried out on all nanofluids and it was found that TiC, MWNT, and Si3N4 nanoparticles settled and separated from the fluid within 3 hours after preparation. The engine cooling performance testing setup consisted of an Aprilia SXV 450 engine, the nanofluid cooling loop, a radiator, a fan, etc. Thermocouples and resistance temperature detectors (RTD’s) were attached to the inlet and outlet of the radiator hose to monitor the temperature changes taking place in the cooling system. A flowmeter was attached to the inlet hose of the radiator to monitor the coolant flow rate.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1610
Mike Kheirallah, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu
Abstract Cooling fans have many applications in industrial and electronic fields that remove heat away from the system. The process of designing a new cooling fan with optimal performance and reduced acoustic sources can be fairly lengthy and expensive. The use of CFD with support of mesh morphing, along with the development of optimization techniques, can improve the acoustic’s performance of the fan model. This paper presents a new promising method which will support the design process of a new cooling fan with improved performance and less acoustic surface power generation. The CFD analysis is focused on reducing the acoustic surface power of a given cooling fan’s blade using the surface dipole acoustic power as the objective function, which leads to an optimized prototype design for a better performance. The Mesh Morpher Optimizer (MMO) in ANSYS Fluent is used in combination with a Simplex model of the broadband acoustic modeling.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1600
James Mansour, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu, Vernon Fernandez, Sabah Abro, Jeff Tibbenham
Abstract A vehicle’s exterior fit and finish, in general, is the first system to attract customers. Automotive exterior engineers were motivated in the past few years to increase their focus on how to optimize the vehicle’s exterior panels split lines quality and how to minimize variation in fit and finish addressing customer and market required quality standards. The design engineering’s focus is to control the deviation from nominal build objective and minimize it. The fitting process follows an optimization model with the exterior panel’s location and orientation factors as independent variables. This research focuses on addressing the source of variation “contributed factors” that will impact the quality of the fit and finish. These critical factors could be resulted from the design process, product process, or an assembly process. An empirical analysis will be used to minimize the fit and finish deviation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1607
Munther Hermez, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu, Eli Oklejas
Abstract This paper presents an experimental investigation of flow field instabilities in a centrifugal pump impeller at low flow rates. The measurements of pump hydraulic performance and flow field in the impeller passages were made with a hydraulic test rig. Analysis of Q-ΔP-η data and flow structures in the impeller passages were performed. In the present work, the effect of various flowrates on centrifugal pump impeller performance was analyzed based on pump measured parameters. The impeller’s geometry was modified, with positioning the curved spacer at the impeller suction side. This research investigates the effect of each inlet curved spacer model on pump performance improvement. The hydraulic performance and cavitation performance of the pump have been tested experimentally. The flow field inside a centrifugal pump is known to be fully turbulent, three dimensional and unsteady with recirculation flows and separation at its inlet and exit.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1609
Saleh Morjan, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu
Abstract In this experimental work, a flow field test system embedded with different vortex generators was installed to investigate the impact of vortex generation on heat transfer of air flow in a horizontal channel, and the flow structure was evaluated using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Three different configurations of vortex generators were fitted vertically on a flat plate, at attack angles of 15o, 30o, and 45o, and tested at four different incoming air velocities. An axial fan was used to supply the flow of air through the test section. The effects of Reynolds number, attack angle, and the shape of vortex generators were examined in this work. The experimental results showed that, the presence of vortex generators had considerable effect on temperature distribution, pressure drop, and heat transfer augmentation in the channel flow.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1602
Garett Scott Patria, James A. Mynderse
Abstract There is evidence to suggest that before military equipment ever experiences sustainment delays the equipment carries state patterns within its logistics and supply chain data history that could be leveraged for risk mitigation. Analysis of these patterns can also identify new research & development (R&D) and technology transition candidates that relate the seemingly disparate activities of R&D project management and Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages (DMSMS) management. Relating eligible R&D activities to the DMSMS risk identification phase helps stage potential sustainment risk mitigations ahead of time on the one hand, while creating additional demand and resources to mature prototypes on the other hand.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1604
Christina Michael, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu, Vernon Fernandez, Sabah Abro, Craig Zinser, Dave Guidos
Abstract The objective of this research is to develop a component based enhanced production process after End of Line (EOL) testing. This process will add more quality validation evaluations, but will not require any disassembling of the parts or damage to them. It will help the suppliers to avoid scrap and rework parts as well as General Motors (GM) to reduce warranty and recalls. An Enhanced Production Process was implemented in March, 2016 at a supplier in Mexico. The Enhanced Audit Station implementation is to ensure that the supplier is satisfying the Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) requirements. The most important four components are: Touch Appearance Lighting and Color (TALC), Appearance Approval Report (AAR), Dimensional Checks, and Function Testing. Through statistics, a pilot study was conducted to correlate the selected variables to reduce warranty.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0011
Salah Alhasia, Sharif Gindy, Badih Jawad, Chris Riedel, Selin Arslan
Abstract Bearings are a major component in any rotating system. With continually increasing speeds, bearing failure modes take new unconventional forms that often are not understood. In high speed applications, rolling element forces and gyroscopic moments can be significantly high compared to the applied forces acting on a bearing. Such moments create a “driving” torque causing outer race to creep. In this paper a mathematical model for the dynamics of a rolling element in a high speed bearing is derived. Preload values counterbalancing the torque driving the outer race to rotate can be predicted from this model. An attempt to experimentally measure this torque using a specially designed apparatus with integrated strain gauge torque sensor is also described. Both model and experimental measurements are aimed at understanding, and therefore preventing bearing failures due to outer race (creep) rotations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0009
Soham Bakshi, Badih Jawad, Selin Arslan, Liping Liu, Kingman Yee
Today's strict fuel economy requirement produces the need for the cars to have really optimized shapes among other characteristics as optimized cooling packages, reduced weight, to name a few. With the advances in automotive technology, tight global oil resources, lightweight automotive design process becomes a problem deserving important consideration. It is not however always clear how to modify the shape of the exterior of a car in order to minimize its aerodynamic resistance. Air motion is complex and operates differently at different weather conditions. Air motion around a vehicle has been studied quite exhaustively, but due to immense complex nature of air flow, which differs with different velocity, the nature of air, direction of flow et cetera, there is no complete study of aerodynamic analysis for a car. Something always can be done to further optimize the air flow around a car body.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0008
Johnathan Putrus, Stanley Jones, Badih Jawad, Giscard Kfoury, Selin Arslan, Peter Schihl
Thermal management systems (TMS) of armored ground vehicle designs are often incapable of sustained heat rejection during high tractive effort conditions and ambient conditions. During these conditions, which mainly consist of high torque low speed operations, gear oil temperatures can rise over the allowable 275°F limit in less than twenty minutes. This work outlines an approach to temporarily store excess heat generated by the differential during high tractive effort situations through the use of a passive Phase Change Material (PCM) retrofit thereby extending the operating time, reducing temperature transients, and limiting overheating. A numerical heat transfer model has been developed based on a conceptual vehicle differential TMS. The model predicts the differential fluid temperature response with and without a PCM retrofit. The developed model captures the physics of the phase change processes to predict the transient heat absorption and rejection processes.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0741
Badih A. Jawad, John G. Fowler, Leon M. Brandow, Brian A. Trimboli
Lawrence Technological University's 1998 SAE Formula car needed a high performance differential assembly. The performance requirements of a competitive SAE Formula car differential are as follows: Torque sensing capabilities Perfect reliability High strength Low mass Ability to withstand inertia and shock loading Small package Leak proof housing Ability to support numerous components With these requirements in mind an existing differential was selected with the capability for torque sensing. This differential lacked the desired low mass, support, internal drive splines, and proper gearing protection. The differential was re-engineered to remedy the deficiencies. The internal gearing from the selected differential was used in an improved casing. This casing and it's position in the car, reduce the number of side-specific parts required as well as improving the performance. The new design significantly reduces the size and mass of the assembly.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0742
Badih A. Jawad, Brian A. Trimboli, Paul Ranspach
A steady state vehicle model is developed that will predict engine and automatic transmission operating conditions based on various vehicle configurations and operating conditions. The model provides a better understanding of the effects, including direction and magnitude, of changes in vehicle configuration and/or operating conditions on powertrain requirements. The model results can then be used as input into powertrain matching decisions. In general, the model will begin by determining vehicle road load requirements (wheel speed and torque) as a function of vehicle speed based on ambient, road, and vehicle inputs. Such road load requirement will then be cascaded into input and output requirements of the rear axle, transmission gearing, torque converter (locked and unlocked), and finally the engine. Wide open throttle engine torque data will also be translated into tractive effort at the wheels and resulting acceleration capability versus the vehicle road load requirements.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-1156
Badih A. Jawad, Marc P. Ziemke, Anthony P. Young
The 1999 Lawrence Technological University (LTU) drive train consists of a sprocket and chain assembly that delivers the torque, developed by a 600cc Honda F3 engine, to the rear wheels. The torque is transferred through a limited-slip, torque sensing differential unit comprised of a gear set in a student designed housing. The 1999 differential is a second-generation aluminum housing. The idea of using aluminum was first attempted with the 1998 team who successfully completed and used aluminum despite much complexity and a few design flaws. Therefore, in the LTU Formula Team's continuing effort to optimize the design, a new less complex design was conceived to house the gear set. This innovative design reduces the number of housing components from three in 1998, to two in 1999.
2000-08-21
Technical Paper
2000-01-3091
Eva Mariotti, Badih Jawad
An ergonomics apparatus was designed and built to aid in the design of a Formula SAE (FSAE) Race Car cockpit. The apparatus incorporated adjustable cockpit dimensions that were adjusted accordingly for the tested subjects. A compilation of this data was used to design a cockpit suitable for people within the range of 95th percentile male and 5th percentile female. By testing subjects in various cockpit designs, the ergonomics apparatus was also used to validate the final design of the cockpit.
2000-08-21
Technical Paper
2000-01-3089
B. Jawad, J. Perez, J. Bachler, R. Cramb, J. Notoci, C. Yantus
The modification of the Talon Roof Carrier, by E-Z Load Technologies, into a bicycle carrier, simplifies the loading and unloading of bicycles onto the rack. A modification of the slide rail system decreases weight and bulkiness, allowing easier installation. A redesign of the attachment method of the rack to the roof improves compatibility with the manufacturer-installed roof rack. Mounting the bicycle to the rack is less challenging with the addition of a bicycle carrier platform. The ease of raising and lowering the rack is increased with a more reliable and user friendly locking mechanism. Added paralleling plates eliminate binding, ensuring smooth motion.
2000-08-21
Technical Paper
2000-01-3090
Badih A. Jawad, Michael D. DeGain, Anthony P. Young
Members of the 2000 Lawrence Technological University Formula SAE (FSAE) team are currently developing a new prototype intake system to be used on the new Formula vehicle. The vehicle will be using a 600 cubic centimeter four stroke Honda motorcycle engine. As required by the rules of FSAE, the intake system must be restricted to limit the engines potential to produce power. Development work was done using a flow test bench and engine dynamometer on all available previous designs. The two best previous designs were then compared to help determine the optimized dimensions and geometry for the new design. After the new prototype model was finished it was tested to validate theoretical calculations and overall performance.
2002-12-02
Technical Paper
2002-01-3295
Badih A. Jawad, Ryan S. Smith
One of the major components of the 2002 Formula SAE car is the base engine. Due to the restrictions put on the intake, the airflow into the cylinders is minimal. The air has to enter through a 20mm venturi, which drastically restricts the flow to the motor greatly reducing power. One of our main aspects will be focusing on improved airflow into the motor. Major improvements must also be made to the internal workings of the motor to regain this lost power. Through extensive cylinder head work and use of lightweight components, this can be achieved. Reworking the head for more efficient flow and raising the compression to approximately 13.1:1 will significantly improve power and torque.
2002-12-02
Technical Paper
2002-01-3316
Badih Jawad, Christopher Biggs, Bradley Klein
The 2002 Lawrence Technological University Formula SAE team set out to develop a tuned exhaust system for a restricted Honda CBR 600 F4i engine. The exhaust system was targeted for maximizing low rpm torque while maintaining a broad flat torque curve without a significant loss of high rpm horsepower. In order to do this, considerable attention had to be given to the exhaust primary tracts, collector and silencer designs. To test theory, two equal length, fully adjustable headers were manufactured and tested on an engine dynamometer. Experimentally, the optimal exhaust design to meet our vehicles needs was determined.
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