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Viewing 1 to 30 of 142
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2521
David E. Burchfield, Wai Tak Lee, William Niu, Andrew Pargellis, George Steiner, William O'Hara, John F. Lewis
The Orion Air Monitor (OAM), a derivative of the International Space Station's Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) (1–3) and the Skylab Mass Spectrometer (4, 5), is a mass spectrometer-based system designed to monitor nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. In the Crew Exploration Vehicle, the instrument will serve two primary functions: 1) provide Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) data to control nitrogen and oxygen pressure, and 2) provide feedback the ECLSS water vapor and CO2 removal system for swing-bed control. The control bands for these ECLSS systems affect consumables use, and therefore launch mass, putting a premium on a highly accurate, fast-response, analyzer subsystem. This paper describes a dynamic analytical model for the OAM, relating the findings of that model to design features required for accuracies and response times important to the CEV application.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2542
Brian M. Sutin, William Niu, George Steiner, William O'Hara, John F. Lewis
The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) requires a smoke detector for the detection of particulate smoke products as part of the Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS) system. The smoke detector described in this paper is an adaptation of a mature commercial aircraft design for manned spaceflight. Changes made to the original design include upgrading the materials and electronics to space-qualified components, and modifying the mechanical design to withstand launch and landing loads. The results of laboratory characterization of the response of the new design to test particles are presented.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2513
Julie A. Levri, John A. Hogan, Bruce Deng, Jon Welch, Mike Ho
The On-line Project Information System (OPIS) is the Exploration Life Support (ELS) mechanism for task data sharing and annual reporting. Fiscal year 2008 (FY08) was the first year in which ELS Principal Investigators (PI's) were required to complete an OPIS annual report. The reporting process consists of downloading a template that is customized to the task deliverable type(s), completing the report, and uploading the document to OPIS for review and approval. In addition to providing a general status and overview of OPIS features, this paper describes the user critiques and resulting system modifications of the first year of OPIS reporting efforts. Specifically, this paper discusses process communication and logistics issues, user interface ambiguity, report completion challenges, and the resultant or pending system improvements designed to circumvent such issues for the fiscal year 2009 reporting effort.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2086
James F. Russell, John F. Lewis
Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.
2005-06-14
Technical Paper
2005-01-2689
Norman I. Badler, Jan Allbeck, Seung-Joo Lee, Richard J. Rabbitz, Timothy T. Broderick, Kevin M. Mulkern
The earliest Digital Human Modeling systems were non-interactive analysis packages with crude graphics. Next generation systems added interactivity and articulated kinematic human models. The newest systems use real-time computer graphics, deformable figures, motion controllers, and user interfaces. Our long-term goal is to free the user as much as possible from interactive human model manipulation through direct understanding and execution of task instructions. We present a next generation DHM testbed that includes a scriptable interface, real-time collision-avoidance reach, empirical joint motion models, a versatile locomotion engine, motion capture and synthetic motion blends and combinations, and a smooth skinned scalable human model.
2007-06-12
Technical Paper
2007-01-2473
Sherry S. Thaxton, Andrew F. J. Abercromby, Elizabeth A. Onady, Sudhakar L. Rajulu
A preliminary assessment of the reach envelope and field of vision (FOV) for a subject wearing a Mark III space suit was requested for use in human-machine interface design of the Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) vehicle. The reach and view of two suited and unsuited subjects were evaluated while seated in the vehicle using 3-dimensional position data collected during a series of reaching motions. Data was interpolated and displayed in orthogonal views and cross-sections. Compared with unsuited conditions, medio-lateral reach was not strongly affected by the Mark III suit, whereas vertical and antero-posterior reach were inhibited by the suit. Lateral FOV was reduced by approximately 40° in the suit. The techniques used in this case study may prove useful in human-machine interface design by providing a new means of developing and displaying reach envelopes.
2006-09-12
Technical Paper
2006-01-3179
R. J. Bucci, M. A. James, H. Sklyut, M. B. Heinimann, D. L. Ball, J. K. Donald
Significant system efficiency gains can be achieved in high-performance aircraft via a unitized structure that reduces parts count. For instance, reduced parts count leads to substantial engineering logistic cost savings through higher levels of subsystem and mounting hardware integration. It also creates performance benefits by eliminating structural connections. Residual stress management, however, remains a major obstacle to capturing full benefits and broadening the application of unitized structure solutions. This paper describes how Alcoa and others are developing tools to overcome limitations in current testing, evaluation, and design practices attributed to residual stress effects. The authors present recent advancements in fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth characterization, along with a new, integrated approach for improved accounting of residual stress effects during fracture critical component design, manufacturing planning, and life management.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2019
Jeffrey Ferketic, Loel Goldblatt, Edward Hodgson, Sean Murray, Robert Wichowski, Arthur Bradley, Terrence Fong, Wendell Chun, Randy Stiles, John Evans, Michael Goodrich, Aaron Steinfeld
NASA's plans to implement the Vision for Space Exploration include extensive human-robot cooperation across an enterprise spanning multiple missions, systems, and decades. To make this practical, strong enterprise-level interface standards (data, power, communication, interaction, autonomy, and physical) will be required early in the systems and technology development cycle. Such standards should affect both the engineer and operator roles that humans adopt in their interactions with robots. For the engineer role, standards will result in reduced development lead-times, lower cost, and greater efficiency in deploying such systems. For the operator role, standards will result in common autonomy and interaction modes that reduce operator training, minimize workload, and apply to many different robotic platforms. Reduced quantities of spare hardware could also be a benefit of standardization.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2067
S. J. French, G. L. Cramp
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. For these missions several food provisioning strategies are being investigated. Individual, prepackaged meals may be provided throughout the mission or commodities may be taken in bulk and processed while on the planetary surface. To enable these different supply scenarios, a packaging system must be developed that will protect the food or commodity and have minimal impact on system mass. Metric values for a prepackaged scenario and a bulk supply scenario, using current packaging material technologies, were compared. The results of this comparison show that bulk packaging penalties will potentially be more than an order of magnitude less than those of a prepackaged food system.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-3016
R. Morency, M. Ferrer, M. Jaramillo, L. Gonzalez, S. Margerum, L. Velasquez, S. Rajulu
A method for capturing full-body scans for the purpose of extracting Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit measurements is being evaluated. Subjects were marked using reflective spheres enabling researchers to acquire all 118 measurements of the suit sizing protocol. Several researchers measured the subjects using a full-body laser scanner, a motion analysis system, and standard anthropometrical equipment. The linear scanner measurements were compared to the motion analysis data, while the circumferential scanner measurements were compared to the manual data. The mean percent difference between the scanner measurements and motion analysis linear/manual circumferential measurements was 4.21%. It was concluded that the scanner measurements were accurate enough for preliminary sizing of EVA suits.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2247
Bonnie P. Dalton, Karen Plaut, Gabrielle B. Meeker
The Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM) will be the home of the fundamental biology research facilities on the International Space Station (ISS). These facilities are being built by the Biological Research Project (BRP), whose goal is to oversee development of a wide variety of habitats and host systems to support life sciences research on the ISS. The habitats and host systems are designed to provide life support for a variety of specimens including cells, bacteria, yeast, plants, fish, rodents, eggs (e.g., quail), and insects. Each habitat contains specimen chambers that allow for easy manipulation of specimens and alteration of sample numbers. All habitats are capable of sustaining life support for 90 days and have automated as well as full telescience capabilities for sending habitat parameters data to investigator homesite laboratories.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2674
Benton C. Clark
Total sample containment is an absolute requirement for Mars sample return missions, derived from the requirement to protect against uncontrolled introduction of potentially hazardous foreign material into the earth's biosphere. These constraints of planetary protection comprise one of the major remaining hurdles to low cost implementation of sample return missions. It is suggested here that to spread the costs of the program, the first mission should consider sterilizing the samples and canister surfaces while still in space during the return to Earth.
2001-06-26
Technical Paper
2001-01-2099
James C. Maida, L. Javier Gonzalez, Sudhakar Rajulu, Erica Miles
To work outside a space craft, humans must wear a protective suit. The required suit pressurization creates additional resistance for the wearer while performing work. How much does the suit effect work and fatigue? To answer these questions, dynamic torque was collected for the shoulder, elbow and wrist for six subjects in an Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). In order to quantify fatigue, the subjects were to exert maximum voluntary torque for five minutes or until their maximum fell below 50% of their initial maximum for three consecutive repetitions. Using the collected torque and time data, logarithmic based functions were derived to estimate torque decay to within an absolute error of 20%. These results will be used in the development of a generalized tool for prediction of maximum available torque over time for humans using the current EMU.
2001-07-09
Technical Paper
2001-01-2318
Cory K. Finn, Karen E. Meyers, Bruce Duffield
The BIO-Plex facility will need to support a variety of life support system designs and operational strategies. These systems will be tested and evaluated in the BIO-Plex facility. An important goal of the life support program is to identify designs that best meet all size and performance constraints for a variety of possible future missions. Integrated human testing is a necessary step in reaching this goal. System modeling and analysis will also play an important role in this endeavor. Currently, simulation studies are being used to estimate air revitalization buffer and storage requirements in order to develop infrastructure requirements of the BIO-Plex facility. Simulation studies are also being used to verify that the envisioned operation strategy will be able to meet all performance criteria. In this paper, a simulation study is presented for a nominal BIO-Plex scenario with a high-level of crop growth.
2002-04-16
Technical Paper
2002-01-1550
Louis J. Glaab, Mohammad A. Takallu
An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effectiveness of Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) flight displays as a means of eliminating Low Visibility Loss of Control (LVLOC) and Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents by low time general aviation (GA) pilots. A series of basic maneuvers were performed by 18 subject pilots during transition from Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC), with continued flight into IMC, employing a fixed-based flight simulator. A total of three display concepts were employed for this evaluation. One display concept, referred to as the Attitude Indicator (AI) replicated instrumentation common in today's General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The second display concept, referred to as the Electronic Attitude Indicator (EAI), featured an enlarged attitude indicator that was more representative of a “glass display” that also included advanced flight symbology, such as a velocity vector.
1998-04-28
Technical Paper
981311
Kevin M. Albers, Kevin J. Abshire
Deneb's Interactive Graphic Robot Instruction Progam (IGRIP) and Envision software packages with the Ergonomic analysis option enabled were used for manufacturing process analysis and maintainability / human factors design evaluation in the Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems - Fort Worth facility. The initial objective of both the manufacturing and maintainability engineering community was to validate the use of ergonomic modeling and simulation tools in an effort to gain acceptance of this new technology. Each discipline selected an existing operation to baseline the validation. Manufacturing selected the F-16 vertical fin as it is assembled from detail parts into a complete assembly, ready to be mated to the aircraft. Maintainability selected the removal of the Expanded Data Entry Electronics Unit (EXDEEU) located behind the ejection seat of the F-16 aircraft.
1997-07-01
Technical Paper
972417
Charles Verostko, Karen Pickering, Fred Smith, Nigel Packham, John Lewis, Greg Stonesifer, Dave Staat, Melissa Rosenbaum
The recovery of potable water from waste water produced by humans in regenerative life support systems is essential for success of long-duration space missions. The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) Phase II test was performed to validate candidate technologies to support these missions. The test was conducted in the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF) at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Discussed in this paper are the water recovery system (WRS) results of this test. A crew of 4-persons participated in the test and lived in the LSSIF chamber for a duration of 30-days from June 12 to July 12, 1996. The crew had accommodations for personal hygiene, the air was regenerated for reuse, and the waste water was processed to potable and hygiene quality for reuse by the crew during this period. The waste water consisted of shower, laundry, handwash, urine and humidity condensate.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961507
M. Kliss, M. Turner, P. Lomax, D. Heathcote, M. Cobb, R. Porter
The Plant Research Unit (PRU) is currently under development by the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) team at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) with a scheduled launch in 2001. The goal of the project is to provide a controlled environment that can support seed-to-seed and other plant experiments for up to 90 days. This paper describes testing conducted on the major PRU prototype subsystems. Preliminary test results indicate that the prototype subsystem hardware can meet most of the SSBRP science requirements within the Space Station mass, volume, power and heat rejection constraints.
2010-05-27
Article
Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide Inc. has been awarded a contract for expanded support of Lockheed Martin's Space Systems' development of the ISIS (Integrated Sensor is the Structure) airship powered by a regenerative fuel cell (RFC).
2008-06-30
Article
Lockheed Martin is drawing upon its experience in the practical use of advanced metals to make a number of significant improvements to the manufacturability and supportability of its three most important aircraft: the C-130J, F-22, and F-35.
2008-06-19
Article
Lockheed Martin signed a cooperative research agreement with the U.S. Army’s Communications-Electronics Research Development and Engineering Center’s Intelligence and Information Warfare Directorate (I2WD) to develop tactical intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities.
2008-06-30
Article
Breaking the mold is the USAF’s newest X-plane, the Advanced Composite Cargo Aircraft (ACCA). Lockheed Martin will build the ACCA, which will be based on a Fairchild Dornier 328J regional jet that will have its aluminum mid/aft fuselage and empennage replaced by sections built of advanced composites.
2008-06-30
Article
With a laser-guided Electronic Mating Alignment System (EMAS), Lockheed Martin employs Leica Laser Trackers from Leica Geosystems for mating of fuselage and wing assemblies for the F-35 Lightning II.
2008-06-30
Article
Lockheed Martin received a $194 million contract from the U.S. Army Aviation & Missile Command for production of the Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS). Work will be conducted at the company’s facilities in Dallas and Horizon City, TX, with completion expected by the second quarter of 2010.
2008-06-30
Article
Boeing and Lockheed Martin are working together to perform studies and system development efforts including collaborative research and development in pursuit of the anticipated U.S. Air Force Next Generation Bomber program.
2008-06-30
Article
Lockheed Martin signed an exclusive international rights agreement to integrate and market Electrical Energy Storage Units (EESUs) from Cedar Park, TX-based EEStor for military and homeland-security applications.
2011-11-16
Article
The U.S. Army awarded Lockheed Martin a $383 million contract to maintain, operate, and sustain the Persistent Threat Detection Systems (PTDS). The tethered aerostat provides real-time, around-the-clock reconnaissance and surveillance of broad geographic areas for warfighters in Iraq and Afghanistan.
2011-11-07
Article
Lockheed Martin Corp. has acquired Sim-Industries B.V., a commercial aviation simulation company located in the Netherlands. The combination of Sim-Industries with Lockheed Martin’s military simulation business will provide airlines, civil pilot training centers, and military customers access to training systems that can be provided more quickly and with lower operating costs.
2011-08-29
Article
The U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Munitions Directorate and Lockheed Martin signed a five-year cooperative research and development agreement to thoroughly assess tri-mode weapon capabilities, emerging targeting concepts, and guidance techniques.
2011-10-14
Article
The MAVEN spacecraft will explore the upper atmosphere of Mars, including its ionosphere and interactions with the sun and solar wind.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 142

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