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Viewing 1 to 30 of 36
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-3007
Julie A. Levri, John A. Hogan, Rich Morrow, Michael C. Ho, Bob Kaehms, Jim Cavazzoni, Christina A. Brodbeck, Dawn R. Whitaker
The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project has accelerated an effort to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for research and technology development (R&TD) data centralization and sharing. This paper presents the OPIS development strategy and status. OPIS is being built as an application framework consisting of an underlying Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP (LAMP) stack and supporting class libraries, which provide database abstraction and automatic code generation. This approach simplifies the development and maintenance process. The approach also allows for quick adaptation to serve multiple Programs/Projects, although initial deployment is for an ALS module. Data will be located on a secure server at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Initial functionality of OPIS will involve a Web-based solicitation of project and technology data, directly from ALS Principal Investigators (PIs) through data collection forms.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2190
Julie A. Levri, John A. Hogan, Rich Morrow, Michael Ho, Bob Kaehms, Jon Welch, Kim Chan, Jim Cavazzoni, Dawn R. Whitaker
The On-line Project Information System (OPIS) is a LAMP-based (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) system being developed at NASA Ames Research Center to improve Agency information transfer and data availability, largely for improvement of system analysis and engineering. The tool will enable users to investigate NASA technology development efforts, connect with experts, and access technology development data. OPIS is currently being developed for NASA's Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project. Within OPIS, NASA ELS Managers assign projects to Principal Investigators (PI), track responsible individuals and institutions, and designate reporting assignments. Each PI populates a “Project Page” with a project overview, team member information, files, citations, and images. PI's may also delegate on-line report viewing and editing privileges to specific team members. Users can browse or search for project and member information.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2019
Julie A Levri, Bruce Deng, Jon Welch, Michael C. Ho, John A Hogan
The On-line Project Information System (OPIS) is a web-based database developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to improve information transfer and data availability for Exploration Life Support (ELS) projects. The tool enables users to investigate NASA technology development efforts, connect with knowledgeable experts, and to communicate important information. Within OPIS, Principal Investigators (PI's) post technical, administrative, and project participant information for other users to access through browse and search mechanisms. PI's are given technical data reporting requirements in the form of annual report templates, to assure that the information reported satisfies the most critical data needs of various ELS user groups. OPIS fulfills data and functionality needs of key user groups in the ELS Community through data solicitation, centralization, and distribution. The tool also circumvents data loss with ELS participant turnover.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2285
Kanapathipillai Wignarajah, Suresh Pisharody, John W. Fisher
In this paper we have developed a unique approach to providing the elements required for crop production in a steady-state condition, which is essential for Space habitats. The approach takes into consideration human elemental requirements and crop requirements for healthy growth and develops a method for the calculation of the rates of nutrient uptake for the different elements for different crops. The uptake rates can be used to calculate the rate of nutrient supply required in the hydroponic solution. This approach ensures that crops produced will not have excessive levels of elements that may be harmful to humans. It also provides an opportunity to optimize the processes of crop production and waste processing through highly controlled feed rates.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2282
Suresh Pisharody, Mark Moran, John W. Fisher, Maher Tleimat
Of the many competing technologies for resource recovery from solid wastes for long duration manned missions such as a lunar or Mars base, incineration technology is one of the most promising and certainly the most well developed in a terrestrial sense. An incinerator was used to recover and recycle part of the waste produced during the Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 3 (EHTI 3) at Johnson Space Center. The fluidized bed incinerator developed for the EHTI testing was a joint initiative between Ames Research Center, University of Utah and Johnson Space Center. Though in no way an optimized system at that time, the fluidized bed combustor fulfilled the basic requirements of a resource recovery system. Valuable data was generated and problem areas, technology development issues and future research directions were identified during the EHTI testing.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2283
John W. Fisher, Suresh Pisharody, Mark J. Moran, Kanapathipillai Wignarajah, Yao Shi, Shih-Ger Chang
This paper presents the results from a joint research initiative between NASA Ames Research Center and Lawrence Berkeley National lab. The objective of the research is to produce activated carbon from life support wastes and to use the activated carbon to adsorb and chemically reduce the NOx and SO2 contained in incinerator flue gas. Inedible biomass waste from food production is the primary waste considered for conversion to activated carbon. Results to date show adsorption of both NOx and SO2 in activated carbon made from biomass. Conversion of adsorbed NOx to nitrogen has also been observed.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2367
Lila M. Mulloth, John E. Finn, Xinhuai Ye, M. Douglas LeVan
The current CO2 removal technology of NASA is very energy intensive and contains many non-optimized subsystems. This paper discusses the concept of a next-generation, membrane-integrated, adsorption processor for CO2 removal and compression in closed-loop air revitalization systems. The membrane module removes water from the feed, passing it directly into the processor's exhaust stream; it replaces the desiccant beds in the current four-bed molecular sieve system, which must be thermally regenerated. Moreover, in the new processor, CO2 is removed and compressed in a single two-stage unit. This processor will use much less power than NASA's current CO2 removal technology and will be capable of maintaining a lower CO2 concentration in the cabin than that can be achieved by the existing CO2 removal systems.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2369
Gregory S. Pace, Suresh Pisharody, John Fisher
This paper describes work that has begun at Ames Research Center on development of a heat melt compactor that can be used on near term and future missions. The heat melt compactor can handle wastes with a significant plastic composition and minimize crew interaction. The current solid waste management system employed on the International Space Station (ISS) consists of compaction, storage, and disposal. Wastes such as plastic food packaging and trash are compacted manually and wrapped in duct taped “footballs” by the astronauts. Much of the waste is simply loaded into the empty Russian Progress spacecraft that is used to bring supplies to ISS. The progress spacecraft and its contents are intentionally burned up in the earth's atmosphere during reentry. This manual method of trash management on ISS is a wasteful use of crew time and does not transition well to far term missions.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2431
Jan Osburg, Constance Adams, Brent Sherwood
In an effort to define and advance the new discipline of Space Architecture, the AIAA technical subcommittee on Aerospace Architecture organized a Space Architecture Workshop that took place during the World Space Congress 2002 in Houston, Texas. One of the results of this workshop is a “Mission Statement for Space Architecture” that addresses the following core issues in a concise manner: definition, motivation, utility, required knowledge, and related disciplines. The workshop also addressed the typology and principles of space architecture, as well as basic philosophical guidelines for practitioners of this discipline. The mission statement, which was unanimously adopted by the workshop participants, reads as follows ([1], [2], [3]): “Space Architecture is the theory and practice of designing and building inhabited environments in outer space, responding to the deep human drive to explore and occupy new places.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2595
Kim Curry, Ed Turner, Kimberlee Prokhorov, Steven Blaha
Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) functionality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) includes responses to emergency conditions. The ISS requirements define three types of emergencies: fire, rapid depressurization, and hazardous or toxic atmosphere. The ISS has automatic integrated vehicle responses to each of these emergencies. These automated responses are designed to aid the crew in their response actions during the emergencies. This paper focuses on the ISS response to fire emergencies. It includes the integrated ISS automatic vehicle response and crew actions for fire. Philosophies covered include fire detection, fire response, and post-fire atmosphere recovery. Current responses and crew actions are discussed for the existing vehicle configuration on-orbit. This includes modules in the assembly sequence up to and including the Docking Compartment (DC1). Possible future improvements to the fire emergency responses are also described.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2585
Marco Molina, Christian Vettore, Maddalena Cova, Alberto Franzoso, Joseph Burger, Craig S. Clark, Chia-Ray Chen, Jih-Run Tsai
This paper reports on the Thermal Control System (TCS) of the AMS-02 (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer). AMS-02 will be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) Starboard segment of the Truss in 2005, where it will acquire data for at least three years. The AMS-02 payload has a mass of about 6700 kg, a power budget of 2kW and consists of 5 different instruments, with their associated electronic equipment. Analytical integration of the AMS-02 thermal mathematical model is described in the paper, together with the main thermal design features. Stringent temperature stability requirements have been satisfied, providing a stable thermal environment that allows for easier calibration of the detectors. The overall thermal design uses a combination of standard and innovative concepts to fit specific instruments needs.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2632
A. J. Hanford, H. Y. Yeh, C. B. Brown, M. K. Ewert
The Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric, or Metric, for Government Fiscal Year 2002 provides a measure of the equivalent system mass for a life support system using the “best” available advanced technologies compared to the equivalent system mass for a life support system using technologies from International Space Station. The present paper details the assumed life support system configurations and algorithm used to compute the Metric. Additionally, various peripheral issues of importance are mentioned.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2627
Lila M. Mulloth, David L. Affleck
A closed-loop air revitalization system requires continuous removal of CO2 from the breathing air and an oxygen recovery system to recover oxygen from the waste CO2. Production of oxygen from CO2 is typically achieved by reacting CO2 with hydrogen in a reduction unit such as a Sabatier reactor. The air revitalization system of International Space Station (ISS) currently operates on an open loop mode where CO2 is being vented into the space vacuum due to lack of a Sabatier Reactor. A compressor and a storage device are required to interface the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) and the Sabatier reactor. This compressor must acquire the low-pressure CO2 from CDRA and provide it at a high enough pressure to the Sabatier reactor. The compressor should ensure independent operations of CDRA and Sabatier reactor at all times, even when their operating schedules are not synchronized.
2001-07-09
Technical Paper
2001-01-2433
Y. M. Zhang, K. K. Andish, J. F. Keener, C. W. Dingell
A SINDA/FLUINT model was developed for performing the thermal analysis of the compressible gaseous nitrogen (GN2) flow of X-38 pressure control system (PCS). The purpose of this analysis is to predict the thermal performance of X-38 PCS for the first mission phase, and to ensure that the GN2 pressure in tank stays above 1000 psi and the GN2 temperature in tank stays above −65°F during a real mission phase. The model simulations of the X-38 PCS have been conducted with the flowrates of the first mission phase for different ambient and GN2 temperatures with/without heating the GN2 tank wall. The predicted results show that the GN2 pressures and temperatures fulfill the requirements and limitations of the X-38 pressure control system without heating the GN2 tank wall. The electrical heaters on the GN2 tank exterior may be eliminated.
2001-07-09
Technical Paper
2001-01-2344
John Fisher, Suresh Pisharody, Mark Moran, Maher Tleimat
Of the many competing technologies for resource recovery from solid wastes for long duration manned missions such as a lunar or Mars base, incineration technology is one of the most promising and certainly the most well developed in a terrestrial sense. Various factors are involved in the design of an optimum fluidized bed incinerator for inedible biomass. The factors include variability of moisture in the biomass, the ash content, and the amount of fuel nitrogen in the biomass. The crop mixture in the waste will vary; consequently the nature of the waste, the nitrogen content, and the biomass heating values will vary as well. Variation in feed will result in variation in the amount of contaminants such as nitrogen oxides that are produced in the combustion part of the incinerator. The incinerator must be robust enough to handle this variability. Research at NASA Ames Research Center using the fluidized bed incinerator has yielded valuable data on system parameters and variables.
2001-07-09
Technical Paper
2001-01-2324
Richard D. Morton, Imelda C. Stambaugh, Gregg S. Weaver, Michael K. Ewert, Kathryn M. Hurlbert
Engineers at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) are using innovative strategies to design the TCS for the Bio-regenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex), a regenerative advanced life support system ground test bed. This paper provides a current description of the BIO-Plex TCS design, testing objectives, analyses, descriptions of the TCS test articles expected to be tested in the BIO-Plex, and forward work regarding TCS. The TCS has been divided into some subsystems identified as permanent “infrastructure” for the BIO-Plex and others that are “test articles” that may change from one test to the next. The infrastructure subsystems are the Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC), the Crew Chambers Internal Thermal Control Subsystem (CC ITCS), the Biomass Production Chamber Internal Thermal Control Subsystem (BPC ITCS), the Waste Heat Distribution Subsystem (WHDS) and the External Thermal Control Subsystem (ETCS).
2001-07-09
Technical Paper
2001-01-2320
Cheryl B. Brown, Wen-Ching Lee
The Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) Sizing Model has been designed to incorporate plant growth chamber options into NASA’s Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool. The concept addressed by the model is that the gas exchange from a biomass production chamber, in conjunction with human metabolic data and food consumption rates, can be used to estimate the chamber size necessary for the gas exchange and food production rate required for a specific crew size. NASA’s baseline design utilizes a 78m2 (840 ft2) plant growth area and a 9.45m (31 ft) center shelf length. Using an iterative comparison method, the center shelf is incremented by 1.5m (5 ft) sections until necessary food production requirements and gas exchange rates are satisfied.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2303
John F. Keener, Thomas Paul, Bradley Eckhardt, Fredrick Smith
This paper details the analysis and design of the Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS) environmental control system for International Space Station (ISS). The TeSS will provide crewmembers with a private and personal space, to accommodate sleeping, donning and doffing of clothing, personal communication and performance of recreational activities. The need for privacy to accommodate these activities requires adequate ventilation inside the TeSS. This study considers whether temperature, carbon dioxide, and humidity remain within crew comfort and safety levels for various expected operating scenarios. Evaluation of these scenarios required the use and integration of various simulation codes. An approach was adapted for this study, whereby results from a particular code were integrated with other codes when necessary.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2522
Wen-Ching Lee, Michael K. Ewert
A key component of an Advanced Life Support (ALS) system is the solid waste handling system. One of the most important data sets for determining what solid waste handling technologies are needed is a solid waste model. A preliminary solid waste model based on a six-person crew was developed prior to the 2000 Solid Waste Processing and Resource Recovery (SWPRR) workshop. After the workshop, comments from the ALS community helped refine the model. Refinements included better estimates of both inedible plant biomass and packaging materials. Estimates for Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) waste, water processor brine solution, as well as the water contents for various solid wastes were included in the model refinement efforts. The wastes were re-categorized and the dry wastes were separated from wet wastes. This paper details the revised model as of the end of 2001. The packaging materials, as well as the biomass wastes, vary significantly between different proposed Mars missions.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2478
Michael P. Alazraki, John Hogan, Julie Levri, John Fisher, Alan Drysdale
Solid Waste Management (SWM) requirements need to be defined prior to determining what technologies should be developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project. Since future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architectures outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2480
Michael K. Ewert, Alan E. Drysdale, Julie A. Levri, Bruce E. Duffield, Anthony J. Hanford, Kevin E. Lange, Kristin W. Stafford
To effectively develop advanced life support technologies to support humans on future missions into space, the requirements for these missions must first be defined. How many people will go? Where will they go? What risks must be protected against? Since NASA does not officially establish new exploration programs until authorized by Congress, there are no program requirements documents or list of “planned missions” to refer to. Therefore, technology developers must look elsewhere for information on how and where their development efforts and concepts may be used. This paper summarizes the development of several sources designed to help Advanced Life Support researchers working to extend a human presence in space.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2479
Julie A. Levri, John W. Fisher, Michael P. Alazraki, John A. Hogan
Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of mission requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements and planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2457
E. Neal Zapp, C. Dardano, Tad Shelfer, E. J. Semones, A. S. Johnson, M. Weyland, M. J. Golightly, Gwyn Smith
In order to estimate the exposure to a crew in space, there are three essential steps to be performed: first, the ambient radiation environment at the vehicle must be characterized; second, the mass distribution properties of the vehicle, including the crewmembers themselves must be developed, and third a model of the interactions of space radiations with matter must be employed in order to characterize the radiation field at the dose point of interest. The Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) at the NASA, Johnson Space Center carries the primary responsibility for the operational radiation protection support function associated with manned space flight. In order to provide support during the various planning, execution, and analysis/recording phase activities associated with a given mission, tools have been developed to allow rapid, repeatable calculations of exposure on orbit.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2366
Jose A. Marmolejo, Philip A. Landis, Marc Sommers
In July 2001, during Space Shuttle Flight 7A, the Joint Airlock was added to the International Space Station (ISS) and utilized in performing the first extravehicular activity (EVA) from the ISS. Unlike previous airlock designs built by the United States or Russia, the Joint Airlock provides the ISS with the unique capability for performing EVAs utilizing either U.S. or Russian spacesuits. This EVA capability is made possible by the use of U.S.- and Russian- manufactured hardware items referred to as Servicing and Performance Checkout Equipment (SPCE) located in both the Joint Airlock's Equipment and Crew Locks. This paper provides a description for each SPCE item along with a summary of the requirements and capabilities provided in support of EVA events from the ISS Joint Airlock.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2401
John W. Fisher, Suresh Pisharody, Mark J. Moran, Kanapathipillai Wignarajah, X. H. Xu, Yao Shi, Shih-Ger Chang
NASA Ames Research Center and Lawrence Berkeley National lab have completed a three-year joint NRA research project on the use of waste biomass to make a gaseous contaminant removal system. The objective of the research was to produce activated carbon from life support wastes and to use the activated carbon to adsorb and remove incineration flue gas contaminants such as NOx. Inedible biomass waste from food production was the primary waste considered for conversion to activated carbon. Previous research at NASA Ames has demonstrated the adsorption of both NOx and SO2 on activated carbon made from biomass and the subsequent conversion of adsorbed NOx to nitrogen and SO2 to sulfur. This paper presents the results testing the whole process system consisting of making, using, and regenerating activated carbon with relevant feed from an actual incinerator. Factors regarding carbon preparation, adsorption and regeneration are addressed.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2343
Richard R. Chu
There have been many software programs that have provided simulations for the performance and operation of the Environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (ECLSS) in the International Space Station (ISS) and in the Space Shuttle. These programs have been applied for purposes in system analysis, flight analysis, and ECLSS studies. Flight and system analysis tasks are deemed important. Therefore, more manpower and resources added for such work is considered beneficial. System analysis covers design and trouble-shooting, the validation of Flight Rules, and the contingency analysis. During the engineering design phase, ECLSS modelers predict the performance and interaction of units in a process train. Simulation results can be useful in estimating equipment sizes and costs. This article has also used two examples to illustrate that many Flight Rules need to be validated using properly selected integrated programs.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2347
Y. M. Zhang, W. C. Lee, J. F. Keener, F. D. Smith
A thermal analysis of the compressible carbon dioxide (CO2) flow for the Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) system has been performed. A SINDA/FLUINT model has been developed for this analysis. The model includes the PFE tank and the Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS) nozzle, and both have an initial temperature of 72 °F. In order to investigate the thermal effect on the nozzle due to discharging CO2, the PFE TeSS nozzle pipe has been divided into three segments. This model also includes heat transfer predictions for PFE tank inner and outer wall surfaces. The simulation results show that the CO2 discharge rates and component wall temperatures fall within the requirements for the PFE system. The simulation results also indicate that after 50 seconds, the remaining CO2 in the tank may be near the triple point (gas, liquid and solid) state and, therefore, restricts the flow.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2485
Fredrik Rehnmark, Nancy Currie, Robert O. Ambrose, Christopher Culbert
NASA's Human Space Flight program depends heavily on spacewalks performed by pairs of suited human astronauts. These Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) are severely restricted in both duration and scope by consumables and available manpower. An expanded multi-agent EVA team combining the information-gathering and problem-solving skills of human astronauts with the survivability and physical capabilities of highly dexterous space robots is proposed. A 1-g test featuring two NASA/DARPA Robonaut systems working side-by-side with a suited human subject is conducted to evaluate human-robot teaming strategies in the context of a simulated EVA assembly task based on the STS-61B ACCESS flight experiment.
1999-07-12
Technical Paper
1999-01-1970
Karen L. Nyberg, Mary K. O’Connell
Automatic thermal control (ATC) was investigated for implementation into a spacesuit to provide thermal neutrality to the astronaut through a range of activity levels. Two different control concepts were evaluated and compared for their ability to maintain subject thermal comfort. Six test subjects, who were involved in a series of three tests, walked on a treadmill following specific metabolic profiles while wearing the Mark III spacesuit in ambient environmental conditions. Results show that individual subject comfort was effectively provided by both algorithms over a broad range of metabolic activity. ATC appears to be highly effective in providing efficient, “hands-off” thermal regulation requiring minimal instrumentation. Final selection of an algorithm to be implemented in an advanced spacesuit system will require testing in dynamic thermal environments and consideration of technology for advancement in instrumentation and controller performance.
1999-07-12
Technical Paper
1999-01-1995
Mary K. O'Connell, Howard G. Slade, Richard G. Stinson
A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. “Foam”, “Motherboard”, and “LEGO™” packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.
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