Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 105
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1309
Petros Efthymiou, Martin H. Davy, Colin P. Garner, Graham K. Hargrave, John E.T. Rimmer, Dave Richardson
Particulate Matter (PM) emissions reduction is an imminent challenge for Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine designers due to the introduction of Particulate Number (PN) standards in the proposed Euro 6 emissions legislation aimed at delivering the next phase of air quality improvements. An understanding of how the formation of combustion-derived nanoparticulates in engines is affected by the engine operating temperature is important for air quality improvement and will influence future engine design and control strategies. This investigation has examined the effect on combustion and PM formation when reducing the engine operating temperature to -7°C. A DISI single-cylinder optical research engine was modified to simulate a range of operating temperatures down to the proposed -7°C.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1535
Christopher Edward Baker, Homer Rahnejat, Ramin Rahmani PhD, Stephanos Theodossiades
Piston compression rings are thin, incomplete circular structures which are subject to complex motions during a typical 4-stroke internal combustion engine cycle. Ring dynamics comprises its inertial motion relative to the piston, within the confine of its seating groove. There are also elastodynamic modes, such as the ring in-plane motions. A number of modes can be excited, dependent on the net applied force. The latter includes the ring tension and cylinder pressure loading, both of which act outwards on the ring and conform it to the cylinder bore. There is also the radial inward force as the result of ring-bore conjunctional pressure (i.e. contact force). Under transient conditions, the inward and outward forces do not equilibrate, resulting in the small inertial radial motion of the ring.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1586
Malika Perera, Stephanos Theodossiades, Homer Rahnejat, Patrick Kelly
Modern automotive industry is driven by improved fuel efficiency, whilst simultaneously increasing output power and reducing size/weight of vehicle components. This trend has the drawback of inducing various Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) concerns in the drivetrain, since fairly low energy excitation often suffices to excite natural modes of thin walled structures, such as the transmission bell housing. Transmission rattle is one of the many undesired NVH issues, originating from irregularities in engine torque output. The crankshaft speed fluctuations are transferred through the transmission input shaft. Transmission compactness also allows repetitive interaction of conjugate loose gear pairs. The engine fluctuations disturb the otherwise unintended, but orderly meshing of these loose gears. This often leads to radiation of a characteristic air-borne noise from the impact sites.
2011-09-11
Journal Article
2011-24-0209
Benjamin T. Johnson, Graham K. Hargrave, Benjamin Reid, Vivian J. Page
Crankcase emissions are a complex mixture of combustion products and aerosol generated from lubrication oil. The crankcase emissions contribute substantially to the total particulate matter (PM) emitted from an engine. Environment legislation demands that either the combustion and crankcase emissions are combined to give a total measurement, or the crankcase gases are re-circulated back into the engine. There is a lack of understanding regarding the physical processes that generate crankcase aerosols, with a paucity of information on the size/mass concentrations of particles present in the crankcase. In this study the particulate matter crankcase emissions were measured from a fired and motored 4-cylinder compression ignition engine at a range of speeds and crankcase locations.
2011-06-09
Journal Article
2011-37-0015
Rob Littlewood, Martin Passmore, Daniel Wood
A large contribution to the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle (30%(1) or more depending on vehicle shape) arises from the low base pressure in the wake region, especially on square-back configurations. A degree of base pressure recovery can be achieved through careful shape optimization, but the flow structures and mechanisms within the wake that cause these base pressure changes are not well understood. A more complete understanding of these mechanisms may provide opportunities for further drag reductions from both passive shape changes and in the future through the use of active flow control technologies. In this work surprisingly large changes in drag and lift coefficients of a square-back style vehicle have been measured as a result of physically small passive modifications. Tests were performed at quarter scale using a simplified vehicle model (Windsor Model) and at full scale using an MPV. The full scale vehicle was tested with and without a flat floor.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0322
Emmanuel Touloupis, James A Flint, Vassilios A Chouliaras, David D. Ward
The introduction of drive-by-wire systems into modern vehicles has generated new challenges for the designers of embedded systems. These systems, based primarily on microcontrollers, need to achieve very high levels of reliability and availability, but also have to satisfy the strict cost and packaging constraints of the automotive industry. Advances in VLSI technology have allowed the development of single-chip systems, but have also increased the rate of intermittent and transient faults that come as a result of the continuous shrinkage of the CMOS process feature size. This paper presents a low-cost, fault-tolerant system-on-chip architecture suitable for drive-by-wire and other safety-related applications, based on a triple-modular-redundancy configuration at the processor execution pipeline level.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1975
Saud Binjuwair, Salah Ibrahim, Graham Wigley, Graham Pitcher
This paper deals with experimental investigations of the in-cylinder flow structures under steady state conditions utilizing Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The experiments have been conducted on an engine head of a pent-roof type (Lotus) for a number of fixed valve lifts and different inlet valve configurations at two pressure drops, 250mm and 635mm of H2O that correlate with engine speeds of 2500 and 4000 RPM respectively. From the two-dimensional in-cylinder flow measurements, a tumble flow analysis is carried out for six planes parallel to the cylinder axis. In addition, a swirl flow analysis is carried out for one horizontal plane perpendicular to the cylinder axis at half bore downstream from the cylinder head (44mm). The results show the advantage of using the planar technique (PIV) for investigating the complete flow structures developed inside the cylinder.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1701
Sagar Mody, Thomas Steffen
Abstract The goal of grid friendly charging is to avoid putting additional load on the electricity grid when it is heavily loaded already, and to reduce the cost of charging to the consumer. In a smart metering system, Day Ahead tariff (DA) prices are announced in advance for the next day. This information can be used for a simple optimization control, to select to charge at cheapest times. However, the balance of supply and demand is not fully known in advance and the Real-Time Prices (RTP) are therefore likely to be different at times. There is always a risk of a sudden price change, hence adding a stochastic element to the optimization in turn requiring dynamic control to achieve optimal time selection. A stochastic dynamic program (SDP) controller which takes this problem into account has been made and proven by simulation in a previous paper.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1877
Petros Efthymiou, Colin P. Garner, Graham K. Hargrave, David Richardson
Particulate number (PN) standards in the current ‘Euro 6’ European emissions standards pose a challenge for engine designers and calibrators during the warm-up phases of cold direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines. To achieve catalyst light-off in the shortest time, engine strategies are often employed which inherently use more fuel to attain higher exhaust temperatures. This can lead to the generation of locally fuel-rich regions within the combustion chamber and the emission of particulates. This investigation analyses the combustion structures during the transient start-up phase of an optical DISI engine. High-speed, colour 9 kHz imaging was used to investigate five important operating points of an engine start-up strategy whilst simultaneously recording in-cylinder pressure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1693
Mark Allen, Graham Hargrave, Petros Efthymiou, Viv Page, Jean-Yves Tillier, Chris Holt
Abstract It is an engineering requirement that gases entrained in the coolant flow of an engine must be removed to retain cooling performance, while retaining a volume of gas in the header tank for thermal expansion and pressure control. The main gases present are air from filling the system, exhaust emissions from leakage across the head gasket, and also coolant vapour. These gases reduce the performance of the coolant pump and lower the heat transfer coefficient of the fluid. This is due to the reduction in the mass fraction of liquid coolant and the change in fluid turbulence. The aim of the research work contained within this paper was to analyse an existing phase separator using CFD and physical testing to assist in the design of an efficient phase separator.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0302
Sagar Mody, Thomas Steffen
Abstract The idea of grid friendly charging is to use electricity from the grid to charge batteries when electricity is available in surplus and cheap. The goal is twofold: to avoid putting additional load on the electricity grid and to reduce the cost to the consumer. To achieve this, a smart meter and a tariff with variable electricity prices has to be in place. In Day Ahead tariff (DA), prices are announced in advance for the next day, and this information can be used to select the cheapest times to charge the battery by the required amount. The optimization method is very simple, and it only has to be run once per day. However, the balance of supply and demand is not fully known in advance. Therefore Real Time Pricing (RTP) tariff supplies electricity at spot market rate depending on the current balance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0171
Xunzhe Zhang, Richard Stobart, Ran Bao
Abstract China is the world’s largest automotive producer and has the world’s biggest automobile market. However, in the past decades, the development of China’s automotive industry has depended primarily on the foreign direct investment; domestic automakers have struggled in the lower ranks of car producers. In recent years, China’s automotive industry, supported by government policies, has been improving their Research and Development (R&D) capacity, to compete with their international peers. Against this background, China’s automotive industry requires a large number of R&D professionals who have not only a higher degree but also the applied and practical knowledge and skills of research. For the purpose of meeting the industry’s needs, a new Professional Automotive Engineering Masters Programme was launched in 2009, which aims to deliver the Masters to be the R&D professionals in the future.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1989
Farraen Mohd Azmin, Richard K. Stobart
Model-based calibration (MBC) is a systematic method to calibrate an engine control unit (ECU) system. Due to the working principle of MBC, it is only being used for steady-state systems (time independent models). This limits the use of MBC; because an ECU contains statistical and dynamical systems. Due to the limitations of MBC, dynamical systems require manual tuning which may be time-consuming. With the increasing popularity in hybrid and electrical vehicle systems, most of them rely on dynamical systems. Therefore, MBC is about to be superseded by manual parameterization methods. Remarkably, MBC is not limited to the steady state systems. It can be achieved by separating the time factor of a system and extracting the statistical data from a time series measurement. Typically, MBC model is conceived as the representation of a system plant (i.e.: air path, fuel path, mean value engine model). As a matter of fact, MBC model is not limited to identification of system plant.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1072
Peter Schaal, Byron Mason, Sotiris Filippou, Ioannis Souflas, Mark Cary
Abstract The paper presents a measurement methodology which combines a fine-wire thermocouple with input reconstruction in order to measure crank angle resolved temperature in an engine air-intake system. Thermocouples that are of practical use in engine experiments tend to have a large time constant which affects measurement accuracy during rapid temperature transients. Input reconstruction methods have previously been applied to thermocouples but have not been specifically used in combination with an ultra-thin uninsulated wire thermocouple to investigate cyclic intake temperature behavior. Accurate measurement results are of interest to improve the validity of many crank-angle resolved engine models. An unshielded thermocouple sensor has been developed which is rigid enough to withstand the aerodynamic forces of the intake air.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0189
Song Lan, Cedric Rouaud, Richard Stobart, Rui Chen, Zhijia Yang, Dezong Zhao
Abstract This paper reports on an investigation into the potential for a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to improve the fuel economy of a mild hybrid vehicle. A simulation model of a parallel hybrid vehicle equipped with a TEG in the exhaust system is presented. This model is made up by three sub-models: a parallel hybrid vehicle model, an exhaust model and a TEG model. The model is based on a quasi-static approach, which runs a fast and simple estimation of the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The model is validated against both experimental and published data. Using this model, the annual fuel saving, CO2 reduction and net present value (NPV) of the TEG’s life time fuel saving are all investigated. The model is also used as a flexible tool for analysis of the sensitivity of vehicle fuel consumption to the TEG design parameters. The analysis results give an effective basis for optimization of the TEG design.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1756
Miguel De la Cruz, Stephanos Theodossiades
Abstract In this paper, a direct correlation between transmission gear rattle experiments and numerical models is presented, particularly focusing on the noise levels (dB) measured from a single gear pair test rig. The rig is placed in a semi-anechoic chamber environment to aid the noise measurements and instrumented with laser vibrometers, accelerometers and free field microphones. The input torsional velocity is provided by an electric motor, which is controlled by a signal generator, aiming to introduce an alternating component onto the otherwise nominal speed; thus, emulating the engine orders found in an internal combustion engine. These harmonic irregularities are conceived to be the triggering factor for gear rattle to occur. Hence, the rig is capable of running under rattling and non-rattling conditions. The numerical model used accounts for the gear pair's torsional dynamics, lubricated impacts between meshing teeth and bearing friction.
2014-06-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2089
Mahdi Mohammadpour, Ramin Rahmani, Homer Rahnejat
Abstract This paper presents an investigation of Cylinder De-Activation (CDA) technology on the performance of big end bearings. A multi-physics approach is used in order to take into account more realistic dynamic loading effects on the tribological behavior. The power loss, minimum film thickness and maximum temperature of big end bearings have been calculated during maneuver pertaining to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Results show that bearing efficiency runs contrary to efficiency gained through combustion and pumping losses. Under CDA mode, the power loss of big end bearings is more than the power loss under engine normal mode. The problem is predominant at higher engine speeds and higher Brake mean Effective Pressures (BMEP) in active cylinders. It is also observed that the minimum film thickness is reduced under the CDA mode. This can affect wear performance. In addition, same behavior is noted for the maximum temperature rise which is higher under CDA.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0082
Anita Chaudhari, Alexandros Plianos, Richard Stobart
This paper presents a control system design strategy for a novel fuel cell - internal combustion engine hybrid power system. Dynamic control oriented models of the system components are developed. The transient behavior of the system components is investigated in order to determine control parameters and set-points. The analysis presented here is the first step towards development of a controller for this complex system. The results indicate various possibilities for control design and development. A control strategy is discussed to achieve system performance optimization.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0473
Phil Newnham, Martin Passmore, Anthony Baxendale
The turbulence environment in the real world is known to be significantly different to that found in a typical automotive wind tunnel. Various studies have shown that raising the level of freestream turbulence has an effect on the forces on generic bluff bodies and real vehicles. Previous work at Loughborough has shown a significant effect of raised freestream turbulence on edge radius optimisation using measurements of forces and moments, and in this paper the underlying changes in the flowfield are investigated using PIV. Results are presented of the flowfield around the leading edge radius of the generic bluff body used in the previous work. The effect of changing the Reynolds number is investigated in the clean tunnel (0.2% turbulence), and it is found that, when the radius is small, there is a significant separation that persists up to a high speed, and then abruptly collapses.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2796
Bastian Maass, Richard Stobart, Jiamei Deng
This work describes the application of Non-Linear Autoregressive Models with Exogenous Inputs (NLARX) in order to predict the NOx emissions of heavy-duty diesel engines. Two experiments are presented: 1.) a Non-Road-Transient-Cycle (NRTC) 2.) a composition of different engine operation modes and different engine calibrations. Data sets are pre-processed by normalization and re-arranged into training and validation sets. The chosen model is taken from the MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox using the algorithms provided. It is teacher forced trained and then validated. Training results show recognizable performance. However, the validation shows the potential of the chosen method.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1927
A. M. Williams, C. P. Garner, J. E. Harry, D. W. Hoare, D. Mariotti, K. S. Ladha, J. W. Proctor, Y. Yang, J. G. P. Binner
This paper presents research into a novel autoselective electric discharge method for regenerating monolithic wall flow diesel particulate filters using low power over the entire range of temperatures and oxygen concentrations experienced within the exhaust systems of modern diesel engines. The ability to regenerate the filter independently of exhaust gas temperature and composition significantly reduces system complexity compared to other systems. In addition, the system does not require catalyst loading and uses only mass- produced electronic and electrical components, thus reducing the cost of the after-treatment package. Purpose built exhaust gas simulation test rigs were used to evaluate, develop and optimise the autoselective regeneration system. On-engine testing demonstrated the performance of the autoselective regeneration process under real engine conditions.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0673
Rui Chen, Zhen Liu
A multi-zone Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) model for simulating the combustion and emissions has been developed and reported in this paper. The model takes into account the effects of the boundary layer, crevice volume, and blowby. In order to investigate the influences of in-cylinder inhomogeneity, the main cylinder chamber has been divided into multiple core zones with varying temperature and composition. Mass and energy transfer between neighbouring zones were modeled. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism was implemented in each zone to simulate the CAI combustion chemistry and emission formation. An in-house code, the LUCKS (Loughborough University Chemical Kinetics Simulation), was employed to solve the coupled differential equations of the system. The model was validated against experimental results at various Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation (IEGR) levels and was then used to analyze the thermal and chemical effect of the IEGR on the CAI combustion.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0328
M. De la Cruz, S. Theodossiades, H. Rahnejat, P. Kelly
Manual transmission gear rattle is the result of repetitive impacts of gear meshing teeth within their backlash. This phenomenon can occur under various loaded or lightly loaded conditions. It fundamentally differs from other transient NVH phenomena, such as clonk or thud, which are due to impulsive actions [1]. However, they all have their lowest common denominator in the action of contact/impact forces through lubricated contacts. Various forms of rattle have been cited, owing to the mechanism of manifestation and operating conditions [2, 3 and 4], among which drive rattle, creep rattle and over-run rattle can be found. In this work, a transmission model for creep rattle conditions has been developed taking into account the lubricated impacts of the gear teeth pairs during a meshing cycle and the friction between the contacting teeth flanks.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0457
Achillefs Tsotras, George Mavros
The two-dimensional, frictional tyre-road contact interaction is investigated. A transient contact algorithm is developed, consisting of an analytical belt model, a non linear sidewall structure and a discretized viscoelastic tread foundation. The relationship between the magnitude/shape of the predicted two-dimensional pressure distribution and the corresponding belt deformation is identified. The effect of vertical load and the role of sidewall non linearity are highlighted. The modal expansion/reduction method is proposed for the increase of the computational efficiency and the effect of the degree of reduction on the simulation accuracy is presented. The qualitative results are physically explained through the participation of certain modes in the equilibrium solution, offering directions for the application of the modal reduction method in shear force oriented tyre models.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1626
Rishin Patel, Nicos Ladommatos, Philip A. Stansfield, Graham Wigley, Colin P. Garner, Graham Pitcher, James W. G. Turner, Hans Nuglisch
For a spark-ignition engine, the parasitic loss suffered as a result of conventional throttling has long been recognised as a major reason for poor part-load fuel efficiency. While lean, stratified charge, operation addresses this issue, exhaust gas aftertreatment is more challenging compared with homogeneous operation and three-way catalyst after-treatment. This paper adopts a different approach: homogeneous charge direct injection (DI) operation with variable valve actuations which reduce throttling losses. In particular, low-lift and early inlet valve closing (EIVC) strategies are investigated. Results from a thermodynamic single cylinder engine are presented that quantify the effect of two low-lift camshafts and one standard high-lift camshaft operating EIVC strategies at four engine running conditions; both, two- and single-inlet valve operation were investigated. Tests were conducted for both port and DI fuelling, under stoichiometric conditions.
2008-06-23
Journal Article
2008-01-1632
Ming Jia, Zhijun Peng, Maozhao Xie, Richard Stobart
Diesel homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines with early injection can result in significant spray/wall impingement which seriously affects the fuel efficiency and emissions. In this paper, the spray/wall interaction models which are available in the literatures are reviewed, and the characteristics of modeling including spray impingement regime, splash threshold, mass fraction, size and velocity of the second droplets are summarized. Then three well developed spray/wall interaction models, O'Rourke and Amsden (OA) model, Bai and Gosman (BG) model and Han, Xu and Trigui (HXT) model, are implemented into KIVA-3V code, and validated by the experimental data from recent literatures under the conditions related to diesel HCCI engines. By comparing the spray pattern, droplet mass, size and velocity after the impingement, the thickness of the wall film and vapor distribution with the experimental data, the performance of these three models are evaluated.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1711
Matt Best, Jiamei Deng, Richard Stobart, James Marco
Traditionally, university research in engine technology has been focused on fundamental engine phenomena. Increasingly however, research topics are developing in the form of systems issues. Examples include air and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) management, after-treatment systems, engine cooling, hybrid systems and energy recovery. This trend leads to the need for engine research to be conducted using currently available products and components that are re-configured or incrementally improved to support a particular research investigation. A production engine will include an electronic control unit (ECU) that must be understood and utilised or simply removed and circumvented. In general the intellectual property (IP) limitations places on ECUs by their suppliers mean that they cannot be used. The supplier of the ECU is usually unable to reveal any detail of the implementation. As a consequence any research using production hardware is seriously disadvantaged from the beginning.
2008-12-02
Technical Paper
2008-01-2958
Thomas C. Stone, Sebastian Visser, Matthew C. Best
Here we consider the construction of a model in the matlab/simulink environment that describes the dynamic processes occurring within the driveline of a Top Fuel Dragster. Particular emphasis is placed upon development of the model for aspects of powertrain performance that are unique to operation of a dragster. This includes clutch operation, tyre modelling including squat and growth and vertical load variation. The model predictions are compared to vehicle test data, and although predictions are not accurate clear similarities are seen. Hence a good basis for simulating the dragster has been produced but significant parameter tuning work is still required. The paper considers future enhancements to the model and methods for identifying model parameters, in order to further improve accuracy.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0003
Jeff Howell, Joshua Baden Fuller, Martin Passmore
Various studies have shown that the level of wind noise experienced inside cars on the road in unsteady conditions can be substantially different from that measured in wind tunnel tests conducted using a low turbulence facility. In this paper a simple geometric body representing the cabin of a passenger car has been used to investigate the effects of free stream turbulence, (FST), on the A-pillar vortex flowfield and the side glass pressure distribution. Beneath the A-pillar vortex, both mean and dynamic pressures are increased by FST. The unsteady pressure can be associated with wind noise and the flow visualization shows the peak unsteadiness is related to the separation of the secondary vortex.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0146
Anita Chaudhari, Alexandros Plianos, Richard Stobart
Fuel cell hybrid systems have emerged rapidly in efforts to reduce emissions. The success of these systems mainly depends on implementation of suitable control architectures. This paper presents a control system design for a novel fuel cell - IC Engine hybrid power system. Control oriented models of the system components are developed and integrated. Based on the simulation results of the system model, the control variables are identified. The main objective for the control design is to manage fuel, air and exhaust flows in a way to deliver the required load on the system within local constraints. The controller developed for regulating flows in the system is based on model predictive control theory. The performance of the overall control system is assessed through simulations on a nonlinear dynamic model.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 105

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: