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Viewing 1 to 30 of 65
1983-02-01
Technical Paper
830576
G. G. Lucas, D. McLean, P. Adcock
An electronically controlled fuel system has been developed which enables the injection timing and fuel delivery to be adjusted from engine cycle to cycle using a small micro-computer and a solenoid operated injector. The injector uses a powerful solenoid to control the needle lift of a standard injector and employs pressure time metering to regulate the fuel delivery. The microcomputer is used to determine the required timing pulses which are used to control the current in the solenoid. The maximum delivery of the injector is 60mm3/injection and the system has been successfully tested on an 1800 cc IDI four cylinder engine fitted with Pintaux fuel injectors.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1586
Malika Perera, Stephanos Theodossiades, Homer Rahnejat, Patrick Kelly
Modern automotive industry is driven by improved fuel efficiency, whilst simultaneously increasing output power and reducing size/weight of vehicle components. This trend has the drawback of inducing various Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) concerns in the drivetrain, since fairly low energy excitation often suffices to excite natural modes of thin walled structures, such as the transmission bell housing. Transmission rattle is one of the many undesired NVH issues, originating from irregularities in engine torque output. The crankshaft speed fluctuations are transferred through the transmission input shaft. Transmission compactness also allows repetitive interaction of conjugate loose gear pairs. The engine fluctuations disturb the otherwise unintended, but orderly meshing of these loose gears. This often leads to radiation of a characteristic air-borne noise from the impact sites.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1535
Christopher Edward Baker, Homer Rahnejat, Ramin Rahmani PhD, Stephanos Theodossiades
Piston compression rings are thin, incomplete circular structures which are subject to complex motions during a typical 4-stroke internal combustion engine cycle. Ring dynamics comprises its inertial motion relative to the piston, within the confine of its seating groove. There are also elastodynamic modes, such as the ring in-plane motions. A number of modes can be excited, dependent on the net applied force. The latter includes the ring tension and cylinder pressure loading, both of which act outwards on the ring and conform it to the cylinder bore. There is also the radial inward force as the result of ring-bore conjunctional pressure (i.e. contact force). Under transient conditions, the inward and outward forces do not equilibrate, resulting in the small inertial radial motion of the ring.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1927
A. M. Williams, C. P. Garner, J. E. Harry, D. W. Hoare, D. Mariotti, K. S. Ladha, J. W. Proctor, Y. Yang, J. G. P. Binner
This paper presents research into a novel autoselective electric discharge method for regenerating monolithic wall flow diesel particulate filters using low power over the entire range of temperatures and oxygen concentrations experienced within the exhaust systems of modern diesel engines. The ability to regenerate the filter independently of exhaust gas temperature and composition significantly reduces system complexity compared to other systems. In addition, the system does not require catalyst loading and uses only mass- produced electronic and electrical components, thus reducing the cost of the after-treatment package. Purpose built exhaust gas simulation test rigs were used to evaluate, develop and optimise the autoselective regeneration system. On-engine testing demonstrated the performance of the autoselective regeneration process under real engine conditions.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0234
J. Patterson, M. G. Hassan, A. Clarke, G. Shama, K. Hellgardt, R. Chen
Methyl esters derived from vegetable oils by the process of transesterification (commonly referred as ‘biodiesel’), can be used as an alternative fuel in compression ignition engines. In this study, three different vegetable oils (rape, soy and waste oil) were used to produce biodiesel fuels that were then tested in a four cylinder direct injection engine, typically used in small diesel genset applications. Engine performance and emissions were recorded at five load conditions and at two different speeds. This paper presents the results obtained for measurements of NOx and smoke opacity at the different speed and load conditions for the three biodiesels, and their blends (5 and 50% v/v) with mineral diesel. A simple combustion analysis was also performed where ignition delay, position and magnitude of peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were examined to asses how the variation of chemical structure and blend percentage affects engine performance.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1853
J. W. G. Turner, R. J. Pearson, M. D. Bassett, D. W. Blundell, D. W. Taitt
An expedient route to improving in-vehicle fuel economy in 4-stroke cycle engines is to reduce the swept volume of an engine and run it at a higher BMEP for any given output. The full-load performance of a larger capacity engine can be achieved through pressure charging. However, for maximum fuel economy, particularly at part-load, the expansion ratio, and consequently the compression ratio (CR) should be kept as high as possible. This is at odds with the requirement in pressure-charged gasoline engines to reduce the CR at higher loads due to the knock limit. In earlier work, the authors studied a pressure-charging system aimed at allowing a high CR to be maintained at all times. The operation of this type of system involves deliberately over-compressing the charge air, cooling it at the elevated pressure and temperature, and then expanding it down to the desired plenum pressure, ensuring a plenum temperature which can potentially become sub-atmospheric at full-load.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0024
Dimitris Panousakis, Andreas Gazis, Jill Patterson, Rui Chen, Jamie Turner, Nebosja Milovanovic, David Blundel
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), combustion has the potential to be highly efficient and to produce low NOx, carbon dioxide and particulate matter emissions, but experiences problems with cold start, running at idle and producing high power density. A solution to these is to operate the engine in a ‘hybrid mode’, where the engine operates in spark ignition mode at cold start, idle and high loads and HCCI mode elsewhere during the drive cycle, demanding a seamless transition between the two modes of combustion through spark assisted controlled auto ignition. Moreover; HCCI requires considerable control to maintain consistent start of combustion and heat release rate, which has thus far limited HCCI's practical application. In order to provide a suitable control method, a feedback signal is required.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1039
Thomas Lockyer, Benjamin Reid, Graham Hargrave, Paul Gaynor, Jonathan Wilson
Abstract Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has become the mainstream approach for removing heavy-duty (HD) diesel engine NOx emissions. Highly efficient SCR systems are a key enabling technology allowing engines to be calibrated for very high NOx output with a resultant gain in fuel consumption while still maintaining NOx emissions compliance. One key to the successful implementation of high efficiency SCR at elevated engine out NOx levels is the ability to introduce significantly more AdBlue into the exhaust flow while still ensuring complete ammonia production and avoiding the formation of deposits. This paper presents a body of experimental work conducted on an exhaust test bench using optical techniques including high-speed imaging and phase Doppler interferometry (PDI), applied under representative exhaust conditions to a HD diesel engine after-treatment system with optical access inside the mixer tube. Two different sprays were used to dose AdBlue onto the mixing device.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1028
Paul Gaynor, Benjamin Reid, Graham Hargrave, Thomas Lockyer, Jonathan Wilson
Abstract In recent years urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has become the principal method of NOx abatement within heavy duty (HD) diesel exhaust systems; however, with upcoming applications demanding NOx reduction efficiencies of above 96 % on engines producing upwards of 10 g·kWh−1 NOx, future diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) dosing systems will be required to operate stably at significantly increased dosing rates. Developing a dosing system capable of meeting the increased performance requirements demands an improved understanding of how DEF sprays interact with changing exhaust flows. This study has investigated four production systems representing a diverse range of dosing strategies in order to determine how performance is influenced by spray structure and identify promising strategies for further development. The construction of an optically accessible hot-air flow rig has enabled visualisation of DEF injection into flows representative of HD diesel exhaust conditions.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2391
Farraen Mohd Azmin, Richard K. Stobart, John Rutledge, Edward Winward
Abstract A full calibration exercise of a diesel engine air path can take months to complete (depending on the number of variables). Model-based calibration approach can speed up the calibration process significantly. This paper discusses the overall calibration process of the air-path of the Cat® C7.1 engine using statistical machine learning tool. The standard Cat® C7.1 engine's twin-stage turbocharger was replaced by a VTG (Variable Turbine Geometry) as part of an evaluation of a novel air system. The changes made to the air-path system required a recalculation of the air path's boost set point and desired EGR set point maps. Statistical learning processes provided a firm basis to model and optimize the air path set point maps and allowed a healthy balance to be struck between the resources required for the exercise and the resulting data quality.
2014-06-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2089
Mahdi Mohammadpour, Ramin Rahmani, Homer Rahnejat
Abstract This paper presents an investigation of Cylinder De-Activation (CDA) technology on the performance of big end bearings. A multi-physics approach is used in order to take into account more realistic dynamic loading effects on the tribological behavior. The power loss, minimum film thickness and maximum temperature of big end bearings have been calculated during maneuver pertaining to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Results show that bearing efficiency runs contrary to efficiency gained through combustion and pumping losses. Under CDA mode, the power loss of big end bearings is more than the power loss under engine normal mode. The problem is predominant at higher engine speeds and higher Brake mean Effective Pressures (BMEP) in active cylinders. It is also observed that the minimum film thickness is reduced under the CDA mode. This can affect wear performance. In addition, same behavior is noted for the maximum temperature rise which is higher under CDA.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1669
Christopher Baker, Ramin Rahmani, Ioannis Karagiannis, Stephanos Theodossiades, Homer Rahnejat, Alan Frendt
Abstract The automotive industry is subject to increasing pressure to reduce the CO2 emissions and improve fuel efficiency in internal combustion engines. Improvements may be achieved in a number of ways. The parasitic losses throughout the engine cycle emanate from friction in all engine contact conjunctions in addition to pumping losses. In particular one main contributory conjunction is the piston ring pack assembly. At low engine speeds, the contribution of friction to the total losses within the engine is increased significantly compared with the thermodynamic losses. Additionally, the sealing capability of the ring is crucial in determining the power output of the engine with any loss of sealing contributing to power loss, as well as blowby. Most reported studies on compression ring-cylinder conjunction do not take into account complex ring in-plane and out-of-plane elastodynamics.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1807
Ran Bao, Richard Stobart
Abstract Recovering the braking energy and reusing it can significantly improve the fuel economy of a vehicle which is subject to frequent braking events such as a city bus. As one way to achieve this goal, pneumatic hybrid technology converts kinetic energy to pneumatic energy by compressing air into tanks during braking, and then reuses the compressed air to power an air starter to realize a regenerative Stop-Start function. Unlike the pure electric or hybrid electric passenger car, the pneumatic hybrid city bus uses the rear axle to achieve regenerative braking function. In this paper we discuss research into the blending of pneumatic regenerative braking and mechanical frictional braking at the rear axle. The aim of the braking function is to recover as much energy as possible and at the same time distribute the total braking effort between the front and rear axles to achieve stable braking performance.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1533
Zakwan Skaf, Timur Aliyev, Leo Shead, Thomas Steffen
Abstract Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a leading aftertreatment technology for the removal of nitrogen oxide (NOx) from exhaust gases (DeNOx). It presents an interesting control challenge, especially at high conversion, because both reagents (NOx and ammonia) are toxic, and therefore an excess of either is highly undesirable. Numerous system layouts and control methods have been developed for SCR systems, driven by the need to meet future emission standards. This paper summarizes the current state-of-the-art control methods for the SCR aftertreatment systems, and provides a structured and comprehensive overview of the research on SCR control. The existing control techniques fall into three main categories: traditional SCR control methods, model-based SCR control methods, and advanced SCR control methods. For each category, the basic control technique is defined.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1756
Miguel De la Cruz, Stephanos Theodossiades
Abstract In this paper, a direct correlation between transmission gear rattle experiments and numerical models is presented, particularly focusing on the noise levels (dB) measured from a single gear pair test rig. The rig is placed in a semi-anechoic chamber environment to aid the noise measurements and instrumented with laser vibrometers, accelerometers and free field microphones. The input torsional velocity is provided by an electric motor, which is controlled by a signal generator, aiming to introduce an alternating component onto the otherwise nominal speed; thus, emulating the engine orders found in an internal combustion engine. These harmonic irregularities are conceived to be the triggering factor for gear rattle to occur. Hence, the rig is capable of running under rattling and non-rattling conditions. The numerical model used accounts for the gear pair's torsional dynamics, lubricated impacts between meshing teeth and bearing friction.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1452
Ran Bao, Richard Stobart
For the vehicles with frequent stop-start operations, fuel consumption can be reduced significantly by implementing stop-start operation. As one way to realize this goal, the pneumatic hybrid technology converts kinetic energy to pneumatic energy by compressing air into air tanks installed on the vehicle. The compressed air can then be reused to drive an air starter to realize a regenerative stop-start function. Furthermore, the pneumatic hybrid can eliminate turbo-lag by injecting compressed air into manifold and a correspondingly larger amount of fuel into the cylinder to build-up full-load torque almost immediately. This paper takes the pneumatic hybrid engine as the research object, focusing on evaluating the improvement of fuel economy of multiple air tanks in different test cycles. Also theoretical analysis the benefits of extra boost on reducing turbo-lag to achieve better performance.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1086
Chathura Ranasinghe, Weeratunge Malalasekera, Andrew Clarke
In this work, cyclic combustion simulations of a spark ignition engine were performed using the Large Eddy Simulation techniques. The KIVA-4 RANS code was modified to incorporate the LES capability. The flame surface density approach was implemented to model the combustion process. Ignition and flame kernel models were also developed to simulate the early stage of flame propagation. A dynamic procedure was formulated where all model coefficients were locally evaluated using the resolved and test filtered flow properties during the fully developed phase of combustion. A test filtering technique was adopted to use in wall bounded systems. The developed methodology was then applied to simulate the combustion and associated unsteady effects in a spark ignition engine. The implementation was validated using the experimental data taken from the same engine.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0894
Oluwasujibomi M. Sogbesan, Martin H. Davy, Colin P. Garner
Low temperature combustion (LTC) in diesel engines offers attractive benefits through simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxides and soot. However, it is known that the in-cylinder conditions typical of LTC operation tend to produce high emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO), reducing combustion efficiency. The present study develops from the hypothesis that this characteristic poor combustion efficiency is due to in-cylinder mixture preparation strategies that are non-optimally matched to the requirements of the LTC combustion mode. In this work, the effects of three key fuel path parameters - injection fuel quantity ratio, dwell and injection timing - on CO and HC emissions were examined using a Central Composite Design (CCD) Design of Experiments (DOE) method.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1309
Petros Efthymiou, Martin H. Davy, Colin P. Garner, Graham K. Hargrave, John E.T. Rimmer, Dave Richardson
Particulate Matter (PM) emissions reduction is an imminent challenge for Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine designers due to the introduction of Particulate Number (PN) standards in the proposed Euro 6 emissions legislation aimed at delivering the next phase of air quality improvements. An understanding of how the formation of combustion-derived nanoparticulates in engines is affected by the engine operating temperature is important for air quality improvement and will influence future engine design and control strategies. This investigation has examined the effect on combustion and PM formation when reducing the engine operating temperature to -7°C. A DISI single-cylinder optical research engine was modified to simulate a range of operating temperatures down to the proposed -7°C.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0518
Alex Mason, Jon G.P. Binner, Colin P. Garner, Karola Graupner, John E. Harry, Dave W. Hoare, Andrew M. Williams, Nick Fox
This research introduces a new, novel approach to reverse flow particulate filter regeneration enabled by rapidly pulsed electric discharges. The discharges physically dislodge particulate matter (PM) from the filter substrate and allow a very low reverse air flow to transport it to a soot handling system. The system is operable independent of filter temperature, does not expose the filter to high thermal stresses or temperatures, has no apparent upper limit for filter PM-mass level (regeneration of a filter up to 17 g/L has been demonstrated), and does not require any catalyst. The system is inherently scalable allowing application to monolithic filters of any size or shape and can be tailored to suit specific application requirements such as limits on maximum regeneration time or power consumption. For example a light duty application would require as little as 200-500W electrical power to regenerate a filter in less than ten minutes (i.e. passenger car GPF or DPF).
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1975
Saud Binjuwair, Salah Ibrahim, Graham Wigley, Graham Pitcher
This paper deals with experimental investigations of the in-cylinder flow structures under steady state conditions utilizing Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The experiments have been conducted on an engine head of a pent-roof type (Lotus) for a number of fixed valve lifts and different inlet valve configurations at two pressure drops, 250mm and 635mm of H2O that correlate with engine speeds of 2500 and 4000 RPM respectively. From the two-dimensional in-cylinder flow measurements, a tumble flow analysis is carried out for six planes parallel to the cylinder axis. In addition, a swirl flow analysis is carried out for one horizontal plane perpendicular to the cylinder axis at half bore downstream from the cylinder head (44mm). The results show the advantage of using the planar technique (PIV) for investigating the complete flow structures developed inside the cylinder.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1158
Thomas Steffen, Richard Stobart, Zhijia Yang
The injection timing of a Diesel internal combustion engine typically follows a prescribed sequence depending on the operating condition using open loop control. Due to advances in sensors and digital electronics it is now possible to implement closed loop control based on in cylinder pressure values. Typically this control action is slow, and it may take several cycles or at least one cycle (cycle-to-cycle control). Using high speed sensors, it becomes technically possible to measure pressure deviations and correct them within the same cycle (intra-cycle control). For example the in cylinder pressure after the pilot inject can be measured, and the timing of the main injection can be adjusted in timing and duration to compensate any deviations in pressure from the expected reference value. This level of control can significantly reduce the deviations between cycles and cylinders, and it can also improve the transient behavior of the engine.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1024
Richard K. Stobart, Anusha Wijewardane, Guangyu Dong, Jing Li
Recent work on thermo-electric (TE) systems has highlighted the need for refined heat transfer design as well as the long standing need for improved materials performance. Recent work on heat transfer for TE systems has shown that enhanced heat transfer is needed over and above what would normally be seen in a vehicle exhaust system. In particular a better understanding of flow development and boundary layer behaviour is needed to support new design proposals. In the meantime, recent work in TE materials suggests that with the use of skutterudites significant performance benefits can accrue over existing materials. The current generation of TE materials have non-dimensional thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) values of around 1. Skutterudites have been demonstrated to have ZT values of about 1.4 and can maintain these values over a wider temperature range than do existing materials through the engineering of the TE device.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0893
Jiamei Deng, Richard Stobart, Cunjia liu, Edward Winward
For diesel engines, fuel path control plays a key role in achieving optimal emissions and fuel economy performance. There are several fuel path parameters that strongly affect the engine performance by changing the combustion process, by modifying for example, start of injection and fuel rail pressure. This is a multi-input multi-output problem. Linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a good approach for such a system with optimal solution. However, fuel path has fast dynamics. On-line optimisation MPC is not the good choice to cope with such fast dynamics. Explicit MPC uses off-line optimisation, therefore, it can be used to control the system with fast dynamics.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1213
Peter R. Woollen, Jean-Yves Tillier, Vivian J. Page, David E. Knight, Graham K. Hargrave, Benjamin A. Reid, Edward J. Long
This paper reports the findings from an experimental investigation of the engine cooling jacket filling process for a medium duty off-highway diesel engine to characterise the physical processes that lead to the occurrence of trapped air. The motivation for the project was to provide knowledge and data to aid the development of a computational design tool capable of predicting the amount and location of trapped air in a cooling circuit following a fill event. To quantify the coolant filling process, a transparent replica of a section of the cylinder head cooling core was manufactured from acrylic to allow the application of optical diagnostic techniques. Experimentation has characterised the coolant filling process through the use of three optical techniques. These include the two established methods of High-Speed Imaging and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), as well as a novel approach developed for tracking the liquid-air interface during the fill event.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980142
A. White, M.A. Passmore
This paper describes a detailed study into the use of a pitot probe to measure air flow around an inlet valve under steady state conditions. The study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of the method for locating areas of a port and valve which may be contributing to a poor overall discharge coefficient. This method would provide a simple and cheap experimental tool for use throughout the industry. The method involves mounting a miniature internal chamfer pitot tube on a slider attached to the base of the valve. The probe can traverse the appropriate area by rotating the valve and moving it along the slide. Changing the probe allows measurements in different planes, allowing the whole region around the valve to be surveyed. The cylinder head complete with instrumentation is mounted on a steady flow rig. The paper presents the results obtained at different valve lifts on a production cylinder head.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
981156
A. Shaheed, E. Swain
Renewable sources of energy need to be developed to fulfill future energy demands in areas such as the Maldives where traditional sources of raw materials are limited or non-existent. This paper explores the use of an alternative fuel derived from coconut oil that can be produced in the Maldives and can be used in place of diesel fuel. The main advantage of this particular fuel is that it is a highly saturated oil with a calorific value close to standard diesel fuel. The viscosity of the crude coconut oil is much higher than standard diesel fuel. To reduce the viscosity and to make the oil more suitable for conventional diesel engines methyl esters were produced using the transesterification process (1). The engine performed well on the coconut oil methyl esters although there was a small reduction in power consistent with the lower calorific value of the alternative fuel. Comparative performance data together with the emission levels for the two fuels are presented.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1088
Dimosthenis Panousakis, Andreas Gazis, Jill Paterson, Wen-Hua Chen, Rui Chen, Jamie Turner, Nebosja Milovanovic
Abstract The control of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) (also known as Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI)) has been a major research topic recently, since this type of combustion has the potential to be highly efficient and to produce low NOx and particulate matter emissions. Ion current has proven itself as a closed loop control feedback for SI engines. Based on previous work by the authors, ion current was acquired through HCCI operation too, with promising results. However, for best utilization of this feedback signal, advanced interpretation techniques such as artificial neural networks can be used. In this paper the use of these advanced techniques on experimental data is explored and discussed. The experiments are performed on a single cylinder cam-less (equipped with a Fully Variable Valve Timing (FVVT) system) research engine fueled with commercially available gasoline (95 ON).
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1260
J. W. G. Turner, G. Pitcher, P. Burke, C. P. Garner, G. Wigley, P. Stansfield, H. Nuglisch, N. Ladommatos, R. Patel, P. Williams
There is a great deal of interest in new technologies to assist in reducing the CO2 output of passenger vehicles, as part of the drive to meet the limits agreed by the EU and the European Automobile Manufacturer's Association ACEA, itself a result of the Kyoto Protocol. For the internal combustion engine, the most promising of these include gasoline direct injection, downsizing and fully variable valve trains. While new types of spray-guided gasoline direct injection (GDI) combustion systems are finally set to yield the level of fuel consumption improvement which was originally promised for the so-called ‘first generation’ wall- and air-guided types of GDI, injectors for spray-guided combustion systems are not yet in production to help justify the added complication and cost of the NOx trap necessary with a stratified combustion concept.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3151
Jeff Allen, Graham Hargrave, Yong Khoo
The use of Direct Injection for spark ignition engines is increasing, with a noticeable trend towards smaller flow orifices as the requirement for improved atomisation increases and improved manufacturing capabilities allow micron sized holes to be mass produced. It is necessary therefore to develop test rigs and diagnostic techniques that will allow the collection of data from inside real sized nozzles in order to validate CFD models and allow optimized nozzle geometries to be rapidly designed and produced. This paper demonstrates real sized optical nozzles and diagnostic techniques that have allowed geometry evaluation and optimization in pressure swirl and plain orifice nozzles as small as 150μm.
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