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Viewing 1 to 30 of 265
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2199
Leslie Bromberg, Daniel Cohn
Non-petroleum based liquid fuels are essential for reducing oil dependence and greenhouse gas generation. Increased substitution of alcohol fuel for petroleum based fuels could be achieved by 1) use in high efficiency spark ignition engines that are employed for heavy duty as well as light duty operation and 2) use of methanol as well as ethanol. Methanol is the liquid fuel that is most efficiently produced from thermo-chemical gasification of coal, natural gas, waste or biomass. Ethanol can also be produced by this process but at lower efficiency and higher cost. Coal derived methanol is in limited initial use as a transportation fuel in China. Methanol could potentially be produced from natural gas at an economically competitive fuel costs, and with essentially the same greenhouse gas impact as gasoline. Waste derived methanol could also be an affordable low carbon fuel.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2124
Dongkun Lee, John B. Heywood
An experimental study was performed to develop a more fundamental understanding of the effects of secondary air injection (SAI) on exhaust gas emissions and catalyst light-off characteristics during cold start of a modern SI engine. The effects of engine operating parameters and various secondary air injection strategies such as spark retardation, fuel enrichment, secondary air injection location and air flow rate were investigated to understand the mixing, heat loss, and thermal and catalytic oxidation processes associated with SAI. Time-resolved HC, CO and CO₂ concentrations were tracked from the cylinder exit to the catalytic converter outlet and converted to time-resolved mass emissions by applying an instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate model. A phenomenological model of exhaust heat transfer combined with the gas composition analysis was also developed to define the thermal and chemical energy state of the exhaust gas with SAI.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0617
Vikram Mittal, John B. Heywood, William H. Green
Recent studies have shown that for a given RON, fuels with a higher sensitivity (RON-MON) tend to have better antiknock performance at most knock-limited conditions in modern engines. The underlying chemistry behind fuel sensitivity was therefore investigated to understand why this trend occurs. Chemical kinetic models were used to study fuels of varying sensitivities; in particular their autoignition delay times and chemical intermediates were compared. As is well known, non-sensitive fuels tend to be paraffins, while the higher sensitivity fuels tend to be olefins, aromatics, diolefins, napthenes, and alcohols. A more exact relationship between sensitivity and the fuel's chemical structure was not found to be apparent. High sensitivity fuels can have vastly different chemical structures. The results showed that the autoignition delay time (τ) behaved differently at different temperatures. At temperatures below 775 K and above 900 K, τ has a strong temperature dependence.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-1213
Alexander Sappok, Romina Rodriguez, Victor Wong
Ash accumulation in diesel particulate filters, mostly from essential lubricant additives, decreases the filter's soot storage capacity, adversely affects fuel economy, and negatively impacts the filter's service life. While the adverse effects of ash accumulation on DPF performance are well known, the underlying mechanisms controlling these effects are not. To address these issues, results of detailed measurements with specially formulated lubricants, correlating ash properties to individual lubricant additives and their effects on DPF pressure drop, are presented. Investigations using the specially-formulated lubricants showed ash consisting primarily of calcium sulfates to exhibit significantly increased flow resistance as opposed to ash primarily composed of zinc phosphates. Furthermore, ash accumulated along the filer walls was found to be packed approximately 25% denser than ash accumulated in the channel end-plugs.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0811
Alexander Sappok, Victor W. Wong
Ash, primarily derived from diesel engine lubricants, accumulates in diesel particulate filters directly affecting the filter's pressure drop sensitivity to soot accumulation, thus impacting regeneration frequency and fuel economy. After approximately 33,000 miles of equivalent on-road aging, ash comprises more than half of the material accumulated in a typical cordierite filter. Ash accumulation reduces the effective filtration area, resulting in higher local soot loads toward the front of the filter. At a typical ash cleaning interval of 150,000 miles, ash more than doubles the filter's pressure drop sensitivity to soot, in addition to raising the pressure drop level itself. In order to evaluate the effects of lubricant-derived ash on DPF pressure drop performance, a novel accelerated ash loading system was employed to generate the ash and load the DPFs under carefully-controlled exhaust conditions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0886
D. Mohr, T. Wierzbicki
Thin sandwich sheets hold a promise for widespread use in automotive industry due to their good crash and formability properties. In this paper, thin stainless steel sandwich sheets with low-density core materials are investigated with regard to their performance in crashworthiness applications. The total thickness of the sandwich materials is about 1.2mm: 0.2mm thick facings and a 0.8mm thick sandwich core. Throughout the crushing of prismatic sandwich profiles, the sandwich facings are bent and stretched while the sandwich core is crushed under shear loading. Thus, a high shear crushing strength of the sandwich core material is beneficial for the overall energy absorption of the sandwich profile. It is shown theoretically that the weight specific shear crushing strength of hexagonal metallic honeycombs is higher than the one of fiber cores - irrespective of their relative density or microstructural geometry.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0767
Hesham A. Ezzat, Richard Roth, Theresa M. Lee, Randall J. Urbance, Randolph Kirchain
The ability to make accurate decisions concerning early body-in-white architectures is critical to an automaker since these decisions often have long term cost and weight impacts. We address this need with a methodology which can be used to assist in body architecture decisions using process-based technical cost modeling (TCM) as a filter to evaluate alternate designs. Despite the data limitations of early design concepts, TCM can be used to identify key trends for cost-effectiveness between design variants. A compact body-in-white architecture will be used as a case study to illustrate this technique. The baseline steel structure will be compared to several alternate aluminum intensive structures in the context of production volume.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1159
Kenneth Kar, Wai Cheng
Ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions from a direct ignition spark ignition were measured using mass spectrometry. Previous methods focused on eliminating or minimizing interference from exhaust species with identical atomic mass and fragment ions created in ionization process. This paper describes a new technique which exploits the fragment ions from ethanol and acetaldehyde. A survey of mass spectra of all major species of exhaust gas was conducted. It was found that ethanol contributes most ions in mass number 31 and that no other gas species produces ions at this mass number. Acetaldehyde detection suffers more interference. Nevertheless, it was estimated that detection at mass number 43 is possible with 10% error from 2-methylbutane. This new technique was validated in an engine experiment. By running the engine with pure gasoline and E85, the validity of the technique can be checked.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1305
Iason Dimou, Kenneth Kar, Wai Cheng
The engine out particular matter number (PN) distributions at engine coolant temperature (ECT) of 0° C to 40° C for ethanol/ gasoline blends (E0 to E85) have been measured for a direct-injection spark ignition engine under cold fast idle condition. For E10 to E85, PN increases modestly when the ECT is lowered. The distributions, however, are insensitive to the ethanol content of the fuel. The PN for E0 is substantially higher than the gasohol fuels at ECT below 20° C. The total PN values (obtained from integrating the PN distribution from 15 to 350 run) are approximately the same for all fuels (E0 to E85) when ECT is above 20° C. When ECT is decreased below 20° C, the total PN values for E10 to E85 increase modestly, and they are insensitive to the ethanol content. For E0, however, the total PN increases substantially. This sharp change in PN from E0 to E10 is confirmed by running the tests with E2.5 and E5. The midpoint of the transition occurs at approximately E5.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1763
Kevin Cedrone, Wai K. Cheng, Samir Chahine, John Williams, Brad VanDerWege
The fuel effects on HCCI operation in a spark assisted direct injection gasoline engine are assessed. The low load limit has been extended with a pilot fuel injection during the negative valve overlap (NVO) period. The fuel matrix consists of hydrocarbon fuels and various ethanol blends and a butanol blend, plus fuels with added ignition improvers. The hydrocarbon fuels and the butanol blend do not significantly alter the high or the low limits of operation. The HCCI operation appears to be controlled more by the thermal environment than by the fuel properties. For E85, the engine behavior depends on the extent that the heat release from the pilot injected fuel in the NVO period compensates for the evaporative cooling of the fuel.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3529
David Kayes, Helen Liu, Simone Hochgreb
In order to understand why emissions of Particulate Matter (PM) from Spark-Ignition (SI) automobiles peak during periods of transient operation such as rapid accelerations, a study of controlled, repeatable transients was performed. Time-resolved engine-out PM emissions from a modern four-cylinder engine during transient load and air/fuel ratio operation were examined, and the results could be fit in most cases to a first order time response. The time constants for the transient response are similar to those measured for changes in intake valve temperature, reflecting the strong dependence of PM emissions on the amount of liquid fuel in the combustion chamber. In only one unrepeatable case did the time response differ from a first order function: showing an overshoot in PM emissions during transition from the initial to the final steady state PM emission level.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3578
Ivan B. Oliveira, Simone Hochgreb
A one-dimensional model for crevice HC post-flame oxidation is used to calculate and understand the effect of operating parameters and fuel type (propane and isooctane) on the extent of crevice hydrocarbon and the product distribution in the post flame environment. The calculations show that the main parameters controlling oxidation are: bulk burned gas temperatures, wall temperatures, turbulent diffusivity, and fuel oxidation rates. Calculated extents of oxidation agree well with experimental values, and the sensitivities to operating conditions (wall temperatures, equivalence ratio, fuel type) are reasonably well captured. Whereas the bulk gas temperatures largely determine the extent of oxidation, the hydrocarbon product distribution is not very much affected by the burned gas temperatures, but mostly by diffusion rates. Uncertainties in both turbulent diffusion rates as well as in mechanisms are an important factor limiting the predictive capabilities of the model.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0959
Ivan B. Oliveira, Simone Hochgreb
A one-dimensional model has been developed for the species and energy transfer over a thin (0.1-0.5 mm) layer of liquid fuel present on the wall of a spark-ignition engine. Time-varying boundary conditions during compression and flame passage were used to determine the rate of methanol vaporization and oxidation over a mid-speed, mid-load cycle, as a function of wall temperature. The heat of vaporization and the boiling point of the fuel were varied about a baseline to determine the effect of these characteristics, at a fixed operating point and lean conditions (ϕ = 0.9). The calculations show that the evaporation of fuels from layers on cold walls starts during flame passage, peaking a few milliseconds later, and continuing through the exhaust phase.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0535
Brad A. VanDerWege, Simone Hochgreb
Optimal design of modern direct injection spark-ignition engines depends heavily on the characteristics and distribution of the fuel spray. This study was designed to investigate changes in the spray properties due to fuel volatility and operating conditions using a firing optically-accessible engine with planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging. The results show that the spray structure changes not only with ambient gas density, which is often measured, but also with fuel temperature and volatility. As ambient pressure decreases and fuel temperature increases, the volatile ends of multi-component fuels evaporate quickly, disrupting the spray structure and producing a vapor core along the axis of the spray. Beyond a certain point, evaporation is rapid enough to expand the initial cone angle of the spray while causing a decrease in the overall spray width.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0536
Brad A. VanDerWege, Simone Hochgreb
Optimal design of modern direct injection spark-ignition engines depends heavily on the characteristics and distribution of the fuel spray. This study was designed to compliment imaging experiments of changes in the spray structure due to fuel volatility and operating conditions. Use of phase-Doppler particle analysis (PDPA) allows quantitative point measurements of droplet diameter and velocity. In agreement with imaging experiments, the results show that the spray structure changes not only with ambient gas density, which is often measured, but also with fuel temperature and volatility. The mean droplet diameter was found to decrease substantially with increasing fuel temperature and decreasing ambient density. Under conditions of low potential for vaporization, the observed trends in mean droplet sizes agree with published correlations for pressure-swirl atomizers.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3643
Jim Cowart, Wai Cheng
Intake valve thermal behavior was observed across a wide range of operating conditions while running an engine on both propane and gasoline. Compared to the gaseous fuel, the liquid fuel operation has cooler valve temperatures (∼50-100C difference) and there is significant temperature gradient across the valve surface due to liquid fuel impinging on the front quadrant of the valve. The valve warm-up time is largely determined by the effective thermal inertia of the valve (∼valve body plus 1/3 of stem mass) and the thermal resistance to the seat. The valve is heated up by the combustion chamber; the dominant cooling paths are through the seat contact and the liquid fuel evaporation. Just after starting, very little fuel evaporates from the cold valve until there is a substantial increase in valve temperature in a period of approximately 10-20 seconds.
1999-09-28
Technical Paper
1999-01-3207
Luis German, Joel P. Clark, Richard Roth
Recent industry trends have resulted in growing interest among automakers in low to medium volume manufacturing. The expansion of automobile production into developing economies and the desire to produce specialized vehicles for niche markets have pressed the automakers to find cost effective solutions for manufacturing at low volumes, particularly with regard to sheet metal forming. Conventional high volume stamping operations rely heavily on achieving minimum scale economies which occur at about 200,000 parts per year. These scale economies are mainly dictated by the efficient use of the standard, expensive cast iron dies. These dies can cost well over one million dollars depending on the part, and in return offer tool lives over 5 million strokes. Die investment can be reduced by changing the stamping process technology. Hydro-mechanical forming has been proposed as a promising low volume alternative to conventional stamping.
1999-09-28
Technical Paper
1999-01-3216
Luis German, Joel P. Clark, Richard Roth
Low volume manufacturing has become increasingly important for the automotive industry. Globalization trends have led automakers and their suppliers to operate in developing regions where minimum efficient scales can not always be achieved. With proper maintenance, standard cast iron stamping tools can be used to produce millions of parts, but require large investments. Thus at high production volumes, the impact of the tooling investment on individual piece costs is minimized. However, at low volumes there is a substantial cost penalty. In light of the trends towards localized manufacturing and relatively low demands in some developing markets, low cost stamping tools are needed. Several alternate tooling technologies exist, each of which require significantly lower initial investments, but suffer from greatly reduced tool lives. However, the use of these technologies at intermediate to high volumes requires multiple tool sets thus eliminating their cost advantage.
1999-08-02
Technical Paper
1999-01-2723
Andreas C. Pfahnl, John H. Lienhard, Alexander H. Slocum
This paper describes the thermal management and design challenges of testing packaged integrated circuit (IC) devices, specifically device thermal conditioning and device-under-test (DUT) temperature control. The approach taken is to discuss the individual thermal design issues as defined by the device type (e.g. memory, microcontroller) and tester capabilities. The influence of performance-parameter specifications, such as the DUT parallelism, test time, index time, test-temperature range and test-temperature tolerance are examined. An understanding of these performance requirements and design constraints enables consideration of existing test handler thermal processing systems (e.g., gravity feed, pick and place), future test handler thermal concepts, and future high-parallelism testing needs for high-wattage memory and microprocessor devices. New thermal designs in several of these areas are described.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0349
Nobuyuki Kuge, Tomohiro Yamamura, Osamu Shimoyama, Andrew Liu
A method for detecting drivers' intentions is essential to facilitate operating mode transitions between driver and driver assistance systems. We propose a driver behavior recognition method using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to characterize and detect driving maneuvers and place it in the framework of a cognitive model of human behavior. HMM-based steering behavior models for emergency and normal lane changes as well as for lane keeping were developed using a moving base driving simulator. Analysis of these models after training and recognition tests showed that driver behavior modeling and recognition of different types of lane changes is possible using HMMs.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0273
Brad A. VanDerWege, Todd H. Lounsberry, Simone Hochgreb
Numerical calculations of the fuel spray structure from a high-pressure swirl injector were used to enable the interpretation of experimental observations obtained in hot, hollow-cone fuel sprays issued into sub-atmospheric-pressure environments. The experiments show that the spray becomes narrower, more compact, but with a relatively long penetration depth. Model input parameters, including the droplet size distribution, early vapor production, and initial cone angle, were modified to determine which spray characteristics are important in recreating observed spray structures. A very small mean droplet diameter is needed to recreate the experimentally observed structure of the high-temperature, low-pressure sprays. Vapor addition to the emerging spray is then required to increase the axial penetration and provide the observed vapor core.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0988
Xiaoming Chen, Ming F. Shi, Hua-Chu Shih, Meng Luo, Tomasz Wierzbicki
One of the issues in stamping of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) is the stretch bending fracture on a sharp radius (commonly referred to as shear fracture). Shear fracture typically occurs at a strain level below the conventional forming limit curve (FLC). Therefore it is difficult to predict in computer simulations using the FLC as the failure criterion. A modified Mohr-Coulomb (M-C) fracture criterion has been developed to predict shear fracture. The model parameters for several AHSS have been calibrated using various tests including the butter-fly shaped shear test. In this paper, validation simulations are conducted using the modified (M-C) fracture criterion for a dual phase (DP) 780 steel to predict fracture in the stretch forming simulator (SFS) test and the bending under tension (BUT) test. Various deformation fracture modes are analyzed, and the range of usability of the criterion is identified.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-1071
Yuuichi Kodama, Victor W. Wong
Mechanisms of NH₃ generation using LNT-like catalysts have been studied in a bench reactor over a wide range of temperatures, flow rates, reformer catalyst types and synthetic exhaust-gas compositions. The experiments showed that the on board production of sufficient quantities of ammonia on board for SCR operation appeared feasible, and the results identified the range of conditions for the efficient generation of ammonia. In addition, the effects of reformer catalysts using the water-gas-shift reaction as an in-situ source of the required hydrogen for the reactions are also illustrated. Computations of the NH₃ and NOx kinetics have also been carried out and are presented. Design and impregnation of the SCR catalyst in proximity to the ammonia source is the next logical step. A heated synthetic-exhaust gas flow bench was used for the experiments under carefully controlled simulated exhaust compositions.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1522
Beto Peliks, Nam P. Suh
Rotary valves should pose a credible threat to other mechanical valve systems-such as poppet valves-but they have been unable to infiltrate the automotive market. Using Axiomatic Design we have identified significant design problems with existing rotary valves which have prevented their wide-spread use. In addition, we have proposed an innovative solution which removes some couplings in existing rotary valve systems and could potentially be used in automotive applications, although further work must still be performed.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0514
Hadi Zaklouta, Richard Roth
In today's highly competitive automotive markets manufacturers must provide high quality products to survive. Manufacturers can achieve higher levels of quality by changing or improving their manufacturing process and/or by product inspection where many strategies with different cost implications are often available. Cost of Quality (CoQ) reconciles the competing objectives of quality maximization and cost minimization and serves as a useful framework for comparing available manufacturing process and inspection alternatives. In this paper, an analytic CoQ framework is discussed and some key findings are demonstrated using a set of basic inspection strategy scenarios. A case of a welded automotive assembly is chosen to explore the CoQ tradeoffs in inspection strategy selection and the value of welding process improvement. In the assembly process, many individual components are welded in series and each weld is inspected for quality.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1728
Iason Dimou, Alexander Sappok, Victor Wong, Shuji Fujii, Hirofumi Sakamoto, Kazuya Yuuki, Claus Dieter Vogt
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are a common component in emission-control systems of modern clean diesel vehicles. Several DPF materials have been used in various applications. Silicone Carbide (SiC) is common for passenger vehicles because of its thermal robustness derived from its high specific gravity and heat conductivity. However, a segmented structure is required to relieve thermal stress due to SiC's higher coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Cordierite (Cd) is a popular material for heavy-duty vehicles. Cordierite which has less mass per given volume, exhibits superior light-off performance, and is also adequate for use in larger monolith structures, due to its lower CTE. SiC and cordierite are recognized as the most prevalent DPF materials since the 2000's. The DPF traps not only combustible particles (soot) but also incombustible ash. Ash accumulates in the DPF and remains in the filter until being physically removed.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1712
Vincent S. Costanzo, John B. Heywood
An experimental study was performed in a firing SI engine at conditions representative of the warmup phase of operation in which liquid gasoline films were established at various locations in the combustion chamber and the resulting impact on hydrocarbon emissions was assessed. Unique about this study was that it combined, in a firing engine environment, direct visual observation of the liquid fuel films, measurements of the temperatures these films were subjected to, and the determination from gas analyzers of burned and unburned fuel quantities exiting the combustion chamber - all with cycle-level resolution or better. A means of deducing the exhaust hydrocarbon emissions that were due to the liquid fuel films in the combustion chamber was developed. An increase in exhaust hydrocarbon emissions was always observed with liquid fuel films present in the combustion chamber.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0642
Eric Zanghi, Tian Tian
Understanding oil transport mechanisms is critical to developing better tools for oil consumption and piston skirt lubrication [1]. Our existing Two-Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence (2DLIF) system with an acquisition rate of 1 frame every one or two cycles was proven to be effective to display oil accumulation patterns and their evolution over many cycles in the piston ring pack system [2,3,4]. Yet, the existing system is unable to resolve instantaneous oil flow patterns in the piston-liner interface. In this work, a high-speed LIF system was developed. After a number of iterations the finalized high speed LIF system includes a 23 W, 100 kHz, 532 nm laser and a high speed camera capable of 100,000 FPS at 384 × 264 pixel resolution. After each component was selected, optimization of the quality of images taken from the system began.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1428
Bruce Mehler, Bryan Reimer, Jonathan Dobres, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe
Abstract This paper presents the results of a study of how people interacted with a production voice-command based interface while driving on public roadways. Tasks included phone contact calling, full address destination entry, and point-of-interest (POI) selection. Baseline driving and driving while engaging in multiple-levels of an auditory-vocal cognitive reference task and manual radio tuning were used as comparison points. Measures included self-reported workload, task performance, physiological arousal, glance behavior, and vehicle control for an analysis sample of 48 participants (gender balanced across ages 21-68). Task analysis and glance measures confirm earlier findings that voice-command interfaces do not always allow the driver to keep their hands on the wheel and eyes on the road, as some assume.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1426
Lex Fridman, Joonbum Lee, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler
Abstract The challenge of developing a robust, real-time driver gaze classification system is that it has to handle difficult edge cases that arise in real-world driving conditions: extreme lighting variations, eyeglass reflections, sunglasses and other occlusions. We propose a single-camera end-toend framework for classifying driver gaze into a discrete set of regions. This framework includes data collection, semi-automated annotation, offline classifier training, and an online real-time image processing pipeline that classifies the gaze region of the driver. We evaluate an implementation of each component on various subsets of a large onroad dataset. The key insight of our work is that robust driver gaze classification in real-world conditions is best approached by leveraging the power of supervised learning to generalize over the edge cases present in large annotated on-road datasets.
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