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Viewing 1 to 30 of 38
1980-02-01
Technical Paper
800151
James E. Bernard, Marty Vanderploeg
The subject of offtracking has been considered as a low speed phenomenon, amenable to analysis via small mechanical models or straightforward calculations. This paper views offtracking from a high speed as well as a low speed vantage point. A mathematical model with one degree of freedom is used to show that there is a speed, well within the routine driving range and independent of radius, at which there will be no offtracking in a steady turn. At higher speeds the trailer will track outside the steady turn circle, and at lower speeds the trailer will track inside the steady turn circle. The analysis indicates similar behavior in a lane change maneuver - small offtracking was found to occur at the steady turn zero-off tracking speed, and larger off tracking was found to occur at both higher and lower speeds.
1983-02-01
Technical Paper
830250
Richard D. Rabbitt, John E. Nametz, Richard N. Wright
The need for increased fuel efficiency in conventional automobiles has motivated the design of lightweight, single passenger, super mileage vehicles. Typical low budget super mileage vehicles are capable of attaining 1000 to 1500 miles per gallon of gasoline. The present work discusses unique features of a high mileage vehicle designed and constructed by a research coterie at Michigan State University. More significant contributions of the coterie include an electronic engine and vehicle control system, a vehicle operation optimization analysis, and a computerized method of designing cam lobes based on flow mach numbers. These subjects are considered along with several customary design problems.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1914
Darko Filipi, Ales Alajbegovic, Anthony B. Christie
Cavitation induced cylinder liner erosion can be a significant durability problem in high power density diesel engines. It is typically discovered in the field, thus causing costly redesigns. The application of a predictive simulation to analyze the liner cavitation process upfront could identify the problem early on and enable significant savings. Hence, this work investigates the ability of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) multiphase flow simulation tool to handle vibration induced cavitation. A flow of liquid through a U-shaped duct is analyzed, where a middle segment of the duct is set to vibrate in a manner resembling vibration of the cooling jacket walls in an internal combustion engine. Velocity, pressure and vapor concentration fields are tracked for two cases, distinguished by different frequencies of duct wall vibration.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0779
Gerald Gentz, Bryce Thelen, Paul Litke, John Hoke, Elisa Toulson
Abstract Turbulent jet ignition is a pre-chamber ignition enhancement method that produces a distributed ignition source through the use of a chemically active turbulent jet which can replace the spark plug in a conventional spark ignition engine. In this paper combustion visualization and characterization was performed for the combustion of a premixed propane/air mixture initiated by a pre-chamber turbulent jet ignition system with no auxiliary fuel injection, in a rapid compression machine. Three different single orifice nozzles with orifice diameters of 1.5 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm were tested for the turbulent jet igniter pre-chamber over a range of air to fuel ratios. The performance of the turbulent jet ignition system based on nozzle orifice diameter was characterized by considering both the 0-10 % and the 10-90 % burn durations of the pressure rise due to combustion.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0396
Bryce Charles Thelen, Gerald Gentz, Elisa Toulson
Abstract Fully three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulations with detailed chemistry of a single-orifice turbulent jet ignition device installed in a rapid compression machine are presented. The simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamics software CONVERGE and its RANS turbulence models. Simulations of propane fueled combustion are compared to data collected in the optically accessible rapid compression machine that the model's geometry is based on to establish the validity and limitations of the simulations and to compare the behavior of the different air-fuel ratios that are used in the simulations.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0595
T. Mathialakan, V. U. Karthik, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Ravi Thyagarajan, S. Ratnajeevan H. Hoole
Abstract This paper presents a computational investigation of the validity of eddy current testing (ECT) for defects embedded in steel using parametrically designed defects. Of particular focus is the depths at which defects can be detected through ECT. Building on this we characterize interior defects by parametrically describing them and then examining the response fields through measurement. Thereby we seek to establish the depth and direction of detectable cracks. As a second step, we match measurements from eddy current excitations to computed fields through finite element optimization. This develops further our previously presented methods of defect characterization. Here rough contours of synthesized shapes are avoided by a novel scheme of averaging neighbor heights rather than using complex Bézier curves, constraints and such like. This avoids the jagged shapes corresponding to mathematically correct but unrealistic synthesized shapes in design and nondestructive evaluation.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2749
Stephen Pace, Guoming G. Zhu
Air-to-fuel (A/F) ratio is the mass ratio of the air-to-fuel mixture trapped inside a cylinder before combustion begins, and it affects engine emissions, fuel economy, and other performances. Using an A/F ratio and dual-fuel ratio control oriented engine model, a multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) sliding mode control scheme is used to simultaneously control the mass flow rate of both port fuel injection (PFI) and direct injection (DI) systems. The control target is to regulate the A/F ratio at a desired level (e.g., at stoichiometric) and fuel ratio (ratio of PFI fueling vs. total fueling) to any desired level between zero and one. A MIMO sliding mode controller was designed with guaranteed stability to drive the system A/F and fuel ratios to the desired target under various air flow disturbances.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2174
Tariq Khan, Pradeep Ramuhalli, S. T. Raveendra, Weiguo Zhang
The identification/localization of propulsion noise in turbo machinery plays an important role in its design and in noise mitigation techniques. Near field acoustic holography (NAH) is the process by which all aspects of the sound field can be reconstructed based on sound pressure measurements in the near field domain. Identification of noise sources, particularly in turbo-machinery applications, efficiently and accurately is difficult due to complex noise generation mechanisms. Backward prediction of the sound field closer to the source than the measurement plane is typically an unstable “ill-posed” inverse problem due to the presence of measurement noise. Therefore regularized inversion techniques are typically implemented for noise source reconstruction. Another major source of ill-posedness in NAH inverse problems is a larger number of unknowns (sources) than available pressure measurements. A model reduction technique is proposed in this paper to address this issue.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1603
Shalabh Srivastava, Harold Schock, Farhad Jaberi
A multicomponent droplet evaporation model which discretizes the one-dimensional mass and temperature profiles inside a droplet with a finite volume method has been developed and implemented into a large-eddy simulation (LES) model for spray simulations. The LES and multicomponent models were used along with the KH-RT secondary droplet breakup model to simulate realistic fuel sprays in a closed vessel. The effect of various spray and ambient gas parameters on the liquid penetration length of different single component and multicomponent fuels was investigated. The numerical results indicate that the spray penetration length decreases non-linearly with increasing gas temperature or pressure and is less sensitive to changes in ambient gas conditions at higher temperatures or pressures. The spray models and LES were found to predict the experimental results for n-hexadecane and two multicomponent surrogate diesel fuels reasonably well.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950726
Bernd Stier, Robert E. Falco
This paper presents results from experiments performed in an axisymmetric water analog model of a four-stroke IC engine using the optical velocimetry technique LIPA (Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry). The investigation can be described as a fundamental scientific inquiry into the fluid dynamics encountered during engine operation, with the long term goal of increasing performance. An application of LIPA to a fluid dynamics problem delivers two-dimensional fields of velocity vectors which are projections of the full three-dimensional vectors in single measurement steps. From an evaluation of a velocity field vorticity information can be obtained readily. Velocity fields and vorticity distributions are, in this study, the basis for the evaluation of seven parametric quantities. Some of these may become tools that give engineers ‘rule of thumb’ indications of the mixing that is occurring.
1998-04-28
Technical Paper
981304
Robert Hubbard, Melissa Gedraitis, Tamara Bush
Since the 1960's, automotive seats have been designed and evaluated with tools and procedures described in the SAE Recommended Practice J826. The SAE J826 design template and testing manikin each have a torso with a flat lower back shape and with a single joint at the H-point. The JOHN models provide a more anatomically detailed representation of human shape and movement. The articulations of the JOHN torso (pelvic, lumbar, and thoracic) segments are coupled so that their relative positions are determined by a single parameter related to spinal curvature. This paper describes the development and use of the JOHN biomechanical models for seating design.
1998-11-16
Technical Paper
983060
Hubert Gramling, Peter Hodgman, Robert Hubbard
Extensive crash sled testing and analysis has recently led to the development of a new HANS prototypes for use in FIA F1. The performance of HANS prototypes has been studied with various conditions of HANS design geometry and impact direction. The new HANS prototypes have been found to substantially reduce injurious motions and forces of the head and neck, and the new HANS is lighter, more compact, and performs better than the currently available HANS. Use of HANS by FIA F1 drivers has been initiated.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1581
Syed A. Khayam, Hayder Radha
Internet worms have shown the capability to compromise millions of network hosts in a matter of seconds, thereby precluding human countermeasures. A worm over a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) can, in addition to the well-known threats, pose a whole new class of traffic-related threats (ranging from congestion to large-scale accidents). To combat these automated adversaries, security patches can be distributed by good worms. An accurate VANET-based worm propagation model is essential to protect from malicious worms and to efficiently utilize good worms for distribution of security patches. This paper derives an approximate closed-form mathematical model of worm propagation over VANETs. Simulation results assert that the proposed model captures the VANET worm propagation dynamics with outstanding accuracy.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0429
Andreas Panayi, Harold Schock, Boon-Keat Chui, Mikhail Ejakov
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication, piston dynamics and friction are important characteristics determining the performance and efficiency of an internal combustion engine. This paper presents a finite element analysis on a production piston of a gasoline engine performed using commercial software, the COSMOSDesignStar, and a comprehensive cylinder-kit simulation software, the CASE, to demonstrate the advantages of using a reduced, parameterized model analysis in the assessment of piston design characteristics. The full piston model is parameterized according to the CASE specifications. The two are analyzed and compared in the COSMOSDesignStar, considering thermal and mechanical loads. The region of interest is the skirt area on the thrust and anti-thrust sides of the piston.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3133
Bassem H. Ramadan, Charles L. Gray, Fakhri J. Hamady, Karl H. Hellman, Harold J. Schock
Numerical simulations of lean Methanol combustion in a four-stroke internal combustion engine were conducted on a high-compression ratio engine. The engine had a removable integral injector ignition source insert that allowed changing the head dome volume, and the location of the spark plug relative to the fuel injector. It had two intake valves and two exhaust ports. The intake ports were designed so the airflow into the engine exhibited no tumble or swirl motions in the cylinder. Three different engine configurations were considered: One configuration had a flat head and piston, and the other two had a hemispherical combustion chamber in the cylinder head and a hemispherical bowl in the piston, with different volumes. The relative equivalence ratio (Lambda), injection timing and ignition timing were varied to determine the operating range for each configuration. Lambda (λ) values from 1.5 to 2.75 were considered.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3132
Bassem H. Ramadan, Charles L. Gray, Fakhri J. Hamady, Karl H. Hellman, Harold J. Schock
Three-dimensional transient simulations using KIVA-3V were conducted on a 4-stroke high-compression ratio, methanol-fueled, direct-injection (DI) engine. The engine had two intake ports that were designed to impart a swirling motion to the intake air. In some cases, the intake system was modified, by decreasing the ports diameter in order to increase the swirl ratio. To investigate the effect of adding shrouds to the intake valves on swirl, two sets of intake valves were considered; the first set consisted of conventional valves, and the second set of valves had back shrouds to restrict airflow from the backside of the valves. In addition, the effect of using one or two intake ports on swirl generation was determined by blocking one of the ports.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0255
Deron Littlejohn, Tom Fornari, George Kuo, Bryan Fulmer, Andrew Mooradian, Kevin Shipp, Joseph Elliott, Kwangjin Lee, Margaret Richards
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) technology is presently emerging in the automotive market as a convenience function intended to reduce driver workload. It allows the host vehicle to maintain a set speed and distance from preceding vehicles by a forward object detection sensor. The forward object detection sensor is the focal point of the ACC control system, which determines and regulates vehicle acceleration and deceleration through a powertrain torque control system and an automatic brake control system. This paper presents a design of an automatic braking system that utilizes a microprocessor-controlled brake hydraulic modulator. The alternatively qualified automatic braking means is reviewed first. The product level requirements of the performance, robustness, and durability for an automatic brake system are addressed. A brief overview of the presented system architecture is described.
2007-06-12
Technical Paper
2007-01-2461
Bradly Alicea
Human intraspecific variation is a complex problem, but may be better understood by using computational models in tandem with knowledge about the genetic bases of phenotypic traits. These results can be used in a multitude of settings. To move closer to this goal, biologically-realistic mappings between genotype and phenotype are constructed using genetic algorithm and neural network-like models. These models allow for gene-gene and gene-environment interactions to be characterized in the resulting phenotype. Two types of model are introduced: a simple, two-layer model, and a more complex model. The final section will focus on trends of growth and development in relation to relationship to modeling anthropometric traits and other morphological phenomena.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1767
Guoming Zhu, Tom Stuecken, Harold Schock, Xiaojian Yang, David L. S. Hung, Andrew Fedewa
The requirement of reduced emissions and improved fuel economy led the introduction of direct-injection (DI) spark-ignited (SI) engines. Dual-fuel injection system (direct-injection and port-fuel-injection (PFI)) was also used to improve engine performance at high load and speed. Ethanol is one of the several alternative transportation fuels considered for replacing fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel. Ethanol offers high octane quality but with lower energy density than fossil fuels. This paper presents the combustion characteristics of a single cylinder dual-fuel injection SI engine with the following fueling cases: a) gasoline for PFI and DI, b) PFI gasoline and DI ethanol, and c) PFI ethanol and DI gasoline. For this study, the DI fueling portion varied from 0 to 100 percentage of the total fueling over different engine operational conditions while the engine air-to-fuel ratio remained at a constant level.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0353
N. Chase, R.C. Averill, R. Sidhu
To increase robustness of the crush mode and to decrease repair costs after a crash, it is desirable for front and rear rails in an automotive vehicle to crush progressively. Here, progressive crush refers to a mode of axial crush that initiates near the tip of the rail and then progresses rearward in a controlled fashion. In this study, a new strategy is investigated to achieve progressively crushing designs during an automated design optimization study. This strategy employs the definition of crush zones along the length of a rail, and a design optimization problem statement that encourages maximum energy absorption in any particular crush zone to occur prior to any energy absorption in rearward zones. It is demonstrated that high performing designs with progressive crush can be obtained using the proposed approach.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0325
Shalabh Srivastava, Harold Schock, Farhad Jaberi, David L. S. Hung
This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of the mixing and combustion of ethanol and gasoline in a single-cylinder 3-valve direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The numerical simulations are conducted with the KIVA code with global reaction models. However, an ignition delay model mitigates some of the deficiencies of the global one-step reaction model and is implemented via a two-dimensional look-up table, which was created using available detailed kinetics models. Simulations demonstrate the problems faced by ethanol operated engines and indicate that some of the strategies used for emission control and downsizing of gasoline engines can be employed for enhancing the combustion efficiency of ethanol operated engines.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0608
Bryce Charles Thelen, Elisa Toulson
Abstract In this purely computational study, fluid dynamic simulations with active combustion are performed for a Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI) system installed in a rapid compression machine. The simulations compare the effects that the location of the TJI system’s spark ignition source inside the TJI’s prechamber have on the combustion within the system through the use of four simulations, which are all identically setup with the same initial and boundary conditions except for the location of their respective ignition sources. The four ignition sources are located along the centerline of the axisymmetric prechamber and at varied distances from the orifice exit of the prechamber. Comparison of the simulations demonstrate that the locations furthest from the orifice produce better main chamber ignition as reflected in shorter 0-10% mass fraction burn times. Meanwhile all three of the test cases that were not closest to the orifice all produced similar 10-90% mass fraction burn times.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0599
Masumeh Gholamisheeri, Bryce Thelen, Gerald Gentz, Elisa Toulson
Abstract Three-dimensional numerical simulation of the turbulent jet ignition combustion process of a premixed methane-air mixture in a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) was performed using the Converge computational software. Turbulent jet ignition is a prechamber initiated combustion system that can replace the spark plug in a spark ignition engine. The prechamber is a small volume chamber where an injector and spark plug are located and is connected to the main combustion chamber via one or multiple small orifices. Turbulent jet ignition is capable of enabling low temperature combustion, through either lean or dilute combustion. A RANS model, which included a k-ε turbulence model to solve the mean flow and the SAGE chemistry solver with a reduced methane mechanism to solve the chemistry, was used to model the turbulent jet ignition system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0557
Masumeh Gholamisheeri, Bryce Thelen, Elisa Toulson
Abstract Three dimensional numerical simulation of the transient turbulent jet and ignition processes of a premixed methane-air mixture of a turbulent jet ignition (TJI) system is performed using Converge computational software. The prechamber initiated combustion enhancement technique that is utilized in a TJI system enables low temperature combustion by increasing the flame propagation rate and therefore decreasing the burn duration. Two important components of the TJI system are the prechamber where the spark plug and injectors are located and the nozzle which connects the prechamber to the main chamber. In order to model the turbulent jet of the TJI system, RANS k-ε and LES turbulent models and the SAGE chemistry solver with a reduced mechanism for methane are used.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0619
Ravi Teja Vedula, Thomas Stuecken, Harold Schock, Cody Squibb, Ken Hardman
Abstract Piston temperature plays a major role in determining details of fuel spray vaporization, fuel film deposition and the resulting combustion in direct-injection engines. Due to different heat transfer properties that occur in optical and all-metal engines, it becomes an inevitable requirement to verify the piston temperatures in both engine configurations before carrying out optical engine studies. A novel Spot Infrared-based Temperature (SIR-T) technique was developed to measure the piston window temperature in an optical engine. Chromium spots of 200 nm thickness were vacuum-arc deposited at different locations on a sapphire window. An infrared (IR) camera was used to record the intensity of radiation emitted by the deposited spots. From a set of calibration experiments, a relation was established between the IR camera measurements of these spots and the surface temperature measured by a thermocouple.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1724
Chao Cheng, Ali Kharazmi, Harold Schock
A three-dimensional piston ring model has been developed using finite element method with eight-node hexahedral elements. The model predicts the piston ring conformability with the cylinder wall as well as the separation gap between the interfaces if existing in the radial direction. In addition to the radial interaction between the ring front face and the cylinder wall, the model also predicts the contact between the ring and groove sides in the axial direction. This means, the ring axial lift, ring twist, contact forces with the groove sides along the circumferential direction are all calculated simultaneously with the radial conformability prediction. The ring/groove side contact can be found for scraper ring at static condition, which is widely used as the second compression ring in a ring pack. Thermal load is believed having significant influence on the ring pack performance.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0958
Robert Hubbard, Christopher Gedraitis
Seat factors are characteristics of seats that influence people's postures. Seat factors such as lumbar prominence and seat pan stiffnesses were defined and measured for a variety of automotive seats. Seat factors such as these serve as a basis for evaluating and comparing seats. They were useful for selecting seats and designing experiments for human subject testing in the ASPECT program. Seat factors are also candidates for independent variables in statistical posture prediction models. The Seat factors described in this paper were measured with the current J826 manikin. They will be redefined for use with the new ASPECT manikin.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0964
Richard H. Setyabudhy, Zhenyu Liu, Robert P. Hubbard
To provide contours for the new ASPECT manikin, the contours of the thighs and buttocks of mid-size male subjects were measured using a specially built chair. The subjects' body surfaces that were not in contact with the chair and their postures were measured using a video-based position measurement system. Using computer aided design methods, the measured contours were splined and sectioned relative to the local anatomical coordinates for each subject. These local sections were combined and analyzed, with comparison to SAE J826 manikin contours, to provide a thigh and buttocks contour for the ASPECT manikin that represent the mid-size male.
2001-05-14
Technical Paper
2001-01-1701
J. Foss, D. Neal, M. Henner, S. Moreau
In order to improve the reliability of fan design and the prediction of underhood engine cooling based on CFD, Valeo Motors and Actuators and Michigan State University have teamed up to develop a comprehensive experimental and numerical database. The initial focus has been on the simulations of the isolated fan environment in two different test facilities. To understand the discrepancies observed in the comparisons of integral performances, the first detailed hot wire measurements on the MSU test facility have been collected. The data are split into mean velocity components and RMS fluctuations. The former are successfully compared to three detailed turbulent numerical simulations of the corresponding facilities.
2002-10-21
Technical Paper
2002-01-2702
Bassem H. Ramadan, Fakhri J. Hamady, Charles L. Gray, Karl H. Hellman, Harold J. Schock
A numerical study on the combustion of Methanol in a directly injected (DI) engine was conducted. The study considers the effect of the bowl-in-piston (BIP) geometry, swirl ratio (SR), and relative equivalence ratio (λ), on flame propagation and burn rate of Methanol in a 4-stroke engine. Ignition-assist in this engine was accomplished by a spark plug system. Numerical simulations of two different BIP geometries were considered. Combustion characteristics of Methanol under swirl and no-swirl conditions were investigated. In addition, the amount of injected fuel was varied in order to determine the effect of stoichiometry on combustion. Only the compression and expansion strokes were simulated. The results show that fuel-air mixing, combustion, and flame propagation was significantly enhanced when swirl was turned on. This resulted in a higher peak pressure in the cylinder, and more heat loss through the cylinder walls.
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