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Viewing 1 to 30 of 38
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1914
Darko Filipi, Ales Alajbegovic, Anthony B. Christie
Cavitation induced cylinder liner erosion can be a significant durability problem in high power density diesel engines. It is typically discovered in the field, thus causing costly redesigns. The application of a predictive simulation to analyze the liner cavitation process upfront could identify the problem early on and enable significant savings. Hence, this work investigates the ability of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) multiphase flow simulation tool to handle vibration induced cavitation. A flow of liquid through a U-shaped duct is analyzed, where a middle segment of the duct is set to vibrate in a manner resembling vibration of the cooling jacket walls in an internal combustion engine. Velocity, pressure and vapor concentration fields are tracked for two cases, distinguished by different frequencies of duct wall vibration.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0324
Zheng David Lou, Shao Wen, Jianhua Qian, Huaiping Xu, Guoming Zhu, Ming Sun
Abstract Camless Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technologies have been known for improving fuel economy, reducing emissions, and enhancing engine performance. VVA can be divided into electro-magnetic, electro-hydraulic, and electro-pneumatic actuation. This paper presents an electro-hydraulic VVA design (called GD-VVA-2) that offers continuously variable timing and two discrete lifts (low lift S1 and high lift S2). The lift control is achieved through a lift control sleeve, which is hydraulically switched between two mechanically defined positions to provide accurate lifts. The low lift S1 has a wide design range, anywhere between zero and the high lift S2, i.e., 0 < S1 < S2. If S1 ≥ 0.5*S2, engine valves may operate at the low lift during most of a typical drive cycle. Operation at the low lift reduces energy consumption significantly. The GD-VVA-2 design offers compact package size and reasonable energy consumption.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0779
Gerald Gentz, Bryce Thelen, Paul Litke, John Hoke, Elisa Toulson
Abstract Turbulent jet ignition is a pre-chamber ignition enhancement method that produces a distributed ignition source through the use of a chemically active turbulent jet which can replace the spark plug in a conventional spark ignition engine. In this paper combustion visualization and characterization was performed for the combustion of a premixed propane/air mixture initiated by a pre-chamber turbulent jet ignition system with no auxiliary fuel injection, in a rapid compression machine. Three different single orifice nozzles with orifice diameters of 1.5 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm were tested for the turbulent jet igniter pre-chamber over a range of air to fuel ratios. The performance of the turbulent jet ignition system based on nozzle orifice diameter was characterized by considering both the 0-10 % and the 10-90 % burn durations of the pressure rise due to combustion.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0396
Bryce Charles Thelen, Gerald Gentz, Elisa Toulson
Abstract Fully three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulations with detailed chemistry of a single-orifice turbulent jet ignition device installed in a rapid compression machine are presented. The simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamics software CONVERGE and its RANS turbulence models. Simulations of propane fueled combustion are compared to data collected in the optically accessible rapid compression machine that the model's geometry is based on to establish the validity and limitations of the simulations and to compare the behavior of the different air-fuel ratios that are used in the simulations.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2749
Stephen Pace, Guoming G. Zhu
Air-to-fuel (A/F) ratio is the mass ratio of the air-to-fuel mixture trapped inside a cylinder before combustion begins, and it affects engine emissions, fuel economy, and other performances. Using an A/F ratio and dual-fuel ratio control oriented engine model, a multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) sliding mode control scheme is used to simultaneously control the mass flow rate of both port fuel injection (PFI) and direct injection (DI) systems. The control target is to regulate the A/F ratio at a desired level (e.g., at stoichiometric) and fuel ratio (ratio of PFI fueling vs. total fueling) to any desired level between zero and one. A MIMO sliding mode controller was designed with guaranteed stability to drive the system A/F and fuel ratios to the desired target under various air flow disturbances.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2174
Tariq Khan, Pradeep Ramuhalli, S. T. Raveendra, Weiguo Zhang
The identification/localization of propulsion noise in turbo machinery plays an important role in its design and in noise mitigation techniques. Near field acoustic holography (NAH) is the process by which all aspects of the sound field can be reconstructed based on sound pressure measurements in the near field domain. Identification of noise sources, particularly in turbo-machinery applications, efficiently and accurately is difficult due to complex noise generation mechanisms. Backward prediction of the sound field closer to the source than the measurement plane is typically an unstable “ill-posed” inverse problem due to the presence of measurement noise. Therefore regularized inversion techniques are typically implemented for noise source reconstruction. Another major source of ill-posedness in NAH inverse problems is a larger number of unknowns (sources) than available pressure measurements. A model reduction technique is proposed in this paper to address this issue.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0565
Mayank Mittal, Harold Schock, Ravi Vedula, Ahmed Naguib
An experimental study has been conducted to quantify the velocity and pressure inside an idealized intake manifold of a motored internal combustion engine assembly. The aim of this work is to provide the real-time boundary conditions for more accurate multi-dimensional numerical simulations of complex in-cylinder flows in an internal combustion engine as well as the resultant in-cylinder flow patterns. The geometry of the intake manifold is simplified for this purpose. A hot-wire anemometer and a piezoresistive absolute pressure transducer are used to measure the velocity and pressure, respectively, over a plane inside the circular section of the intake manifold. In addition, pressure measurements are performed over an elliptical section near the intake port. Phase-averaged velocity and pressure profiles are then calculated from the instantaneous measurements. Experiments were performed at 900 and 1200 rpm engine speeds with wide open throttle.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0590
Zheng David Lou, Qiangquan Deng, Shao Wen, Yunhai Zhang, Mengjin Yu, Ming Sun, Guoming Zhu
Camless Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technologies have been known for improving fuel economy, reducing emissions, and enhancing engine performance. VVA can be divided into electro-magnetic, electro-hydraulic, and electro-pneumatic actuation. A family of camless VVA designs (called LGD-VVA or Gongda-VVA) has been presented in an earlier SAE publication (SAE 2007-01-1295) that consists of a two-spring actuation, a bypass passage, and an electrohydraulic latch-release mechanism. The two-spring pendulum system is used to provide efficient conversion between the moving mass kinetic energy and the spring potential energy for reduced energy consumption and to be more robust to the operational temperature than the conventional electrohydraulic actuation; and the electrohydraulic mechanism is intended for latch-release function, energy compensation and seating velocity control.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1101
Abolfazl Irannejad, Farhad Jaberi
Large Eddy Simulations of atomization and evaporation of liquid fuel sprays in diesel engine conditions are performed with stochastic breakup and non-equilibrium droplet heat and mass transfer models. The size and number density of the droplets generated by the breakup model are assumed to be governed by a Fokker-Planck equation, describing the evolution of the PDF of droplet radii. The fragmentation intensity spectrum is considered to be Gaussian and the scale of Lagrangian relative velocity fluctuations is included in the breakup frequency calculations. The aerodynamic interactions of droplets in the dense part of the spray are modeled by correcting the relative velocity of droplets in the wake of other droplets. The stochastic breakup model is employed together with the wake interaction model for simulations of non-evaporating and evaporating sprays in various gas temperature and pressure conditions.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1457
William P. Attard, Neil Fraser, Patrick Parsons, Elisa Toulson
Turbulent Jet Ignition is an advanced pre-chamber initiated combustion system for an otherwise standard spark ignition engine found in current on-road vehicles. This next-generation pre-chamber design overcomes previous packaging obstacles by simply replacing the spark plug in a modern four-valve, pent roof spark ignition engine. Turbulent Jet Ignition enables very fast burn rates due to the ignition system producing multiple, distributed ignition sites, which consume the main charge rapidly and with minimal combustion variability. The fast burn rates allow for increased levels of dilution (lean burn and/or EGR) when compared to conventional spark ignition combustion, with dilution levels being comparable to other low temperature combustion technologies (homogeneous charge compression ignition - HCCI) without the complex control drawbacks.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1644
Mayank Mittal, Harold Schock, Guoming Zhu
A direct-injection and spark-ignition single-cylinder engine with optical access to the cylinder was used for the combustion visualization study. Gasoline and ethanol-gasoline blended fuels were used in this investigation. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of fuel injection pressure, injection timing and the number of injections on the in-cylinder combustion process. Two types of direct fuel injectors were used; (i) high-pressure production injector with fuel pressures of 5 and 10 MPa, and (ii) low-pressure production-intent injector with fuel pressure of 3 MPa. Experiments were performed at 1500 rpm engine speed with partial load. In-cylinder pressure signals were recorded for the combustion analyses and synchronized with the high-speed combustion imaging recording. Visualization results show that the flame growth is faster with the increment of fuel injection pressure.
2012-10-23
Journal Article
2012-32-0002
Elisa Toulson, Andrew Huisjen, Xuefei Chen, Cody Squibb, Guoming Zhu, Harold Schock, William P. Attard
This study focuses on the combustion visualization of spark ignition combustion in an optical single cylinder engine using natural gas and propane at several air to fuel ratios and speed-load operating points. Propane and natural gas fuels were compared as they are the most promising gaseous alternative fuels for reciprocating powertrains, with both fuels beginning to find wide market penetration on the fleet level across many regions of the world. Additionally, when compared to gasoline, these gaseous fuels are affordable, have high knock resistance and relatively low carbon content and they do not suffer from the complex re-fueling and storage problems associated with hydrogen.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0868
Cody William Squibb, Harold Schock, Casey Allen, Tonghun Lee, Mulyanto Poort, Kyle Crayne
Combustion studies were completed using an International VT275-based, optical DI Diesel engine fueled with Diesel fuel, a Canola-derived FAMES biodiesel, as well as with a blend of the Canola-derived biodiesel and a cetane-reducing, oxygenated fuel, Di-Butyl Succinate. Three engine operating conditions were tested to examine the combustion of the fuels across a range of loads and combustion schemes. Pressure data and instantaneous images were recorded using a high-speed visible imaging, infrared imaging, and high-speed OH imaging techniques. The recorded images were post processed to analyze different metrics, such as projected areas of in-cylinder soot, OH, and combustion volumes. A substantially reduced in-cylinder area of soot formation is observed for the Canola-DBS blended fuel with a slight reduction from the pure FAMES biodiesel compared to pump Diesel fuel.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2183
Meisam Mehravaran, Giles Brereton
EGR coolers are used in combustion engines to reduce NOx emissions. However, heat transfer in these coolers also results in thermophoresis-temperature-gradient driven motion of suspended particles towards cooler regions-which leads to significant soot deposition. A simple one-dimensional model is proposed to predict the deposition velocity and soot layer thickness that compares reasonably well with experimental data. The behavior of soot deposits on cooled surfaces is complex, with the thickness of the soot layer stabilizes after around 100 hours, reaching a uniform, thickness over the entire heat-exchanger surface. An analysis of this trend and a tentative mechanism to explain this type of behavior is given, based on experimental observations.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950726
Bernd Stier, Robert E. Falco
This paper presents results from experiments performed in an axisymmetric water analog model of a four-stroke IC engine using the optical velocimetry technique LIPA (Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry). The investigation can be described as a fundamental scientific inquiry into the fluid dynamics encountered during engine operation, with the long term goal of increasing performance. An application of LIPA to a fluid dynamics problem delivers two-dimensional fields of velocity vectors which are projections of the full three-dimensional vectors in single measurement steps. From an evaluation of a velocity field vorticity information can be obtained readily. Velocity fields and vorticity distributions are, in this study, the basis for the evaluation of seven parametric quantities. Some of these may become tools that give engineers ‘rule of thumb’ indications of the mixing that is occurring.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0429
Andreas Panayi, Harold Schock, Boon-Keat Chui, Mikhail Ejakov
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication, piston dynamics and friction are important characteristics determining the performance and efficiency of an internal combustion engine. This paper presents a finite element analysis on a production piston of a gasoline engine performed using commercial software, the COSMOSDesignStar, and a comprehensive cylinder-kit simulation software, the CASE, to demonstrate the advantages of using a reduced, parameterized model analysis in the assessment of piston design characteristics. The full piston model is parameterized according to the CASE specifications. The two are analyzed and compared in the COSMOSDesignStar, considering thermal and mechanical loads. The region of interest is the skirt area on the thrust and anti-thrust sides of the piston.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3133
Bassem H. Ramadan, Charles L. Gray, Fakhri J. Hamady, Karl H. Hellman, Harold J. Schock
Numerical simulations of lean Methanol combustion in a four-stroke internal combustion engine were conducted on a high-compression ratio engine. The engine had a removable integral injector ignition source insert that allowed changing the head dome volume, and the location of the spark plug relative to the fuel injector. It had two intake valves and two exhaust ports. The intake ports were designed so the airflow into the engine exhibited no tumble or swirl motions in the cylinder. Three different engine configurations were considered: One configuration had a flat head and piston, and the other two had a hemispherical combustion chamber in the cylinder head and a hemispherical bowl in the piston, with different volumes. The relative equivalence ratio (Lambda), injection timing and ignition timing were varied to determine the operating range for each configuration. Lambda (λ) values from 1.5 to 2.75 were considered.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3132
Bassem H. Ramadan, Charles L. Gray, Fakhri J. Hamady, Karl H. Hellman, Harold J. Schock
Three-dimensional transient simulations using KIVA-3V were conducted on a 4-stroke high-compression ratio, methanol-fueled, direct-injection (DI) engine. The engine had two intake ports that were designed to impart a swirling motion to the intake air. In some cases, the intake system was modified, by decreasing the ports diameter in order to increase the swirl ratio. To investigate the effect of adding shrouds to the intake valves on swirl, two sets of intake valves were considered; the first set consisted of conventional valves, and the second set of valves had back shrouds to restrict airflow from the backside of the valves. In addition, the effect of using one or two intake ports on swirl generation was determined by blocking one of the ports.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0788
Antoni K. Oppenheim, Harold J. Schock
The paper presents reportage of the debate on the topic expressed by its title that was held as a special session at the SAE 2003 Congress, supplemented by commentaries on its highlights. The debate brought to focus the fact that fuel cells are, indeed, superb powerplants for automobiles, while hydrogen is at the pinnacle of superiority as the most refined fuel. The problems that remained unresolved, are: (1) when fuel cells will be practically viable to replace internal combustion engines and (2) under what circumstances hydrogen, as the ultimate fuel, will be economically viable in view of its intrinsically high cost and hazards engendered by its extraordinary flammability and explosive tendency.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1767
Guoming Zhu, Tom Stuecken, Harold Schock, Xiaojian Yang, David L. S. Hung, Andrew Fedewa
The requirement of reduced emissions and improved fuel economy led the introduction of direct-injection (DI) spark-ignited (SI) engines. Dual-fuel injection system (direct-injection and port-fuel-injection (PFI)) was also used to improve engine performance at high load and speed. Ethanol is one of the several alternative transportation fuels considered for replacing fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel. Ethanol offers high octane quality but with lower energy density than fossil fuels. This paper presents the combustion characteristics of a single cylinder dual-fuel injection SI engine with the following fueling cases: a) gasoline for PFI and DI, b) PFI gasoline and DI ethanol, and c) PFI ethanol and DI gasoline. For this study, the DI fueling portion varied from 0 to 100 percentage of the total fueling over different engine operational conditions while the engine air-to-fuel ratio remained at a constant level.
2008-09-09
Technical Paper
2008-32-0028
Nicholas M. Danne, David L. S. Hung, Guoming G. Zhu, Jay McKoskey
To obtain the maximum output power and fuel economy from an internal combustion engine, it is often necessary to detect engine knock and operate the engine at its knock limit. This paper presents the ability to detect knock using in-cylinder ionization signals on a large displacement, air-cooled, “V” twin motorcycle engine over the engine operational map. The knock detection ability of three different sensors is compared: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure sensor, and ionization sensor. The test data shows that the ionization sensor is able to detect knock better than the production knock sensor when there is high mechanical noise present in the engine.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1411
David L. S. Hung, Guoming G. Zhu, James R. Winkelman, Tom Stuecken, Harold Schock, Andrew Fedewa
In developing a direct injection gasoline engine, the in-cylinder fuel air mixing is key to good performance and emissions. High speed visualization in an optically accessible single cylinder engine for direct injection gasoline engine applications is an effective tool to reveal the fuel spray pattern effect on mixture formation The fuel injectors in this study employ the unique multi-hole turbulence nozzles in a PFI-like (Port Fuel Injection) fuel system architecture specifically developed as a Low Pressure Direct Injection (LPDI) fuel injection system. In this study, three injector sprays with a narrow 40° spray angle, a 60°spray angle with 5°offset angle, and a wide 80° spray angle with 10° offset angle were evaluated. Image processing algorithms were developed to analyze the nature of in-cylinder fuel-air mixing and the extent of fuel spray impingement on the cylinder wall.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1297
Jia Ma, Tom Stuecken, Harold Schock, Guoming Zhu, Jim Winkelman
Abstract Electro-pneumatic valve actuators are used to eliminate the cam shaft of a traditional internal combustion engine. They are used to control the opening timing, duration, and lift of both intake and exhaust valves. A physics based nonlinear mathematical model called the level one model was built using Newton's law, mass conservation and thermodynamic principles. A control oriented model, the level two model, was created by partially linearizing the level one model for model reference parameter identification. This model reduces computational throughput and enables real-time implementation. A model reference adaptive control system was used to identify the nonlinear parameters that were needed for generating a feedforward control signal. The closed-loop valve lift tracking, valve opening and closing timing control strategies were proposed.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0325
Shalabh Srivastava, Harold Schock, Farhad Jaberi, David L. S. Hung
This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of the mixing and combustion of ethanol and gasoline in a single-cylinder 3-valve direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The numerical simulations are conducted with the KIVA code with global reaction models. However, an ignition delay model mitigates some of the deficiencies of the global one-step reaction model and is implemented via a two-dimensional look-up table, which was created using available detailed kinetics models. Simulations demonstrate the problems faced by ethanol operated engines and indicate that some of the strategies used for emission control and downsizing of gasoline engines can be employed for enhancing the combustion efficiency of ethanol operated engines.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0727
Cody William Squibb, Harold Schock, Ravi Vedula, Thomas Stuecken
Abstract In-cylinder visualization experiments were completed using an International VT275-based optical DI Diesel engine operating under high simulated exhaust gas recirculation combustion conditions. Experiments were run at four load conditions to examine variations in fuel spray, combustion, and soot production. Mass fraction burned analyses of pressure data were used to investigate the combustion processes of the various operating conditions. An infrared camera was used to visualize fuel spray events and exothermic combustion gases. A visible, high-speed camera was used to image natural luminosity produced by soot. The recorded images were post-processed to analyze the fuel spray, the projected exothermic areas produced by combustion, as well as soot production of different load conditions. Probability maps of combustion and fuel spray occurrence in the cylinder are presented for insight into the combustion processes of the different conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0608
Bryce Charles Thelen, Elisa Toulson
Abstract In this purely computational study, fluid dynamic simulations with active combustion are performed for a Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI) system installed in a rapid compression machine. The simulations compare the effects that the location of the TJI system’s spark ignition source inside the TJI’s prechamber have on the combustion within the system through the use of four simulations, which are all identically setup with the same initial and boundary conditions except for the location of their respective ignition sources. The four ignition sources are located along the centerline of the axisymmetric prechamber and at varied distances from the orifice exit of the prechamber. Comparison of the simulations demonstrate that the locations furthest from the orifice produce better main chamber ignition as reflected in shorter 0-10% mass fraction burn times. Meanwhile all three of the test cases that were not closest to the orifice all produced similar 10-90% mass fraction burn times.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0708
Gerald R. Gentz, Elisa Toulson
Abstract Lean combustion is a promising combustion technology that has the potential to improve engine efficiency while decreasing emissions. One reason why lean combustion has not been more widely implemented is that as the air-fuel ratio increases, the resulting flame propagation speed becomes slower and combustion becomes unstable. Turbulent jet ignition is a pre-chamber ignition enhancement concept that facilitates ultra-lean combustion by using a hot combusting jet as a distributed ignition source. The jet penetration allows for shorter flame travel distances, which decreases the overall burn duration and improves stability. By using a rich mixture in the pre-chamber, the pre-chamber mixture is easily ignitable and the transport of chemically active radical species and unburned fuel into the main-chamber charge improves ignition quality.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0599
Masumeh Gholamisheeri, Bryce Thelen, Gerald Gentz, Elisa Toulson
Abstract Three-dimensional numerical simulation of the turbulent jet ignition combustion process of a premixed methane-air mixture in a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) was performed using the Converge computational software. Turbulent jet ignition is a prechamber initiated combustion system that can replace the spark plug in a spark ignition engine. The prechamber is a small volume chamber where an injector and spark plug are located and is connected to the main combustion chamber via one or multiple small orifices. Turbulent jet ignition is capable of enabling low temperature combustion, through either lean or dilute combustion. A RANS model, which included a k-ε turbulence model to solve the mean flow and the SAGE chemistry solver with a reduced methane mechanism to solve the chemistry, was used to model the turbulent jet ignition system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0557
Masumeh Gholamisheeri, Bryce Thelen, Elisa Toulson
Abstract Three dimensional numerical simulation of the transient turbulent jet and ignition processes of a premixed methane-air mixture of a turbulent jet ignition (TJI) system is performed using Converge computational software. The prechamber initiated combustion enhancement technique that is utilized in a TJI system enables low temperature combustion by increasing the flame propagation rate and therefore decreasing the burn duration. Two important components of the TJI system are the prechamber where the spark plug and injectors are located and the nozzle which connects the prechamber to the main chamber. In order to model the turbulent jet of the TJI system, RANS k-ε and LES turbulent models and the SAGE chemistry solver with a reduced mechanism for methane are used.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1088
Katherine Randall, Cody Bradford, Jeremy Ross, Jeremy Church, Nolan Dickey, Adam Christian, Matthew Dunn
Abstract High frequency variations in crankcase pressure have been observed in Inline-four cylinder (I4) engines and an understanding of the causes, frequency and magnitude of these variations is helpful in the design and effective operation of various engine systems. This paper shows through a review and explanation of the physics related to engine operation followed by comparison to measured vehicle data, the relationship between crankcase volume throughout the engine cycle and the observed pressure fluctuations. It is demonstrated that for a known or proposed engine design, through knowledge of the key engine design parameters, the frequency and amplitude of the cyclic variation in crankcase pressure can be predicted and thus utilized in the design of other engine systems.
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