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Viewing 1 to 20 of 20
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1909
Scott A. Miers, Carl L. Anderson, Jason R. Blough, M. Koray Inal
The objective of this investigation was to identify the impingement event on a diesel piston surface. Eight fast-response, surface thermocouples were installed in one of the pistons of a 2.0 liter, four-cylinder, turbo-charged diesel engine (97 kW @ 3800 rpm). Piston temperatures were transmitted from the engine using wireless microwave telemetry. An impingement signal was identified on the piston bowl lip. A simple parameter for characterizing the impingement event is proposed. The results show an impingement signature at one of the bowl lip thermocouples, under specific operating conditions.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2163
Chad M. Walber, Jason R. Blough, Carl Anderson, Mark Johnson
Performing acoustic measurements on or near engines, transmissions, as well as in other circumstances where the environment is hazardous and harsh for microphones requires special precautions. Fluids inevitably leak, and the possibility of transducer damage can be very high without proper protection. Properly protecting microphones during testing allows for consistent data quality in these hazardous and difficult environments. While this paper will present the use of a 5 mil Nitrile cover which protects against many fluids within the scope of automotive testing, including water, hydrocarbons, and alcohols, as well as having good heat resistance and high strength, the concepts developed are applicable to other types of microphone protective mechanisms. Acoustic sensitivity was measured and used to calculate the change of the microphone's response after the treatment is applied, as well as after being exposed to various contaminants.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980546
Cornelius N. Opris, John H. Johnson
A 2-D CFD model was developed to describe the heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state as well as the transient behavior of the flow and heat transfer during the trap regeneration processes. The trap temperature profile was determined by numerically solving the 2-D unsteady energy equation including the convective, heat conduction and viscous dissipation terms. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations (Opris, 1997). The reaction kinetics were described using a discretized first order Arrhenius function. The 2-D term describing the reaction kinetics and particulate matter conservation of mass was added to the energy equation as a source term in order to represent the particulate matter oxidation. The filtration model describes the particulate matter accumulation in the trap.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980545
Cornelius N. Opris, John H. Johnson
A 2-D computational model was developed to describe the flow and filtration processes, in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state trap loading, as well as the transient behavior of the flow and filtration processes. The theoretical model includes the effect of a copper fuel additive on trap loading and transient operation. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations. The filtration theory incorporated in the time dependent numerical code included the diffusion, inertia, and direct interception mechanisms. Based on a measured upstream particle size distribution, using the filtration theory, the downstream particle size distribution was calculated. The theoretical filtration efficiency, based on particle size distribution, agreed very well (within 1%) with experimental data for a number of different cases.
1998-05-04
Technical Paper
981423
Admir M. Kreso, John H. Johnson, Linda D. Gratz, Susan T. Bagley, David G. Leddy
To meet future NO, heavy-duty diesel emissions standards, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology is likely to be used. To improve fuel economy and further lower emissions, the recirculated exhaust gas needs to be cooled, with the possibility that cooling of the exhaust gas may form sulfuric acid condensate in the EGR cooler. This corrosive condensate can cause EGR cooler failure and consequentially result in severe damage to the engine. Both a literature review and a preliminary experimental study were conducted. In this study, a manually controlled EGR system was installed on a 1995 Cummins Ml l-330E engine which was operated at EPA mode 9* (1800 rpm and 75% load). The Goksoyr-Ross method (1)** was used to measure the particle-phase sulfate and vapor-phase H2SO4 and SO2 at the inlet and outlet locations of the EGR cooler, obtaining H2SO4 and SO2 concentrations. About 0.5% of fuel sulfur in the EGR cooler was in the particle-phase.
2005-10-09
Technical Paper
2005-01-3943
James E. Hertel, Jared R. Suster, Justin R. Hawley, Xiaodi Huang
This paper describes the heat transfer model of a composite aluminum brake rotor and compares the predicted temperatures to dynamometer measurements taken during a 15 fade stop trial. The model is based on meshed surface geometry which is simulated using RadTherm software. Methods for realistically modeling heat load distribution, surface rotation, convection cooling and radiation losses are also discussed. A comparison of the simulation results to the dynamometer data shows very close agreement throughout the fade stop trial. As such, the model is considered valid and will be used for further Steel Clad Aluminum (SCA) rotor development.
2003-05-05
Technical Paper
2003-01-1463
John Holt, Mohan D. Rao, Jason Blough, Scott Gruenberg
The traditional method of dynamic characterization of elastomers used in industry has largely been based on sinusoidal input excitation. Discrete frequency sine wave signals at specified amplitudes are used to excite the elastomer in a step-sine sweep fashion. This paper will examine new methods of characterization using various broadband input excitations. These different inputs include continuous sine sweep (chirp), shaped random, and acquired road profile data. Use of these broadband data types is expected to provide a more accurate representation of conditions seen in the field, while helping to eliminate much of the interpolation that is inherent with the classic discrete step-sine technique. Results of the various input types are compared in this paper with those found using the classic discrete step-sine input.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1324
Maruthi Devarakonda, Gordon Parker, John H. Johnson, Vadim Strots, Shyam Santhanam
In this paper, a model-based linear estimator and a non-linear control law for an Fe-zeolite urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for heavy duty diesel engine applications is presented. The novel aspect of this work is that the relevant species, NO, NO2 and NH3 are estimated and controlled independently. The ability to target NH3 slip is important not only to minimize urea consumption, but also to reduce this unregulated emission. Being able to discriminate between NO and NO2 is important for two reasons. First, recent Fe-zeolite catalyst studies suggest that NOx reduction is highly favored by the NO 2 based reactions. Second, NO2 is more toxic than NO to both the environment and human health. The estimator and control law are based on a 4-state model of the urea-SCR plant. A linearized version of the model is used for state estimation while the full nonlinear model is used for control design.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0622
Saurabh Mathur, John H. Johnson, Jeffrey Naber, Susan T. Bagley, Anand S. Shende
A Cummins ISB 5.9 liter medium-duty engine with cooled EGR has been used to study an early extrusion of an advanced ceramic uncatalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Data for the advanced ceramic material (ACM) and an uncatalyzed cordierite filter of similar dimensions are presented. Pressure drop data as a function of mass loadings (0, 4, and 6 grams of particulate matter (PM) per liter of filter volume) for various flow rate/temperature combinations (0.115 - 0.187 kg/sec and 240 - 375 °C) based upon loads of 15, 25, 40 and 60% of full engine load (684 N-m) at 2300 rpm are presented. The data obtained from these experiments were used to calibrate the MTU 1-D 2-Layer computer model developed previously at MTU. Clean wall permeability determined from the model calibration for the ACM was 5.0e-13 m2 as compared to 3.0e-13 m2 for cordierite.
2007-05-15
Technical Paper
2007-01-2410
Jeffrey Van Karsen, David Johnson, Jason Blough, Mohan Rao, Tony Ge
An experimental method has been developed which allows the rigid body inertia properties of an automotive type powertrain to be estimated in-situ without removing the powertrain from the vehicle. The method requires that the complex stiffness properties of the powertrain mounts be estimated therefore allowing through the measurement of the relative displacements across the mounts for the estimation of the forces generated at the powertrain mount locations. Rigid body motion measurements are made through the use of accelerometers simultaneous to exciting the powertrain with multiple shakers. Results of the method are compared to those acquired through an inertia pendulum and the FRF based method implemented in LMS Cada-X software. Effects on the results due to shaker location, response location, mount variation, and removal of powertrain peripherals are also investigated.
2007-05-15
Technical Paper
2007-01-2375
Subhro S. Nathak, Mohan D. Rao, Joseph R. Derk
This paper describes a study to demonstrate the feasibility of developing an acoustic encapsulation to reduce airborne noise from a commercial diesel engine. First, the various sources of noise from the engine were identified using Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH). Detailed NAH measurements were conducted on the four sides of the engine in an engine test cell. The main sources of noise from the engine were ranked and identified within the frequency ranges of interest. Experimental modal analysis was conducted on the oil pan and front cover plate of the engine to reveal correlations of structural vibration results with the data from the NAH. The second phase of the study involved the design and fabrication of the acoustical encapsulation (noise covers) for the engine in a test cell to satisfy the requirements of space, cost and performance constraints. The acoustical materials for the enclosure were selected to meet the frequency and temperature ranges of interest.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770086
David A. Bolis, John H. Johnson, Donald A. Daavetilla
A study has been made of piston ring wear and total engine wear using literature data and new experimental results. The main purpose of the study was to establish the effects of oil and coolant temperatures on engine wear. Wear trends that were found in the early 1960's may not be valid any longer because of the development of higher BMEP turbocharged diesel engines, better metallurgical wear surfaces and improved lube oil properties. New data are presented for the purpose of describing present wear trends. A direct-injection, 4-cycle, turbocharged diesel engine was used for the wear tests. The radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the top piston ring chrome face wear. Atomic emission spectroscopy was employed to determine the concentration of wear metals in the oil to determine total engine wear based on iron and lead. The data were analyzed and compared to the results found in the literature from previous investigators.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1816
Mahsa Asgarisabet, Andrew Barnard
Abstract Carbon Nanotube (CNT) thin film speakers produce sound with the thermoacoustic effect. Alternating current passes through the low heat capacity CNT thin film changing the surface temperature rapidly. CNT thin film does not vibrate; instead it heats and cools the air adjacent to the film, creating sound pressure waves. These speakers are inexpensive, transparent, stretchable, flexible, magnet-free, and lightweight. Because of their novelty, developing a model and better understanding the performance of CNT speakers is useful in technology development in applications that require ultra-lightweight sub-systems. The automotive industry is a prime example of where these speakers can be enabling technology for innovative new component design. Developing a multi-physics (Electrical-Thermal-Acoustical) FEA model, for planar CNT speakers is studied in this paper. The temperature variation on the CNT thin film is obtained by applying alternating electrical current to the CNT film.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1895
Troy Bouman, Andrew Barnard, Joshua Alexander
Abstract Compared to moving coil loudspeakers, carbon nanotube (CNT) loudspeakers are extremely lightweight and are capable of creating sound over a broad frequency range (1 Hz to 100 kHz). The thermoacoustic effect that allows for this non-vibrating sound source is naturally inefficient and nonlinear. Signal processing techniques are one option that may help counteract these concerns. Previous studies have evaluated a hybrid efficiency metric, the ratio of the sound pressure level at a single point to the input electrical power. True efficiency is the ratio of output acoustic power to the input electrical power. True efficiency data are presented for two new drive signal processing techniques borrowed from the hearing aid industry. Spectral envelope decimation of an AC signal operates in the frequency domain (FCAC) and dynamic linear frequency compression of an AC signal operates in the time domain (TCAC). Each type of processing affects the true efficiency differently.
2001-04-30
Technical Paper
2001-01-1466
Matthew D. Black, Mohan D. Rao
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
2001-04-30
Technical Paper
2001-01-1449
Scott Gruenberg, Jason Blough, Darin Kowalski, Jay Pistana
Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
2002-03-04
Technical Paper
2002-01-1019
Z. Zhang, S. L. Yang, John H. Johnson
A 2-dimensional numerical model (MTU-FILTER) for a single channel of a honeycomb ceramic diesel particulate trap has been developed. The mathematical modeling of the filtration, flow, heat transfer and regeneration behavior of the particulate trap is described. Numerical results for the pressure drop and particulate mass were compared with existing experimental results. Parametric studies of the diesel particulate trap were carried out. The effects of trap size and inlet temperature on the trap performance are studied using the trap model. An approximate 2-dimensional analytical solution to the simplified Navier-Stokes equations was used to calculate the velocity field of the exhaust flow in the inlet and outlet channels. Assuming a similarity velocity profile in the channels, the 2-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are approximated by 1-dimenisonal conservation equations, which is similar to those first developed by Bissett.
1983-02-01
Technical Paper
830457
Paul R. Miller, Jackson Scholl, Susan Bagley, David Leddy, John H. Johnson
Physical, chemical, and biological characterization data for the particulate emissions from a Caterpillar 3208 diesel engine with and without Corning porous ceramic particulate traps are presented. Measurements made at EPA modes 3,4,5,9,lO and 11 include total hydrocarbon, oxides of nitrogen and total particulate matter emissions including the solid fraction (SOL), soluble organic fraction (SOF) and sulfate fraction (SO4), Chemical character was defined by fractionation of the SOF while biological character was defined by analysis of Ames Salmonella/ microsome bioassay data. The trap produced a wide range of total particulate reduction efficiencies (0-97%) depending on the character of the particulate. The chemical character of the SOF was significantly changed through the trap as was the biological character. The mutagenic specific activity of the SOF was generally increased through the trap but this was offset by a decrease in SOF mass emissions.
1991-02-01
Technical Paper
910609
L. D. Gratz, S. T. Bagley, K. S. King, K. J. Baumgard, D. G. Leddy, John H. Johnson
Exhaust emissions were characterized from a Cummins LTA10 heavy-duty diesel engine operated at two EPA steady-state modes with and without an uncatalyzed Corning ceramic particulate trap. The regulated emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), and total particulate matter (TPM) and its components as well as the unregulated emissions of PAH, nitro-PAH, mutagenic activity and particle size distributions were measured. The consistently significant effects of the trap on regulated emissions included reductions of TPM and TPM-associated components. There were no changes in NOx and HC were reduced only at one operating condition. Particle size distribution measurements showed that nuclei-mode particles were formed downstream of the trap, which effectively removed accumulation-mode particles. All of the mutagenicity was direct-acting and the mutagenic activity of the XOC was approximately equivalent to that of the SOF without the trap.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821195
Christopher J. Hubert, John W. Beck, John H. Johnson
Monitoring of the wear rate of a diesel engine will yield valuable information regarding the wear mechanism within a diesel engine and ultimately will improve the predictions of failing engines and/or their components to allow preventive maintenance which will prolong the life of the engine. A mathematical model was developed that describes the wear particle concentration as a function of time in a diesel engine. This model contains engine and lubrication system parameters that determine the concentration of wear particles in the engine sump. These variables are the oil system volume, oil flow rate, particle generation rate, filtering efficiency and the initial particle concentration. The model has been employed to study the wear particle concentrations in the sump and the mass of particles in the filter for the Cummins VT-903 diesel engine.
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