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Viewing 1 to 30 of 51
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2569
Brand Norman Griffin, Robert Howard, Sudhakar Rajulu, David Smitherman
A work envelope has been defined for weightless Extravehicular Activity (EVA) based on the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), but there is no equivalent for planetary operations. The weightless work envelope is essential for planning all EVA tasks because it determines the location of removable parts, making sure they are within reach and visibility of the suited crew member. In addition, using the envelope positions the structural hard points for foot restraints that allow placing both hands on the job and provides a load path for reacting forces. EVA operations are always constrained by time. Tasks are carefully planned to ensure the crew has enough breathing oxygen, cooling water, and battery power. Planning first involves computers using a virtual work envelope to model tasks, next suited crew members in a simulated environment refine the tasks.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2457
John F. Lewis, Richard A. Barido, Robyn Carrasquillo, Cynthia D. Cross, Ed Rains, George C. Tuan
The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. The CEV is being developed to transport the crew safely from the Earth to the International Space Station and then later, from the Earth to the Moon . This year, the vehicle continued to go through design refinements to reduce weight, meet requirements, and operate reliably while preparing for Preliminary Design Review in the summer of 2009. The design of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system, which includes the life support and active thermal control systems, is progressing through the design stage. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2008 to April 2009.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2415
David E. Williams, Gregory J. Gentry
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2008 and February 2009. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2086
James F. Russell, John F. Lewis
Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2131
David E. Williams, Gregory J. Gentry
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2007 and February 2008. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2136
David E. Williams
The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 Emergency Response capability, which includes nominal and off-nominal FDS operation, off-nominal ACS operation, and off-nominal THC operation. These subsystems provide the capability to help aid the crew members during an emergency cabin depressurization, a toxic spill, or a fire. The paper will also provide a discussion of the detailed Node 1 ECLS Element Verification methodologies for operation of the Node 1 Emergency Response hardware utilized during the Node 1 Element Qualification phase.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2182
David E. Williams
The International Space Station (ISS) Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of three subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). PMAs 1 and 2 flew to ISS on Flight 2A and Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA) 3 flew to ISS on Flight 3A. This paper provides a summary of the PMAs ECLS design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodologies utilized for the PMAs.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2178
David E. Williams
With the long anticipated change to increase the International Space Station (ISS) crew size from three to six crew members and the retirement of the Space Shuttle, changes are in work to the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System to support the increased on-orbit crew size and their continued operations. The Space Shuttle had provided high pressure oxygen resupply, high pressure nitrogen resupply, water resupply, atmosphere gaseous make up when the Space Shuttle is docked to ISS, and logistic cargo supply/return capability to ISS. Without the Space Shuttle additional changes need to be made to the ISS ECLS System to support the six crew members post Assembly Complete (AC). This will be in addition to the changes that were needed to support doubling the nominal ISS crew size from three to six crew members.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2183
David E. Williams
The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS WRM subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2838
Brienne D. Shkedi
The current International Space Station (ISS) water system is designed to support an ISS crew size of three people. The capability to expand that system to support nine crew members during a contingency Shuttle crew support scenario has been evaluated. This paper describes the water balance and water system capabilities for supporting Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS).
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2977
Victor S. Koscheyev, Aitor Coca, Gloria R. Leon, Robert Treviño
Introduction: There are contradictory opinions regarding the contribution of local hand thermal insulation to support local and total comfort during extravehicular activity (EVA). Instead of a local correction by means of thermal insulation on the periphery of the body to prevent heat dissipation, it may be optimal to prevent heat dissipation from the body core. To examine such a concept, the effects of different insulation levels on the left and right hands on the heat flux and temperature mosaic on the hands was measured. These variables were assessed in relation to the level of heat deficit forming in the core organs and tissues. Methods: Six subjects (4 males, 2 females) were donned in a liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) that totally covered the body surface except for the face. Participants wore the Phase VI space gloves including the entire micrometeoroid garment (TMG) on the left hand, and the glove without the TMG on the right hand.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3185
David E. Williams
The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the Node 1 THC subsystem design. The paper will also provide a discussion of the detailed Element Verification methodologies for nominal operation of the Node 1 THC subsystem operations utilized during the Qualification phase.
2007-06-12
Technical Paper
2007-01-2473
Sherry S. Thaxton, Andrew F. J. Abercromby, Elizabeth A. Onady, Sudhakar L. Rajulu
A preliminary assessment of the reach envelope and field of vision (FOV) for a subject wearing a Mark III space suit was requested for use in human-machine interface design of the Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) vehicle. The reach and view of two suited and unsuited subjects were evaluated while seated in the vehicle using 3-dimensional position data collected during a series of reaching motions. Data was interpolated and displayed in orthogonal views and cross-sections. Compared with unsuited conditions, medio-lateral reach was not strongly affected by the Mark III suit, whereas vertical and antero-posterior reach were inhibited by the suit. Lateral FOV was reduced by approximately 40° in the suit. The techniques used in this case study may prove useful in human-machine interface design by providing a new means of developing and displaying reach envelopes.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2055
David E. Williams, Gregory J. Gentry
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2005 and February 2006. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-1970
David E. Williams
This paper will provide an overview of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Node 1 Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS) subsystem and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for this subsystem.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-3017
Ronald Adrezin, Lauren Zaccaro, Edward Hodgson, Robert Trevino
Spacesuit shoulder mobility is critical in performing EVA tasks. In addition, risk of failure must be minimized and injuries during operations and training eliminated. The pressure suit design elements that control shoulder mobility interact strongly and in complex ways with many aspects of the pressure suit and system design and are constrained by anthropometric factors. To properly develop the problem statement for the shoulder section in a new suit design that is appropriate for a return to the Moon and eventual exploration of Mars, a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is under development. QFD is a powerful and widely used method to define your customers, determine their needs, benchmark the competition, and define engineering parameters and targets, that when met, will lead to a successful product. Since many of the requirements for the next generation suit are unknown, the QFD will continually be updated.
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951491
Burt A. Laws, Sandra L. Foerg
The Crew and Thermal Systems Division at NASA Johnson Space Center under the sponsorship of NASA Headquarters Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications is conducting the Early Human Testing (EHT) project. The goal of the multi-year EHT project is to provide NASA with a ground-based test bed facility used to demonstrate the feasibility of regenerative life support technologies involving both physicochemical and biological processes to sustain human life for extended periods in a closed environment. The EHT project is organized into three distinct phases to provide progressively more complex integration of biological and physicochemical life support systems. While Phase I focuses on biological life support, Phase II is an intermediate testing program scheduled to support 4 persons for 15 days in a closed environment utilizing physicochemical life support systems.
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951490
Daniel J. Barta, Jeffrey S. Dominick, Michael Kallberg
The Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) at NASA's Johnson Space Center under the support of the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications is conducting the Early Human Testing Initiave (EHTI) project with the goal of validating regenerative life support technologies through a series of integrated tests with human subjects. The EHTI project is organized into three distinct phases, each with progressively more complex integration of biological and physicochemical (P/C) life support technologies. The goal of Phase I is to conduct a 15-day one-person test to verify the performance of an air revitalization system based on higher plants with physicochemical systems as complements and backups. The test will be performed in CTSD's Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), a tightly closed controlled-environment test chamber configured with approximately 11 m2 of area for plant growth.
1989-07-01
Technical Paper
891583
Carolyn C. Gernux, Robert W. Blaser, Jose Marmolejo
An advanced development helmet mounted display (HMD) was designed and fabricated under NASA-Johnson Space Center (NASA/JSC) contract, NAS 9-17543, by Hamilton Standard Division of United Technologies, Windsor Locks, CT. The work was initiated in December 1985 and culminated in June 1988 with the delivery of an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) HMD demonstration unit as an alternative to the current low-resolution, chest-mounted display and cuff-mounted checklists. Important design goals achieved with this HMD include the use of transmissive liquid crystal display (LCD) image sources with fairly high resolution (i.e., text, graphics, and video compatible), binocular viewing with total image overlap, virtual image projection, low profile packaging, low power design, and demonstration of voice control of the HMD data.
1993-07-01
Technical Paper
932297
Chi-Min Chang, Bruce W. Sauser, Grant C. Bue, Bruce C. Conger
Comments of the Space Shuttle crew indicate that the Launch Entry Suit (LES) may provide inadequate cooling before launch and after reentry. During these periods some crewmembers experienced thermal discomfort induced by localized cabin heating, middeck experiments, and crewmembers' body heat and humidity. The NASA Johnson Space Center(JSC) Crew and Thermal System Division (CTSD) executed a two phase study, analysis and testing, to investigate this problem. The analysis phase used a computer model of the LES to study the transient heat dissipation and temperature response under the various Space Shuttle flight cabin environments. After the completion of the analysis, the testing phase was conducted to collect the engineering data in order to validate the analysis results. Due to the constraint of the test facility, the test was conducted on the air cooled techniques only. This paper presents the analytical model, its solution and an evaluation and summary of the test results.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2329
Frances E. Mount, William R. Jones
It is always interesting to reflect on why things are the way they are and how they got that way. When the configuration of the modules for the International Space Station are looked at how many people wonder why they have that specific configuration. This paper will give an overview of the process for configuration determination. Pictures of some concepts are included.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2254
Evelyne S. Orndoff, Mansour H. Mohamed
Most of the studies conducted on the design of inflated fabric structures for space applications have focused on types of yarns and coating selection. The design of seams along with materials selection considerations is also crucial to the design of inflatable structures. This paper presents a pilot study of the modes of failure for fabrics with two selected sewn seams under biaxial stress loading. A literature review of sewn seam testing techniques reveals that conventional methods do not accurately simulate the biaxial stresses to which inflated fabrics are subjected. In this study, biaxial stresses are obtained by using a cylindrical pressure testing apparatus developed originally for testing seam design for an inflatable Lunar habitat. The unique features of the test method for sewn seams of fabrics by cylindrical pressure loading are described. Test data is presented, and the sensitivity of the test to changes is also discussed.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2412
Neal Zapp, Francis A. Cucinotta, Bill Atwell, Premkumar Saganti, Lawrence W. Townsend
Typical calculations of radiation exposures in space approximate the composition of the human body by a single material, typically Aluminum or water. A further approximation is made with regard to body size by using a single anatomical model to represent people of all sizes. A comparison of calculations of organ dose and dose-equivalent is presented. Calculations are first performed approximating body materials by water equivalent thickness', and then using a more accurate representation of materials present in the body. In each case of material representation, a further comparison is presented of calculations performed modeling people of different sizes.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2413
Edward Hodgson, Ronald Sidgreaves, Stephen Braham, Jeffrey Hoffman, Christopher Carr, Pascal Lee, Jose Marmolejo, Jonathan Miller, Ilia Rosenberg, Steven Schwartz
NASA has long recognized the advantages of providing improved information interfaces to EVA astronauts and has pursued this goal through a number of development programs over the past decade. None of these activities or parallel efforts in industry and academia has so far resulted in the development of an operational system to replace or augment the current extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) Display and Controls Module (DCM) display and cuff checklist. Recent advances in display, communications, and information processing technologies offer exciting new opportunities for EVA information interfaces that can better serve the needs of a variety of NASA missions. Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI) has been collaborating with Simon Fraser University and others on the NASA Haughton Mars Project and with researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boeing, and Symbol Technologies in investigating these possibilities.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2426
Vickie L. Kloeris, Charles T. Bourland
The International Space Station (ISS) has been continuously crewed for more than 2 years. One of the major systems for crew health, performance and psychological support is the food system. This paper documents the mechanics of implementation for the ISS food system, with emphasis on the U.S. portion of that system, and also provides some performance feedback received from the first 5 increment crews. Menu composition and planning, food stowage, on orbit preparation, shipments, and inventory control are also described.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2589
David E. Williams, John F. Lewis, Gregory Gentry
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between April 2002 and March 2003. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements with Node 3 just completing its final design review so that it can proceed towards manufacturing and the continued manufacturing of the regenerative ECLS equipment that will be integrated into Node 3.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2593
David E. Williams, John F. Lewis, Gregory Gentry
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the ECLS System On-Orbit Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) status from the start of assembly until the end of February 2003.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2596
David E. Williams
The assembly complete Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system for the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of components and subsystems in both the U.S. and International partner elements which together will perform the functions of Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), and Vacuum System (VS) for the station. Due to limited resources available on ISS, detailed attention is given to minimizing and tracking all resources associated with all systems, beginning with estimates during the hardware development phase through measured actuals when flight hardware is built and delivered. A summary of resources consumed by the current on-orbit U.S. ECLS system hardware is presented, including launch weight, average continuous and peak power loads, on-orbit volume and resupply logistics.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2494
David E. Williams, John Lewis, Robyn L. Carrasquillo, Richard Reysa, Greg Gentry
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between May 2001 and April 2002. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with Phase 2 completion accomplished during this period. Work continued on the Phase 3 elements with Node 3 proceeding toward a final design review and the regenerative ECLS equipment proceeding into manufacturing.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2457
E. Neal Zapp, C. Dardano, Tad Shelfer, E. J. Semones, A. S. Johnson, M. Weyland, M. J. Golightly, Gwyn Smith
In order to estimate the exposure to a crew in space, there are three essential steps to be performed: first, the ambient radiation environment at the vehicle must be characterized; second, the mass distribution properties of the vehicle, including the crewmembers themselves must be developed, and third a model of the interactions of space radiations with matter must be employed in order to characterize the radiation field at the dose point of interest. The Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) at the NASA, Johnson Space Center carries the primary responsibility for the operational radiation protection support function associated with manned space flight. In order to provide support during the various planning, execution, and analysis/recording phase activities associated with a given mission, tools have been developed to allow rapid, repeatable calculations of exposure on orbit.
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