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Viewing 1 to 30 of 194
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5600
James T. Heineck, Stephen M. Walker
Three-component Particle Image Velocimetry (3D PIV) is a fluid velocity measurement technique that has evolved from the laboratory to become a method appropriate for use in large-scale wind tunnel testing. An example application of 3D PIV in a wind tunnel test is described. The PIV technique was applied to characterize the wake of The Ground Transportation System (GTS) model developed for the Department of Energy (DOE) Heavy Vehicle Drag Reduction (HVDR) program. The test was performed in the Ames/Army 7×10 foot wind tunnel. The objective of the PIV measurements was to validate the HVDR computational fluid dynamics code. The PIV method and PIV system are described. Sample truck wake data with and without boattail attachments are shown. 3D PIV system successfully captured the effects of the boattails on the truck wake.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5559
Steven M. Nash, Stuart E. Rogers
An overset grid approach is used to analyze a 3-element trapezoidal wing high-lift configuration. A new software system was developed to automate the overset computational fluid dynamics process. A three-dimensional grid resolution study is conducted, and comparisons of numerical results are made to experimental data which were obtained after the simulations. Comparisons between numerical and experimental data are in good agreement for the lift coefficient over a wide range of angles of attack, up to and including CLmax. Comparisons of chordwise distributions of the pressure coefficient between numerical and experimental data are in good agreement for all three elements, except the lift is under-predicted for the tip region when the wing is near CLmax.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5567
Walter W. Johnson, Vernol Battiste, Sheila Holland Bochow
Cockpit displays need to be substantially improved to serve the goals of situational awareness, conflict detection, and path replanning, in Free Flight. This paper describes the design of such an advanced cockpit display, along with an initial simulation based usability evaluation. Flight crews were particularly enthusiastic about color coding for relative altitude, dynamically pulsing predictors, and the use of 3-D flight plans for alerting and situational awareness.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5576
Marianne Mosher, Michael E. Watts, Michael Barnes, Jorge Bardina
A processing system has been developed to meet increasing demands for detailed noise measurement of aircraft in wind tunnels. Phased arrays enable spatial and amplitude measurements of acoustic sources, including low signal-to-noise sources not measurable by conventional measurement techniques. The Microphone Array Phased Processing System (MAPPS) provides processing and visualization of acoustic array measurements made in wind tunnels. The system uses networked parallel computers to provide noise maps at selected frequencies in a near real-time testing environment. The system has been successfully used in two subsonic, hard-walled wind tunnels, the NASA Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel and the NASA Ames 12-Foot Wind Tunnel. Low level airframe noise that can not be measured with traditional techniques was measured in both tests.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2577
Luis F. Rodriguez, Alan E. Drysdale, Harry W. Jones, Julie A. Levri
The ALS Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Compounding the problem is the slow rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the slow rate at which new configurations are developed. This limits the search space and potentially gives the impression of a stalled research and development program. Without significant increases in the state of the art of ALS technology, the ALS goals involving the Metric may remain elusive. A paper previously presented at his meeting entitled, “Managing to the metric: An approach to optimizing life support costs.” A conclusion of that paper was that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2586
James Chartres, Brian Koss, Chad Brivkalns, Bruce Webbon, Barbara Romig, Charles Allton
This paper present a summary of the design studies for the suit port proof of concept. The Suit Port reduces the need for airlocks by docking the suits directly to a rover or habitat bulkhead. The benefits include reductions in cycle time and consumables traditionally used when transferring from a pressurized compartment to EVA and mitigation of planetary surface dust from entering into the cabin. The design focused on the development of an operational proof of concept evaluated against technical feasibility, level of confidence in design, robustness to environment and failure, and the manufacturability. A future paper will discuss the overall proof of concept and provide results from evaluation testing including gas leakage rates upon completion of the testing program.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2493
Harry Jones
Dynamic modeling and simulation of recycling space life support is necessary to determine processing rates, buffer sizes, controls, and other aspects of systems design. A common approach is to develop an overall inclusive model that reflects nominal system operation. A full dynamic simulation of space life support represents many system elements in an inclusive model, but it cannot and should not include everything possible. A model is a simplified, partial, mathematical representation of reality. Including unnecessary elements makes the model complex, costly, and confusing. Models are built to help understand a system and to make predictions and decisions about it. The best and most useful models are developed to answer specific important questions. There are many possible questions about life support design and performance. Different questions are best answered by different models. Static spreadsheet analysis is a good starting point.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2108
Mary K. Kaiser, Albert J. Ahumada
Current plans to conduct operations near the lunar poles will result in low sun angles, exacerbating visual problems associated with shadowing and glare. We discuss the perceptual challenges these conditions will present to the human explorers, and consider some possible mitigations and countermeasures.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2106
Jessica J. Marquez, Jeffrey W. McCandless, Trent Thrush, William B. Toscano, John Ulman, Thomas E. Diegelman
Training to operate and manage Constellation vehicles, which include a crewed spacecraft and the lunar lander, is an essential part of the Constellation program. This paper discusses the on-going preparations for a Constellation Training Facility (CxTF). CxTF will be compromised of training simulators that will be used, in part, to prepare crew and flight controllers for vehicle operations. Current training simulators are reviewed to identify and outline key CxTF elements, i.e., part-task and full-task trainers. These trainers are further discussed within the context of the Constellation missions.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2141
Lance Delzeit, Michael Flynn
The Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) Technology has undergone long duration testing at MSFC. The results of this testing revealed several areas in which the VPCAR Technology could be improved and those improvements are summarized here. These improvements include the replacement of several parts with units that are more durable, redesign of several pieces which proved to have mechanical weaknesses, and incorporation of some new designs in order to prevent other potential problems.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2961
Nicola Muscettola, David Kortenkamp, Chuck Fry, Scott Bell
The paper describes an approach to the integration of qualitative and quantitative modeling techniques for advanced life support (ALS) systems. Developing reliable control strategies that scale up to fully integrated life support systems requires augmenting quantitative models and control algorithms with the abstractions provided by qualitative, symbolic models and their associated high-level control strategies. This will allow for effective management of the combinatorics due to the integration of a large number of ALS subsystems. By focusing control actions at different levels of detail and reactivity we can use faster, simpler responses at the lowest level and predictive but complex responses at the higher levels of abstraction. In particular, methods from model-based planning and scheduling can provide effective resource management over long time periods.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2810
Harry Jones, Mark Kliss
This paper considers system design and technology selection for the crew air and water recycling systems to be used in long duration human space exploration. The ultimate objective is to identify the air and water technologies likely to be used for the vision for space exploration and to suggest alternate technologies that should be developed. The approach is to conduct a preliminary systems engineering analysis, beginning with the Air and Water System (AWS) requirements and the system mass balance, and then to define the functional architecture, review the current International Space Station (ISS) technologies, and suggest alternate technologies.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3245
Bruce Webbon, Bernadette Luna, Jeff Brown, Andy Gonzales, Harry Jones, Brian Koss, Doug Smith
This study introduces several new concepts for suited EVA astronaut ingress/egress (departure and return) from a pressurized planetary surface habitat, based on use of a rear-entry suit and a suit lock or suitport. We provide insight into key operational aspects and integration issues, as well as the results of a requirements analysis and risk assessment of the concepts. The risk assessment included hazard analysis, hazard mitigation techniques, failure mode assessment, and operational risk assessment. Also included are performance and mass estimates for the egress concepts, and concepts for integration of the egress concepts with potential planetary habitat designs.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2189
Harry Jones
This work presents a simple and useful project process model. The project model directly shows how a few basic parameters determine project duration and cost and how changes in these parameters can improve them. Project cost and duration can be traded-off by adjusting the work rate and staffing level. A project's duration and cost can be computed on the back of an envelope, with an engineering calculator, or in a computer spreadsheet. The project model can be simulated dynamically for further insight. The project model shows how and why projects can greatly exceed their expected duration and cost. Delays and rework requirements may create work feedback loops that increase cost and schedule in non-proportional and non-intuitive ways.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2191
Harry Jones, Mark Kliss
Stored air and water will be sufficient for Crew Exploration Vehicle visits to the International Space Station and for brief missions to the moon, but an air and water recycling system will be needed to reduce cost for a long duration lunar base and for exploration of Mars. The air and water recycling system developed for the International Space Station is substantially adequate but it has not yet been used in operations and it was not designed for the much higher launch costs and reliability requirements of moon and Mars missions. Significant time and development effort, including long duration testing, is needed to provide a flawless air and water recycling system for a long duration lunar base. It would be beneficial to demonstrate air and water recycling as early as the initial lunar surface missions.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2185
Zeng-Guang Yuan, Uday Hegde, Eric Litwiller, Michael Flynn, John Fisher
Dewatering of wet waste during space exploration missions is important for crew safety as it stabilizes the waste. It may also be used to recover water and serve as a preconditioning step for waste compaction. A thermoelectric cooler (TEC)- driven lyophilizer is under development at NASA Ames Research Center for this purpose. It has three major components: (i) an evaporator section where water vapor sublimes from the frozen waste, (ii) a condenser section where this water vapor deposits as ice, and (iii) a TEC section which serves as a heat pump to transfer heat from the condenser to the evaporator. This paper analyses the heat and mass transfer processes in the lyophilizer in an effort to understand the ice formation behavior in the condenser. The analysis is supported by experimental observations of ice formation patterns in two different condenser units.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2131
Charles Niederhaus, Henry Nahra, Michael Flynn
The Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) system is being developed to recycle water for future NASA Exploration Missions. Testing was recently conducted on NASA's C-9B Reduced Gravity Aircraft to determine the microgravity performance of a key component of the VPCAR water recovery system. Six flights were conducted to evaluate the fluid dynamics of the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD) distillation component of the VPCAR system in microgravity, focusing on the water delivery method. The experiments utilized a simplified system to study the process of forming a thin film on a disk similar to that in the evaporator section of VPCAR. Fluid issues are present with the current configuration, and the initial alternative configurations were only partial successful in microgravity operation. The underlying causes of these issues are understood, and new alternatives are being designed to rectify the problems.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2050
Michael Serio, Erik Kroo, Elizabeth Florczak, Marek Wójtowicz, Kanapathipillai Wignarajah, John Hogan, John Fisher
Pyrolysis is a very versatile waste processing technology which can be tailored to produce a variety of solid, liquid and/or gaseous products. The pyrolysis processing of pure and mixed solid waste streams has been under investigation for several decades for terrestrial use and a few commercial units have been built for niche applications. Pyrolysis has more recently been considered for the processing of mixed solid wastes in space. While pyrolysis units can easily handle mixed solid waste streams, the dependence of the pyrolysis product distribution on the component composition is not well known. It is often assumed that the waste components (e.g., food, paper, plastic) behave independently, but this is a generalization that can usually only be applied to the overall weight loss and not always to the yields of individual gas species.
1992-07-01
Technical Paper
921130
J. Larimer, M. Pavel, A. Ahumada, B. Sweet
We examine the requirements for on-board aircraft sensor systems that would allow pilots to “see through” poor weather, especially fog, and land and rollout aircraft under conditions that currently cause flight cancellations and airport closures. Three visual aspects of landing and rollout are distinguished: guidance, hazard detection and hazard recognition. The visual features which support the tasks are discussed. Three broad categories of sensor technology are examined: passive millimeter wave (PMMW), imaging radar, and passive infrared (IR). PMMW and imaging radar exhibit good weather penetration, but poor spatial and temporal resolution. Imaging radar exhibits good weather penetration, but typically relies on a flat-earth assumption which can lead to interpretive errors. PMMW systems have a narrow field of view. IR has poorer weather penetration but good spatial resolution.
1992-07-01
Technical Paper
921394
Bonnie P. Dalton, Greg K. Schmidt, P. D. Savage
The General Purpose Work Station (GPWS) is a laboratory multi-use facility, as demonstrated during the Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) flight. The unit provided particulate containment under varying conditions, served as an effective work space for manipulating live animals, e.g., rats, served as a containment facility for fixatives, and was proposed for use to conduct in-flight maintenance during connector pin repair. The cabinet has a front door large enough to allow installation of a full-size microscope in-flight and is outfitted with a side window to allow delivery of items into the cabinet without exposure to the spacelab atmosphere. Additional support subsystems include inside cabinet mounting, surgical glove fine manipulations capability, and alternating or direct current power supply for experiment equipment, as will be demonstrated during Spacelab J.
1992-07-01
Technical Paper
921351
Michael T. Flynn, Karl Amo, Mark T. Hightower, John Fisher
This paper covers the development of computer simulation models of the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) process, the Super Critical Water Oxidation (SCWO) process, and two versions of a Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR) process. These process level models have combined into two Integrated Water Reclamation Systems (IWRS). Results from these integrated models, in conjunction with other data sources, have been used to develop a preliminary comparison of the two systems. Also discussed in this paper is the development of a Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction teststand and the development of a new urine analog for use with the teststand and computer models.
1990-04-01
Technical Paper
901060
Victor R. Corsiglia, Douglas A. Wardwell, Richard E. Kuhn
A series of tests has been completed in which suckdown and fountain forces and pressures were measured on circular plates and twin-tandem-jet generic STOVL (short takeoff and vertical landing) configurations. The tests were conducted using a small-scale hover rig, for jet pressure ratios up to 6 and jet temperatures up to 700°F. The measured suckdown force on a circular plate with a central jet was greater than that found with a commonly used empirical prediction method. The present data showed better agreement with other sets of data. The tests of the generic STOVL configurations were conducted to provide force and pressure data with a parametric variation of parameters so that an empirical prediction method could be developed. The effects of jet pressure ratio and temperature were found to be small. Lift improvement devices were shown to substantially reduce the net suckdown forces. Paper to be presented at SAE Aerospace Meeting, Dayton, Ohio, April 24-27, 1990
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951477
P. D. Savage, G. C. Jahns, V. Sytchev, P. Davies, D. Pletcher, R. Briggs, R. Schaefer
A multi-discipline, multi-year collaborative spaceflight research program (NASA/Mir Science Program) has been established between the United States and Russia utilizing the capabilities of the Russian Mir Space Station and the NASA space shuttle fleet. As a key research discipline to be carried out onboard Mir, fundamental biology research encompasses three basic objectives: first, to investigate long-term effects of microgravity upon plant and avian physiology and developmental biology; second, to investigate the long-term effects of microgravity upon circadian rhythm patterns of biological systems; and third, to characterize the long-term radiation environment (internal and external) of the Russian Mir space station. The first joint U.S./Russian fundamental biology research on-board Mir is scheduled to begin in March, 1995 with the Mir mission 18 and conclude with the docking of the U.S. shuttle to Mir in June, 1995 during the STS-71, Spacelab/Mir Mission-1 (SLM-1).
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951478
Phillip K. Lane, Louis H. Ostrach, Shari Rodriguez, Jennifer Kwong, Thomas Howerton, Luke Sing, Brian Gonzales, William E. Hinds, David Mayer, A. Christopher Maese, Gerald Mulenburg
The Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) is a spaceflight-qualified hardware system for housing adult rats. The Neurolab Space Shuttle mission, targeted for February 1998 on STS-89, will include neuroscience experiments involving nursing rat dams and neonates (newborn rats). Rat neonates have never been previously flown for spaceflight experimentation, and they present unique life support, science, and engineering challenges in the Spacelab microgravity environment. Modifications of the RAHF (with an associated comprehensive testing program, including spaceflight) are currently underway at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), in order to add to the RAHF the capability of supporting nursing dams and neonates in preparation for Neurolab.
1995-05-01
Technical Paper
951159
Paul A. Gelhausen, Mark D. Moore, James R. Gloudemans
Abstract The focus of the 5 year long ACSYNT Institute has been to greatly increase the capability of the aircraft synthesis computer program, ACSYNT. The key improvements have followed from the advanced geometric modeling and display technology of current workstations. The higher fidelity model enables more accurate and general aerodynamic propulsion and weight computations with less reliance on regression methods and estimations. This paper focuses on the improvements that can enhance the state of the art in general aviation aircraft synthesis.
1994-06-01
Technical Paper
941398
Michael T. Flynn
This paper discusses the development of a Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR) teststand and the results of an experimental program designed to evaluate the potential of the technology as a water purification process. In the experimental program the technology is evaluated based upon product water purity, water recovery rate, and power consumption. The experimental work demonstrates that the technology produces high purity product water and attains high water recovery rates at a relatively high specific power consumption. The experimental program was conducted in 3 phases. In phase I an Igepon™ soap and water mixture was used to evaluate the performance of an innovative Wiped-Film Rotating-Disk evaporator and associated demister. In phase II a phenol-water solution was used to evaluate the performance of the high temperature catalytic oxidation reactor.
1994-06-01
Technical Paper
941610
Michael T. Flynn, David Bubenheim, Christian Straight
This paper presents a description of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) and its functionality as a pilot study for the design of a future Lunar-Mars habitat. A description of the prototype development testbed, located at Ames Research, is provided as well as an analysis of the key design parameters. The CAAP program is tasked with the development of a life support testbed at the South Pole. This facility will include food production, waste processing, and in situ energy production capabilities. The testbed will provide NASA with a remote facility located in an extremely harsh environment which has been designed to provide a useful analog to the deployment of a future Lunar-Martian habitat. NASA's program goals are the operational testing of life support technologies and the conduct of scientific studies to facilitate future technology selection and system design.
1994-06-01
Technical Paper
941594
A. L. Blackwell, S. Maa, S. Agelopoulos
In efforts to generate a modeling and simulation system for the environmental control and life support system for a small plant growth chamber, the requirement for a biosynthetic water vapor source was found. The water vapor source was designed to inject a known and controlled rate of water vapor into the laboratory version of NASA Ames Research Center's Salad Machine. The rationale for a water vapor source, the design of the source device, the procedures and results of calibration and the method of integrating and utilizing the device with the Salad Machine are described.
1991-07-01
Technical Paper
911423
C. C. Blackwell, M. Kliss, B. Yendler, B. Borchers, Boris S. Yendler, Thoi K. Nguyen, Ahmad Waleh
Abstract The operation of a crop growth system in micro-gravity is an important part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Closed Ecological Life Support System development program. Maintaining densely arrayed plants in a closed environment imposed to induce high growth rates must be expected to result in substantial levels of water transpiration rate. Since the environmental air is recirculated, the transpiration water must be removed. In an operating CELSS, it is expected that this water will provide potable water for use of the crew. There is already considerable knowledge about water removal from crew environmental air during orbital and transfer activities, and the difference between the conditions of the described requirement and the conditions for which experience has been gained is the quantities involved and the reliability implications due to the required periods of operation.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961364
G. E. Bingham, S. B. Brown, F. B. Salisbury, W. F. Campbell, J. G. Carman, G. Jahns, D. Pletcher, D. B. Bubenheim, B. Yendler, V. Sytchev, M. A. Levinskikh, I. Podolski, T. Ivanova, P. Kostov, S. Sapunova
A three country effort (U.S., Russia, and Bulgaria) has upgraded the plant growth facilities on the Mir Space Station and used the new facility to grow wheat for 90 days. The Svet plant-growth facility was reactivated and used in an initial experiment as part of the Shuttle/Mir program, August to November, 1995. The Svet system, used first to grow cabbage and radish during a 1990 experiment, was augmented by the addition of a U.S. developed Gas Exchange Measurement System (GEMS) that measures a range of environmental parameters plus transpiration, photosynthesis, and possibly respiration. Environmental parameters include cabin, chamber, root-zones, and leaf temperatures. Light levels, relative humidity, oxygen, and atmospheric pressure are also measured. High-accuracy water-vapor and carbon-dioxide concentrations and differences are measured using specially developed IRGA systems.
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