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1990-04-01
Technical Paper
901060
Victor R. Corsiglia, Douglas A. Wardwell, Richard E. Kuhn
A series of tests has been completed in which suckdown and fountain forces and pressures were measured on circular plates and twin-tandem-jet generic STOVL (short takeoff and vertical landing) configurations. The tests were conducted using a small-scale hover rig, for jet pressure ratios up to 6 and jet temperatures up to 700°F. The measured suckdown force on a circular plate with a central jet was greater than that found with a commonly used empirical prediction method. The present data showed better agreement with other sets of data. The tests of the generic STOVL configurations were conducted to provide force and pressure data with a parametric variation of parameters so that an empirical prediction method could be developed. The effects of jet pressure ratio and temperature were found to be small. Lift improvement devices were shown to substantially reduce the net suckdown forces. Paper to be presented at SAE Aerospace Meeting, Dayton, Ohio, April 24-27, 1990
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2343
Ric Alba, J. Fisher, J. Hogan, T. Liggett, R. Devaney, T. Fox, J. Rask, N. Hall, E. Anderson, D. Althausen, U. Hegde, J. Mackey. R. May, Z. Yuan
The Flexible Membrane Commode (FMC) is an alternative waste management system designed to address the severe mass restrictions on the Orion vehicle. The concept includes a deployable seat and single use, three layer bags that employ air flow to draw solids away from the body and safely contain them in disposable bags.1 Simulated microgravity testing of the system was performed during two separate parabolic flight campaigns in July and August of 2008. Experimental objectives included verifying the waste fill procedures in reduced gravity, characterizing waste behavior during the filling process, and comparison of the results with model predictions. In addition the operational procedure for bag installation, removal, and sealing were assessed. 2 A difficult operational requirement concerns the delivery of the fecal waste simulant into the upper area of the bag in a manner that faithfully simulates human defecation.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2344
Z.-G. Yuan, U. Hegde, D. Althausen, J. Mackey, N. Hall, W. Duval, R. Alba, E. Litwiller, J. Hogan, T. Liggett, R. Devaney, T. Fox, J. Rask, K. Wignarajah, J. Fisher
Two separate experimental rigs used in tests on NASA and Zero-G Corporation aircrafts flying low-gravity trajectories, and in the NASA 2.2 Second Drop Tower have been developed to test the functioning of the Flexible Membrane Commode (FMC) concept under reduced gravity conditions. The first rig incorporates the flexible, optically opaque membrane bag and the second rig incorporates a transparent chamber with a funnel assembly for evacuation that approximates the size of the membrane bag. Different waste dispensers have been used including a caulking gun and flexible hose assembly, and an injection syringe. Waste separation mechanisms include a pair of wire cutters, an iris mechanism, as well as discrete slug injection. The experimental work is described in a companion paper. This paper focuses on the obtained results and analysis of the data.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2586
James Chartres, Brian Koss, Chad Brivkalns, Bruce Webbon, Barbara Romig, Charles Allton
This paper present a summary of the design studies for the suit port proof of concept. The Suit Port reduces the need for airlocks by docking the suits directly to a rover or habitat bulkhead. The benefits include reductions in cycle time and consumables traditionally used when transferring from a pressurized compartment to EVA and mitigation of planetary surface dust from entering into the cabin. The design focused on the development of an operational proof of concept evaluated against technical feasibility, level of confidence in design, robustness to environment and failure, and the manufacturability. A future paper will discuss the overall proof of concept and provide results from evaluation testing including gas leakage rates upon completion of the testing program.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2425
Bettina L. Beard, Jon Holbrook, Colleen Geven-Sowul, Albert J. Ahumada
The cognitive abilities of some astronauts are affected during spaceflight. We investigated whether a simulated space flight ascent environment, including vibration and 3.8 Gx ascent forces, would result in cognitive deficits detectable by the WinSCAT test battery. Eleven participants were administered the computerized cognitive test battery, a workload rating questionnaire and a subjective state questionnaire before and after a combination of acceleration plus vibration conditions. The acceleration plus vibration exposure resulted in significant self-reports of physical discomfort but did not significantly affect cognitive test battery scores. We discuss ways in which a cognitive assessment tool could be made more sensitive to subtle cognitive changes relevant to astronaut performance.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2513
Julie A. Levri, John A. Hogan, Bruce Deng, Jon Welch, Mike Ho
The On-line Project Information System (OPIS) is the Exploration Life Support (ELS) mechanism for task data sharing and annual reporting. Fiscal year 2008 (FY08) was the first year in which ELS Principal Investigators (PI's) were required to complete an OPIS annual report. The reporting process consists of downloading a template that is customized to the task deliverable type(s), completing the report, and uploading the document to OPIS for review and approval. In addition to providing a general status and overview of OPIS features, this paper describes the user critiques and resulting system modifications of the first year of OPIS reporting efforts. Specifically, this paper discusses process communication and logistics issues, user interface ambiguity, report completion challenges, and the resultant or pending system improvements designed to circumvent such issues for the fiscal year 2009 reporting effort.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2466
Harry Jones
The design and mass cost of a starship and its life support system are investigated. The mission plan for a multigenerationai interstellar voyage to colonize a new planet is used to describe the starship design, including the crew habitat, accommodations, and life support. Cost is reduced if a small crew travels slowly and lands with minimal equipment. The first human interstellar colonization voyage will probably travel about 10 light years and last hundreds of years. The required travel velocity is achievable by nuclear propulsion using near future technology. To minimize mission mass, the entire starship would not decelerate at the destination. Only small descent vehicles would land on the destination planet. The most mass efficient colonization program would use colonizing crews of only a few dozen. Highly reliable life support can be achieved by providing selected spares and full replacement systems.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2482
Harry Jones
Dynamic simulation of the lunar outpost habitat life support was undertaken to investigate the impact of life support failures and to investigate possible responses. Some preparatory static analysis for the Lunar Outpost life support model, an earlier version of the model, and an investigation into the impact of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) were reported previously. (Jones, 2008-01-2184, 2008-01-2017) The earlier model was modified to include possible resupply delays, power failures, recycling system failures, and atmosphere and other material storage failures. Most failures impact the lunar outpost water balance and can be mitigated by reducing water usage. Food solids and nitrogen can be obtained only by resupply from Earth. The most time urgent failure is a loss of carbon dioxide removal capability. Life support failures might be survivable if effective operational solutions are provided in the system design.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2487
W. Duval, N. Hall, J. Mackey, D. Althausen, A. Izadnegahdar, E. Litwiller, M. Flynn
We consider the heat transfer characteristics of an ideal concentric disk used in the Wiped-Film Rotating-Disk (WFRD) evaporator for the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) water recovery system. A mathematical model is derived to predict the radial temperature distribution and its average over the surface of the disk as a function of system parameters. The model shows self-similarity of the temperature distribution and the existence of a dimensionless parameter S (ratio of heat flux to convection) that can be used as a criterion to optimize the thermal characteristics of the disk in order to approach uniform surface temperature. Comparison of the model to experimental data using global (infrared imager) and local (resistive temperature devices) measurements shows that agreement with the model depends on the ambient condition denoted by the local heat transfer coefficient.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2493
Harry Jones
Dynamic modeling and simulation of recycling space life support is necessary to determine processing rates, buffer sizes, controls, and other aspects of systems design. A common approach is to develop an overall inclusive model that reflects nominal system operation. A full dynamic simulation of space life support represents many system elements in an inclusive model, but it cannot and should not include everything possible. A model is a simplified, partial, mathematical representation of reality. Including unnecessary elements makes the model complex, costly, and confusing. Models are built to help understand a system and to make predictions and decisions about it. The best and most useful models are developed to answer specific important questions. There are many possible questions about life support design and performance. Different questions are best answered by different models. Static spreadsheet analysis is a good starting point.
1994-06-01
Technical Paper
941288
P. D. Savage, W. E. Hinds, R. Jaquez, J. Evans, L. Dubrovin
The Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) mission provided scientists with the unique opportunity of obtaining inflight rodent tissue and blood samples during a 14-day mission flown in October, 1993. In order to successfully obtain these samples, Ames Research Center's Space Life Sciences Payloads Office has developed an innovative, modular approach to packaging the instruments used to obtain and preserve the inflight tissue and blood samples associated with the hematology experiments on SLS-2. The design approach organized the multitude of instruments into 12 different 5x6x1 inch kits which were each used to accomplish a particular experiment functional objective on any given day during the mission. The twelve basic kits included blood processing, isotope and erythropoietin injection, body mass measurement, and microscope slides.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932534
Reuben M. Chandrasekharan, Veronica M. Hawke, Michael L. Hinson, Robert A. Kennelly, Michael D. Madson
The wing of the Learjet Model 60 was tailored for improved aerodynamic characteristics using the TRANAIR transonic full-potential CFD code. A root leading edge glove and wing tip fairing were shaped to reduce shock strength, improve cruise drag and extend the buffet limit. The aerodynamic design was validated by wind tunnel test and flight test data.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932554
Bernadette Luna, W. Curtis Lomax, Douglas D. Smith
Various methods have been used to simulate reduced gravity environments for space systems research and development. Neutral buoyancy has been the most universally used simulation of zero-g. This paper describes the facilities, personnel and experimental work that are associated with the Neutral Buoyancy Test Facility (NBTF) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). This facility provides a unique underwater environment for the researcher to simulate reduced gravity activities and evaluate the performance of space-related equipment. The NBTF's small size gives it several advantages over larger water facilities. First, a smaller crew ensures a lower overhead. Second, the facility is used for research purposes only, eliminating any scheduling conflicts with astronaut training. Lastly, the small volume of water allows the researcher to more easily vary the water temperature. This feature is ideal for investigations of astronaut thermal comfort and regulation.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932550
Daryl J. Monson, George G. Mateer, Florian R. Menter
A new oil-fringe imaging skin friction (FISF) technique to measure skin friction on wind tunnel models is presented. In the method used to demonstrate the technique, lines of oil are applied on surfaces that connect the intended sets of measurement points, and then a wind tunnel is run so that the oil thins and forms interference fringes that are spaced proportional to local skin friction. After a run the fringe spacings are imaged with a CCD-array digital camera and measured on a computer. Skin friction and transition measurements on a two-dimensional wing are presented and compared with computational predictions.
1993-07-01
Technical Paper
932128
A. L. Blackwell, S. Maa, M. Kliss, C. C. Blackwell
The fluid and thermal dynamics of the environment of plants in a small controlled-environment system have been modeled. The results of the simulation under two scenarios have been compared to measurements taken during tests on the actual system. The motivation for the modeling effort and the status of the modeling exercise and system scenario studies are described. An evaluation of the model and a discussion of future studies are included.
1994-06-01
Technical Paper
941488
Anthony R. Gross, David J. Korsmeyer, Lynn D. Harper, Edwin L. Force
The Controlled Environment Research Chamber (CERC) at the NASA Ames Research Center was created for early-on investigation of promising new technologies for life support of advanced space exploration missions. The CERC facility is being used to address the advanced technology requirements necessary to implement an integrated working and living environment for a planetary habitat. The CERC, along with a human-powered centrifuge, a planetary terrain simulator, advanced displays, and a virtual reality capability, is able to develop and demonstrate applicable technologies for future planetary exploration. There will be several robotic mechanisms performing exploration tasks external to the habitat that will be controlled through the virtual environment to provide representative workloads for the crew.
1995-05-01
Technical Paper
951159
Paul A. Gelhausen, Mark D. Moore, James R. Gloudemans
Abstract The focus of the 5 year long ACSYNT Institute has been to greatly increase the capability of the aircraft synthesis computer program, ACSYNT. The key improvements have followed from the advanced geometric modeling and display technology of current workstations. The higher fidelity model enables more accurate and general aerodynamic propulsion and weight computations with less reliance on regression methods and estimations. This paper focuses on the improvements that can enhance the state of the art in general aviation aircraft synthesis.
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951517
Butler Hine, Phil Hontalas, Terrence Fong, Laurent Piguet, Erik Nygren, Aaron Kline
Abstract Remotely operating complex robotic mechanisms in unstructured natural environments is difficult at best. When the communications time delay is large, as for a Mars exploration rover operated from Earth, the difficulties become enormous. Conventional approaches, such as rate control of the rover actuators, are too inefficient and risky. The Intelligent Mechanisms Laboratory at the NASA Ames Research Center has developed over the past four years an architecture for operating science exploration robots in the presence of large communications time delays. The operator interface of this system is called the Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI), and draws heavily on Virtual Environment (or Virtual Reality) technology. This paper describes the current operational version of VEVI, which we refer to as version 2.0. In this paper we will describe the VEVI design philosophy and implementation, and will describe some past examples of its use in field science exploration missions.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2189
Harry Jones
This work presents a simple and useful project process model. The project model directly shows how a few basic parameters determine project duration and cost and how changes in these parameters can improve them. Project cost and duration can be traded-off by adjusting the work rate and staffing level. A project's duration and cost can be computed on the back of an envelope, with an engineering calculator, or in a computer spreadsheet. The project model can be simulated dynamically for further insight. The project model shows how and why projects can greatly exceed their expected duration and cost. Delays and rework requirements may create work feedback loops that increase cost and schedule in non-proportional and non-intuitive ways.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2185
Zeng-Guang Yuan, Uday Hegde, Eric Litwiller, Michael Flynn, John Fisher
Dewatering of wet waste during space exploration missions is important for crew safety as it stabilizes the waste. It may also be used to recover water and serve as a preconditioning step for waste compaction. A thermoelectric cooler (TEC)- driven lyophilizer is under development at NASA Ames Research Center for this purpose. It has three major components: (i) an evaporator section where water vapor sublimes from the frozen waste, (ii) a condenser section where this water vapor deposits as ice, and (iii) a TEC section which serves as a heat pump to transfer heat from the condenser to the evaporator. This paper analyses the heat and mass transfer processes in the lyophilizer in an effort to understand the ice formation behavior in the condenser. The analysis is supported by experimental observations of ice formation patterns in two different condenser units.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3371
Upender K. Kaul, Nikunj C. Oza
This paper describes a multi-disciplinary damage detection methodology that can aid in detecting and diagnosing a damage in a given structural system, not limited to the example of a rotating gear presented here. Damage detection is performed on the gear stress data corresponding to the steady state conditions. The normal and damage data are generated by a finite-difference solution of elastodynamic equations of velocity and stress in generalized coordinates1. The elastodynamic solution provides a knowledge of the stress distribution over the gear such as locations of stress extrema, which in turn can lead to an optimal placement of appropriate sensors over the gear to detect a potential damage. The damage detection is performed by a multi-function optimization that incorporates Tikhonov kernel regularization reinforced by an added Laplacian regularization term as used in semi-supervised machine learning. Damage is mimicked by reducing the rigidity of one of the gear teeth.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3525
Bruce L. Storms, Dale R. Satran, James T. Heineck, Stephen M. Walker
The 1/8-scale Generic Conventional Model was studied experimentally in two wind tunnels at NASA Ames Research Center. The investigation was conducted at a Mach number of 0.15 over a Reynolds number range from 1 to 6 million. The experimental measurements included total and component forces and moments, surface pressures, and 3-D particle image velocimetry. Two configurations (trailer base flaps and skirts) were compared to a baseline representative of a modern tractor aero package. Details of each configuration provide insight into the complex flow field and the resulting drag reduction was found to be sensitive to Reynolds number.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3511
Rose McCallen, Kambiz Salari, Jason Ortega, Paul Castellucci, John Paschkewitz, Craig Eastwood, Larry Dechant, Basil Hassan, W. David Pointer, Fred Browand, Charles Radovich, Tai Merzel, Dennis Plocher, Anthony Leonard, Mike Rubel, James Ross, J. T. Heineck, Stephen Walker, Bruce Storms, Christopher Roy, David Whitfield, Ramesh Pankajakshan, Lafayette Taylor, Kidambi Sreenivas, Robert Englar
At 70 miles per hour, overcoming aerodynamic drag represents about 65% of the total energy expenditure for a typical heavy truck vehicle. The goal of this US Department of Energy supported consortium is to establish a clear understanding of the drag producing flow phenomena. This is being accomplished through joint experiments and computations, leading to the intelligent design of drag reducing devices. This paper will describe our objective and approach, provide an overview of our efforts and accomplishments related to drag reduction devices, and offer a brief discussion of our future direction.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3532
Bruce L. Storms, James C. Ross
Experimental measurements of a 1:20-scale tractor-trailer configuration were obtained in the 48- by 32-Inch Subsonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The model included significant details of the underbody geometries of both the tractor and trailer. In addition, the tractor included a flow-through grill and a simplified engine block to provide an approximation of the flow through the engine compartment. The experiment was conducted at a Reynolds Number of 430,000 for yaw angles between ±14 deg. The measurements included forces and moments and static surface pressures for various underbody configurations. Simple fairings on the underbodies of the tractor and trailer both yielded a reduction in the wind-averaged drag coefficient of 0.018 (2.7%) when tested separately. A horizontal plate designed to block vertical flow in the tractor-trailer gap provided marginally higher drag reduction (0.021, or 3.2%).
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2377
Eric Litwiller, Martin Reinhard, John Fisher, Michael Flynn
This paper presents results of research on a solid waste dryer, based of the process of lyophilization, which recovers water and stabilizes solid waste. A lyophilizer has been developed and tested that uses thermoelectric heat pumps (TECs) to recycle heat during drying. The properties of TECs facilitate direct measurement of heat flow rates, and heat flow data are used to evaluate a heat and mass transfer model of the thermoelectric lyophilizer. Data are consistent with the theoretical model in most respects. Practical problems such as insulation and vacuum maintenance are minor in this system. However, the model’s assumption of a uniformly retreating ice layer during drying is valid only for the first 30% of water removed. Beyond this point, a shrinking core or lens model is more appropriate. Heat transfer to the shrinking core surrounded by dried material is slow.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2364
Julie A. Levri, Michele H. Perchonok
To ensure that adequate water resources are available during a mission, any net water loss from the habitat must be balanced with an equivalent amount of makeup water. For a Mars transit mission, the primary sources of makeup water will likely involve water contained in shipped tanks and in prepackaged food. As mission length increases, it becomes more cost effective to increase system water closure (recovery and generation) than to launch adequate amounts of contained water. This trend may encourage designers to specify increased water recovery in lieu of higher food moisture content. However, food palatability requirements will likely declare that prepackaged foods have a minimum hydration (averaged over all food types). The food hydration requirement may even increase with mission duration. However, availability requirements for specific emergency scenarios may declare that determined quantities of water be provided in tanks, rather than as moisture in food.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2363
Harry Jones
The Advanced Life Support (ALS) project uses Equivalent Mass (EM) to report ALS progress and in technology selection. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is much more widely used. We develop a new metric, Life Cycle Mass (LCM), from EM and a mass-based LCC model. EM, LCM and Mass (M) alone are compared for technology ranking and progress reporting. These metrics are usually highly correlated and typically produce similar technology rankings and ALS progress metrics. Since M is much simpler than EM or LCM, ALS analysis could use M (Mass) alone for initial technology ranking and for ALS metric reporting.
2003-09-08
Technical Paper
2003-01-2975
Irving C. Statler, David A. Maluf
Within NASA's Aviation Safety Program, the Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project addresses the need to provide decision makers with the tools to identify and evaluate predisposing conditions that could lead to accidents. This Project is developing a set of automated tools to facilitate efficient, comprehensive, and accurate analyses of data collected in large, heterogeneous databases throughout the National Aviation System. This report is a brief overview of the ASMM Project as an introduction to the rest of the presentations in this session on one of its key elements---the Performance Data Analysis and Reporting System (PDARS).
2003-09-08
Technical Paper
2003-01-3067
David G. Bell, David A. Maluf
This paper describes recent work on developing an extensible information grid for risk management at NASA — a RISK INFORMATION GRID. This grid is being developed by integrating information grid technology with risk management processes for a variety of risk related applications. To date, RISK GRID applications are being developed for three main NASA processes: risk management — a closed-loop iterative process for explicit risk management, program/project management — a proactive process that includes risk management, and mishap management — a feedback loop for learning from historical risks that ‘escaped’ other processes. This is enabled through an architecture involving an extensible database, structuring information with XML, ‘schema-less’ mapping of XML, and secure server-mediated communication using standard protocols.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3882
Upender K. Kaul
Some selected segments of the ascent and the on-orbit data from the Space Shuttle flight, STS114, as well as some selected laboratory test article data have been analyzed using wavelets, power spectrum and autocorrelation function. Additionally, a simple approximate noise test was performed on these data segments to confirm the presence or absence of white noise behavior in the data. This study was initially directed at characterizing the on-orbit background against which a signature due to an impact during on-orbit operation could be identified. The laboratory data analyzed here mimic low velocity impact that the Orbiter may be subjected to during the very initial stages of ascent.
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