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Viewing 1 to 30 of 35
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2558
E. Grob, C. Baker, T. McCarthy
Goddard Space Flight Center’s Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the sole scientific instrument on the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) that was launched on January 12, 2003 from Vandenberg AFB. A thermal control architecture based on propylene Loop Heat Pipe technology was developed to provide selectable/stable temperature control for the lasers and other electronics over the widely varying mission environment. Following a nominal LHP and instrument start-up, the mission was interrupted with the failure of the first laser after only 36 days of operation. During the 5-month failure investigation, the two GLAS LHPs and the electronics operated nominally, using heaters as a substitute for the laser heat load. Just prior to resuming the mission, following a seasonal spacecraft yaw maneuver, one of the LHPs deprimed and created a thermal runaway condition that resulted in an emergency shutdown of the GLAS instrument.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2504
Jentung Ku, Laura Ottenstein, Charles D. Butler, Theodore Swanson, Diane Thies
The Terra spacecraft is the flagship of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise. It provides global data on the atmosphere, land, and oceans, as well as their interactions with solar radiation and one another. Three Terra instruments utilize Capillary Pumped Heat Transport Systems (CPHTS) for temperature control. Each CPHTS, consisting of two capillary pumped loops (CPLs) and several heat pipes and electrical heaters, is designed for instrument heat loads ranging from 25W to 264W. The working fluid is ammonia. Since the launch of the Terra spacecraft in December 1999, each CPHTS has been providing a stable interface temperature specified by the instrument under all modes of spacecraft and instrument operations. The ability to change the CPHTS operating temperature upon demand while in service has also extended the useful life of one instrument. This paper describes the design and on-orbit performance of the CPHTS thermal systems.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2279
Daniel H. Nguyen, Teri Gregory, Jong Kim
Having been in operation for over 15 years, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) had experienced significant changes in both hardware upgrades and operational modes. The changes were necessary to improve performance of some equipment and to replace failed electronics in others. Hardware replacements were done in several servicing missions. To accommodate the change in physical condition of HST, alterations in the way the telescope is operated were also required. The final opportunity to make any hardware changes on HST is during Servicing Mission 4 (SM-4) which is currently scheduled for December of 2007. It is important to make the most appropriate changes in order to ensure that HST will be in good operating condition until its planned termination. In order to provide manifest input to the HST project for the final servicing mission, the HST thermal team must conduct careful evaluation of every single piece of hardware on HST.
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951566
Dan Butler, Laura Ottenstein, Jentung Ku
The Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment (CAPL) employs a passive two-phase thermal control system that uses the latent heat of vaporization of ammonia to transfer heat over long distances. CAPL was designed as a prototype of the Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument thermal control systems. The purpose of the mission was to provide validation of the system performance in micro-gravity, prior to implementation on EOS. CAPL was flown on STS-60 in February, 1994, with some unexpected results related to gravitational effects on two-phase systems. Flight test results and post flight investigations will be addressed, along with a brief description of the experiment design.
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951554
Tu M. Nguyen, Patrick J. Brennan, Jentung Ku, Matthew T. Buchko
An IBM Personal Computer (PC) version of the Groove Analysis Program (GAP) was developed to predict the steady state heat transport capability of axially grooved heat pipes for a specified groove geometry and working fluid. In the model, the heat transport capability of an axially grooved heat pipe, usually governed by the capillary limit, is determined by the numerical solution of the governing equation for momentum conservation with the appropriate boundary conditions. This paper discusses the theory behind the development of the GAP model. It also presents many useful capabilities of the model. Furthermore, correlations of flight test performance data using GAP are presented and discussed.
1994-06-01
Technical Paper
941599
Laura Ottenstein, Jentung Ku, Dan Butler
The Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment (CAPL) is a prototype of the Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument thermal control systems, which are based on two-phase heat transfer technology. The CAPL experiment has been functionally tested in a thermal vacuum chamber at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The tests performed included start-up tests, simulated EOS instrument power profiles, low and high power profiles, a variety of uneven coldplate heating tests, subcooling requirement tests, an induced deprime test, reprimes, saturation temperature changes, and a hybrid (mechanical pump-assist) test. There were a few unexpected evaporator deprimes, but overall the testing was successful. The results of all of the tests are discussed, with emphasis on the deprimes and suspected causes.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961531
Paul Richards, Ken Wagner, Carl Konkel, Chris Smith, Lee Brown
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was designed to be serviced from the shuttle by astronauts performing extravehicular activities (EVA). During the first HST Servicing Mission (STS-61) two types of power tools were flown, the Power Ratchet Tool (PRT) and the HST Power Tool. Each tool had both benefits and drawbacks. An objective for the second HST servicing mission was to combine the reliability, accuracy, and programmability of the PRT with the pistol grip ergonomics and compactness of the HST Power Tool into a new tool called the EVA Pistol Grip Tool (PGT). The PGT is a self-contained, microprocessor controlled, battery powered, 3/8-inch drive hand-held tool. The PGT may also be used as a non-powered ratchet wrench. Numerous torque, speed, and turn or angle limits can be programmed into the PGT for use during various servicing missions. Batteries Modules are replaceable during ground, Intravehicular Activities (IVA), and EVA operations.
1994-06-01
Technical Paper
941271
K. R. Sridhar, Ashok Nanjundan, Matthias Gottmann, Theodore D. Swanson, Jeffrey Didion
This paper explores the possibilities of cooling a permanently inhabited lunar base with a reverse Brayton cycle Thermal Control System (TCS). Based on an initial stage outpost, the cooling needs are defined. A thermodynamic performance model for the Brayton cycle is derived using ideal gas analysis. This model includes inefficiencies and irreversibilities of the components. The free parameters in the thermodynamic model are successively removed using limiting values for efficiencies and determining operating parameters by suboptimizations. In essence a model for cooling efficiency as a function of rejection temperature alone is obtained. For every component of the system a mass model is applied and the overall mass is determined. The last remaining degree of freedom, the rejection temperature, is eliminated by an optimization for lowest overall mass. The result for minimal TCS mass is compared to a reference TCS using a Rankine cycle.
1993-07-01
Technical Paper
932259
C. F. Costello, F. A. Costello, Virginia Herndon, Joseph Skladany
A new, general-purpose computer program (BIFAC) has been developed for computing thermal radiant interchange among opaque surfaces that need not be perfectly diffuse or perfectly specular. The method uses the full bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) to determine directional radiosities, and thence heat fluxes, between surfaces. The method gives more accurate average interchange factors for diffuse surfaces, because it better represents interaction in corners. The maximum error in a stringent test using a specular surface was 8.9%, in great part because the exact specular solution does not include the real specular cone that is used in BIFAC.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2387
Jentung Ku
The operating temperature of a loop heat pipe (LHP) with a single evaporator is governed by the compensation chamber (CC) temperature, which in turn is a function of the evaporator power, condenser sink temperature, and ambient temperature. As the operating condition changes, the CC temperature will also change during the transient but eventually reach a new steady temperature. Under certain conditions, however, the LHP never really reaches a true steady state, but instead displays an oscillatory behavior. This paper presents a study on the oscillation of the loop operating temperature with amplitudes on the order of 1 Kelvin and periods on the order seconds to minutes. The source of the high frequency temperature oscillation is the fast movement of the vapor front in the condenser section, which usually occurs when the vapor front is near the condenser inlet or the condenser outlet.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2421
E. Grob, C. Baker, T. McCarthy
The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument is NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's first application of Loop Heat Pipe technology that provides selectable/stable temperature levels for the lasers and other electronics over a widely varying mission environment. GLAS was successfully launched as the sole science instrument aboard the Ice, Clouds, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from Vandenberg AFB at 4:45pm PST on January 12, 2003. After SC commissioning, the LHPs started easily and have provided selectable and stable temperatures for the lasers and other electronics. This paper discusses the thermal development background and testing, along with details of early flight thermal performance data.
2001-07-09
Technical Paper
2001-01-2204
Russell L. Werneth
NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope was designed for periodic servicing by Space Shuttle astronauts performing extravehicular activities (EVAs), to service, maintain, repair, and upgrade the telescope. Through three successful servicing missions to date, EVA processes have been developed by applying a series of important lessons learned. These lessons learned are also applicable to many other future human spaceflight and robotic missions, such as International Space Station, satellite retrieval and servicing, and long-duration spaceflight. HST has become NASA’s pathfinder for observatories, EVA development, and EVA mission execution.
2001-07-09
Technical Paper
2001-01-2192
Jentung Ku, Laura Ottenstein, Paul Rogers, Kwok Cheung
This paper presents test results of an experimental study of low power operation in a loop heat pipe. The main objective was to demonstrate how changes in the vapor void fraction inside the evaporator core would affect the loop behavior. The fluid inventory and the relative tilt between the evaporator and the compensation chamber were varied so as to create different vapor void fractions in the evaporator core. The effect on the loop start-up, operating temperature, and capillary limit was investigated. Test results indicate that the vapor void fraction inside the evaporator core is the single most important factor in determining the loop operation at low powers.
1997-07-01
Technical Paper
972527
William Niedringhaus, William Ducas, Wes Ousley, Keith Parrish
New Space Support Equipment (SSE) components developed for the Hubble Space Telescope Second Servicing Mission are described, with particular emphasis on how flight experience from the 1993 First Servicing Mission was utilized in the design and testing process. The new components include the Second Axial Carrier (SAC) Axial Scientific Instrument Protective Enclosure (ASIPE), the magnetic-damped SAC ASIPE Load Isolation System, the Enhanced Power Distribution and Switching Unit (EPDSU), and the Multi-Mission Orbital Replacement Unit Protective Enclosure (MOPE). Analytical modeling predictions are compared with on-orbit data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Second Servicing Mission. Those involved in thermal designs of hardware for use on the Shuttle or Space Station, particularly with astronaut interaction, may find interest in this paper.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961435
Triem Hoang, Jentung Ku
The the past, the design of a Capillary Pumped Loop involved mainly on the thermodynamics and heat transfer aspects of the system. The fluid flow dynamics of the working fluid were deemed benign to the system performance. Recently theoretical and experimental studies have revealed several mechanisms that led to the deprime of the capillary pumps. These mechanisms were all related to the dynamics of the fluid movement inside the loop.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961432
Jentung Ku, Laura Ottenstein, Dan Butler
This paper describes flight test results of the CAPL 2 Flight Experiment, which is a full scale prototype of a capillary pumped loop (CPL) heat transport system to be used for thermal control of the Earth Observing System (EOS-AM) instruments. One unique feature of CAPL 2 is its capillary starter pump cold plate design, which consists of a single capillary starter pump and two heat pipes. The starter pump enhances start-up success due to its self-priming capability, and provides the necessary capillary pumping force for the entire loop. The heat pipes provide the required isothermalization of the cold plate. Flight tests included those pertinent to specific EOS applications and those intended for verifying generic CPL operating characteristics and performance limits. Experimental results confirmed that the starter pump was indeed self-priming and the loop could be successfully started every time.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961431
Dan Butler, Laura Ottenstein, Jentung Ku
The Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment (CAPL 2) employs a passive two-phase thermal control system that uses the latent heat of vaporization of ammonia to transfer heat over long distances. CAPL was designed as a prototype of the Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument thermal control systems. The purpose of the mission was to provide validation of the system performance in microgravity, prior to implementation on EOS. CAPL 1 was flown on STS-60 in February, 1994, with some unexpected results related to gravitational effects on two-phase systems. Start-up difficulties on CAPL 1 led to a redesign of the experiment (CAPL 2) and a reflight on STS-69 in September of 1995. The CAPL 2 flight was extremely successful and the new “starter pump” design is now baselined for the EOS application. This paper emphasizes the design history, the CAPL 2 design, and lessons learned from the CAPL program.
2008-06-29
Journal Article
2008-01-2038
Hume Peabody, Richard Stavely, William Bast
The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument has undergone two complete thermal vacuum tests (TV1 and TV2), during which valuable lessons were learned regarding test configuration, test execution, model capabilities, and modeling practices. The very complex thermal design of WFC3 produced a number of challenging aspects to ground testing with numerous ThermoElectric Coolers and heat pipes, not all of which were functional. Lessons learned during TV1 resulted in significant upgrades to the model capabilities and a change in the test environment approach for TV2. These upgrades proved invaluable during TV2 when pre-test modeling assumptions proved to be false. Each of the lessons learned relate to one of two following broad statements: 1. Ensure the design can be tested and that the effect of non-flight like conditions is well understood, particularly with respect to non passive devices (TECs, Heat Pipes, etc) 2.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2505
Jentung Ku, Seong-II Jeong, Dan Butler
This paper describes the design and testing of a miniature loop heat pipe (LHP) having a 7 mm outer diameter (O.D.) evaporator with an integral compensation chamber (CC). The vapor line and liquid line are made of 1.59mm O.D. stainless steel tubing. A thermoelectric (TEC) is installed on the CC and the hot side of the TEC is connected to the evaporator through a copper strap. By changing the direction of the electric current provided by a bi-polar power supply, the TEC can heat or cool the CC. Tests performed in the laboratory included start-up, power cycle, sink temperature cycle, and CC temperature control with the test article being placed in horizontal and vertical positions. The LHP demonstrated very robust operation in all tests where the heat load varied between 0.5W and 140W, and the sink temperature varied between 243K and 293K. The heat leak from the evaporator to the CC was extremely small.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3083
Michael K. Choi
On Day 97, 2005, a temperature excursion of the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) loop heat pipe (LHP) #1 compensation chamber (CC) caused this LHP shut down. It had no impact on the Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) detection because LHP #0 was nominal. After LHP #1 was started up and its primary heat controller was disabled on Day 98, both LHPs have been nominal. On Day 337, 2004, the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) thermo-electric cooler (TEC) power supply (PS) suffered a single point failure. The charge-coupled device (CCD) has been cooled by the radiator passively to -50°C or colder most of the time. The CCD temperature meets the main objective of pinpointing GRB afterglow positions. With these anomalies overcome, the Instrument Module (IM) thermal control system (TCS) is nominal during the first 2.5 years in flight.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3046
Glenn T. Tsuyuki, Deborah I. Hernandez, Daniel H. Nguyen, Henry A. Rotter, Ryan A. Stephan, James R. Yuko
The NASA-wide CEV Smart Buyer Team (SBT) was assembled in January 2006 and was tasked with the development of a NASA in-house design for the CEV Crew Module (CM), Service Module (SM), and Launch Abort System (LAS). This effort drew upon over 250 engineers from all of the 10 NASA Centers. In 6 weeks, this in-house design was developed. The Thermal Systems Team was responsible for the definition of the active and passive design architecture. The SBT effort for Thermal Systems can be best characterized as a design architecting activity. Proof-of-concepts were assessed through system-level trade studies and analyses using simplified modeling. This nimble design approach permitted definition of a point design and assessing its design robustness in a timely fashion. This paper will describe the architecting process and present trade studies and proposed thermal designs
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2277
Joseph F. Gasbarre, Jason Thomas, Wes Ousley, Theodore Michalek
Following the satellite-level thermal vacuum test for the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation spacecraft, project thermal engineers determined that the radiator used to cool the Integrated Lidar Transmitter subsystem during its operation was oversized. In addition, the thermal team also determined that the operational heaters were undersized, thus creating two related problems. Without the benefit of an additional thermal vacuum test, it was necessary to develop and prove by analysis a laser temperature control scheme using the available resources within the spacecraft along with proper resizing of the radiator. A resizing methodology and new laser temperature control scheme were devised that allowed, with a minimum of 20% heater power margin, the operating laser to maintain temperature at the preferable set point. This control scheme provided a solution to a critical project problem.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5517
Linda Pacini, David Kaufman, Michael Adams, Michael Lou, John Carey
The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) design requires a large sunshield to passively cool the telescope and detectors to temperatures in the 60° to 100° Kelvin range. The government yardstick design for the NGST observatory has baselined an inflatable sunshield. The NGST project plans to fly a one-third-scale sunshield during a Shuttle flight in late 2000. The Inflatable Sunshield in Space (ISIS) experiment will demonstrate stable deployment of a large, multilayer thin film sunshield and ridigization of inflatable struts. A new method of modeling large membrane systems will be developed, and data will be obtained in order to validate the model. The flight experiment will also demonstrate the viability of the thermal approach by verifying separation and flatness of membrane layers.
1999-07-12
Technical Paper
1999-01-2006
Tarik Kaya, Jentung Ku
A parametric study of performance characteristics of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) is presented. A mathematical model, based on the steady-state energy conservation equations, is used. The calculations are performed by varying the operation conditions (heat load, sink and ambient temperatures, and elevation) and the LHP design parameters (working fluid, transport length size, external thermal conductance of the condenser and wick properties). The results are illustrated on LHP performance curves (saturation temperature as a function of applied power). All the results are compared with a baseline configuration to analyze the effects of different parameters. Operating limits due to various constraints such as heat transport limit, capillary pressure limit and the vapor pressure limit are discussed.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2406
Tarik Kaya, Charles Baker, Ku Jentung
In this paper, experimental work performed on a breadboard Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) is presented. The test article was built by DCI for the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument on the ICESat spacecraft. The thermal system requirements of GLAS have shown that ammonia cannot be used as the working fluid in this LHP because GLAS radiators could cool to well below the freezing point of ammonia. As a result, propylene was proposed as an alternative LHP working fluid since it has a lower freezing point than ammonia. Both working fluids were tested in the same LHP following a similar test plan in ambient conditions. The thermal performance characteristics of ammonia and propylene LHP's were then compared. In general, the propylene LHP required slightly less startup superheat and less control heater power than the ammonia LHP. The thermal conductance values for the propylene LHP were also lower than the ammonia LHP. Later, the propylene LHP was tested in a thermal vacuum chamber.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2489
Jentung Ku, Laura Ottenstein, Tarik Kaya, Paul Rogers, Craig Hoff
Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) are being considered for cooling of military combat vehicles and spinning spacecraft. In these applications, it is important to understand the effect of an accelerating force on the performance of LHPs. In order to investigate such an effect, a miniature LHP was installed on a spin table and subjected to variable accelerating forces by spinning the table at different angular speeds. Several patterns of accelerating forces were applied, i.e. continuous spin at different speeds and periodic spin at different speeds and frequencies. The resulting centrifugal accelerations ranged from 1.2 g's to 4.8 g's. This paper presents the second part of the experimental study, i.e. the effect of an accelerating force on the LHP operating temperature. It has been known that the LHP operating temperature under a stationary condition is a function of the evaporator power and the condenser sink temperature when the compensation temperature is not actively controlled.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2488
Jentung Ku, Laura Ottenstein, Tarik Kaya, Paul Rogers, Craig Hoff
Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) are being considered for cooling of military combat vehicles and spinning spacecraft. In these applications, it is important to understand the effect of an accelerating force on the performance of LHPs. In order to investigate such an effect, a miniature LHP was installed on a spin table and subjected to variable accelerating forces by spinning the table at different angular speeds. Several patterns of accelerating forces were applied, i.e. continuous spin at different speeds and periodic spin at different speeds and frequencies. The resulting centrifugal accelerations ranged from 1.2 g's to 4.8 g's. This paper presents the first part of the experimental study, i.e. the effects of an accelerating force on the LHP start-up. Tests were conducted by varying the heat load to the evaporator, condenser sink temperature, and LHP orientation relative to the direction of the accelerating force.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2280
Daniel H. Nguyen, Joshua Abel, Christine Cottingham, Joe Mandi, Jong Kadesch
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched in 1990 and has undergone several Servicing Missions that have replaced and repaired various scientific and support hardware. As preparations begin for Servicing Mission Four (SM4) in 2008 and the life extension activities that follow, the Telescope Thermal Math Model (TMM) has been improved using the latest thermal analysis software and techniques. Several efforts have been made to improve the HST system-level TMM since launch. A brief history of the major model updates, as well as the motivation behind the changes has been provided. The current improvements have provided the HST systems-level TMM a greater level of detail, while making model control more user-friendly and the results easier to verify. Several modeling techniques useful for spacecraft thermal design and operations support are discussed.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3020
Donald A. Jaworske, George C. Tuan, David T. Westheimer, Wanda C. Peters, Lonny R. Kauder, Jack J. Triolo
Spacecraft radiators reject heat to their surroundings. Radiators can be deployable or mounted on the body of the spacecraft. NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle is to use body mounted radiators. Coatings play an important role in heat rejection. The coatings provide the radiator surface with the desired optical properties of low solar absorptance and high infrared emittance. These specialized surfaces are applied to the radiator panel in a number of ways, including conventional spraying, plasma spraying, or as an appliqué. Not specifically designed for a weathering environment, little is known about the durability of conventional paints, coatings, and appliqués upon exposure to weathering and subsequent exposure to solar wind and ultraviolet radiation exposure. In addition to maintaining their desired optical properties, the coatings must also continue to adhere to the underlying radiator panel.
1998-07-13
Technical Paper
981812
Jentung Ku, Laura Ottenstein, Kwok Cheung, Triem Hoang, Seokgeun Yun
The success of CAPL 2 flight experiment has stirred many interests in using capillary pumped loop (CPL) devices for spacecraft thermal control. With only one evaporator in the loop, CAPL 2 was considered a point design for the Earth Observing System (EOS-AM). To realize the full benefits of CPLs, a reliable system with multiple evaporators must be developed and successfully demonstrated in space. The Capillary Pumped Loop (CAPL 3) Flight Experiment was designed to flight demonstrate a multiple evaporator CPL in a space environment. New hardware and concepts were developed for CAPL 3 to enable reliable start-up, constant conductance operation, and heat load sharing. A rigorous ground test program was developed and extensive characterization tests were conducted. All performance requirements were met, and the loop demonstrated very reliable operation.
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