Viewing 1 to 30 of 151
Technical Paper
S. A. Walker, J. Tweed, J. W. Wilson, R. K. Tripathi
The development of a Green’s function approach to ion transport greatly facilitates the modeling of laboratory radiation environments and allows for the direct testing of transport approximations of material transmission properties. Using this approach radiation investigators at the NASA Langley Research Center have established that simple solutions can be found for HZE ions by ignoring nuclear energy downshifts and dispersion. Such solutions were found to be supported by experimental evidence with HZE ion beams when multiple scattering was added. Lacking from the prior solutions were range and energy straggling and energy downshift and dispersion associated with nuclear events. In a more recent publication it was shown how these effects can be incorporated into the multiple fragmentation perturbation series. Analytical approximations for the first two perturbation terms were presented and the third term was evaluated numerically.
Technical Paper
Nate Newby, Jeffrey T. Somers, Erin E. Caldwell, Chris Perry, Justin Littell, Michael Gernhardt
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is interested in characterizing the responses of THOR (test device for human occupant restraint) anthropometric test device (ATD) to representative loading acceleration pulse s. Test conditions were selected both for their applicability to anticipated NASA landing scenarios, and for comparison to human volunteer data previously collected by the United States Air Force (USAF). THOR impact testing was conducted in the fore-to-aft frontal (-x) and in the upward spinal (-z) directions with peak sled accelerations ranging from 8 to 12 G and rise times of 40, 70, and 100ms. Each test condition was paired with historical huma n data sets under similar test conditions that were also conducted on the Horizontal Impulse Accelerator (HIA). A correlation score was calculated for each THOR to human comparison using CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) software.
Technical Paper
Luther N. Jenkins
An experimental investigation of the flow over the rear end of a 0.16 scale notchback automobile configuration has been conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART). The objective of this work was to investigate the flow separation that occurs behind the backlight and obtain experimental data that can be used to understand the physics and time-averaged structure of the flow field. A three-component laser velocimeter was used to make non-intrusive, velocity measurements in the center plane and in a single cross-flow plane over the decklid. In addition to off-body measurements, flow conditions on the car surface were documented via surface flow visualization, boundary layer measurements, and surface pressures.
Technical Paper
Jeremy S. Agte, Jaroslaw Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Robert R. Sandusky
New optimization methods that are intended as an improvement over traditional design methodology often require the design model itself to be developed in a nontraditional manner. This paper describes the tailoring of a supersonic business jet design model to the Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS) optimization method. Included is a brief discussion of BLISS, the development and implementation of the design model, application of the design constraints, and a survey of favorable results. For discussion purposes, the design model is ‘tailored’ to the optimization method, not vice versa, to illustrate the model’s unique development.
Technical Paper
James F. Meyers, Joseph W. Lee
While the initial development phase of Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV) has been successfully completed, there remains a critical next phase to be conducted, namely the determination of an error budget to provide quantitative bounds for measurements obtained by this technology. This paper describes a laboratory investigation that consisted of a detailed interrogation of potential error sources to determine their contribution to the overall DGV error budget. A few sources of error were obvious; e.g., Iodine vapor absorption lines, optical systems, and camera characteristics. However, additional non-obvious sources were also discovered; e.g., laser frequency and single-frequency stability, media scattering characteristics, and interference fringes. This paper describes each identified error source, its effect on the overall error budget, and where possible, corrective procedures to reduce or eliminate its effect.
Technical Paper
James L. Hunt, Robert J. Pegg, Dennis H. Petley
This paper presents the status of the airbreathing hypersonic airplane and space-access vision-operational-vehicle design matrix, with emphasis on horizontal takeoff and landing systems being studied at Langley; it reflects the synergies and issues, and indicates the thrust of the effort to resolve the design matrix including Mach 5 to 10 airplanes with global-reach potential, pop-up and dual-role transatmospheric vehicles and airbreathing launch systems. The convergence of several critical systems/technologies across the vehicle matrix is indicated. This is particularly true for the low speed propulsion system for large unassisted horizontal takeoff vehicles which favor turbines and/or perhaps pulse detonation engines that do not require LOX which imposes loading concerns and mission flexibility restraints.
Technical Paper
Andy P. Broeren, Sam Lee, Gautam H. Shah, Patrick C. Murphy
An experimental research effort was begun to develop a database of airplane aerodynamic characteristics with simulated ice accretion over a large range of incidence and sideslip angles. Wind-tunnel testing was performed at the NASA Langley 12-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel using a 3.5% scale model of the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model. Aerodynamic data were acquired from a six-component force and moment balance in static-model sweeps from α = -5 to 85 deg. and β = -45 to 45 deg. at a Reynolds number of 0.24x10⁶ and Mach number of 0.06. The 3.5% scale GTM was tested in both the clean configuration and with full-span artificial ice shapes attached to the leading edges of the wing, horizontal and vertical tail. Aerodynamic results for the clean airplane configuration compared favorably with similar experiments carried out on a 5.5% scale GTM.
Technical Paper
Douglas Spangenberg, Patrick Minnis, William Smith, Fu-Lung Chang
Cloud properties retrieved from satellite data are used to diagnose aircraft icing threat in single layer and multilayered ice-over-liquid clouds. The algorithms are being applied in real time to the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data over the CONUS with multilayer data available over the eastern CONUS. METEOSAT data are also used to retrieve icing conditions over western Europe. The icing algorithm's methodology and validation are discussed along with future enhancements and plans. The icing risk product is available in image and digital formats on NASA Langley ‘s Cloud and Radiation Products web site,
Technical Paper
G. De Angelis, F. F. Badavi, J. M. Clem, S. R. Blattnig, M. S. Clowdsley, J. E. Nealy, R. K. Tripathi, J. W. Wilson
In view of manned missions targeted to the Moon, for which radiation exposure is one of the greatest challenges to be tackled, it is of fundamental importance to have available a tool, which allows determination of the particle flux and spectra at any time and at any point of the lunar surface. With this goal in mind, a new model of the Moon’s radiation environment due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) has been developed. Primary particles reach the lunar surface, and are transported all throughout the subsurface layers, with backscattering patterns taken into account. The surface itself has been modeled as regolith and bedrock, with composition taken from the results of the instruments flown on the Apollo missions, namely on the Apollo 12 from the Oceanus Procellarum landing site. Subsurface environments like lava tubes have been considered in the analysis.
Technical Paper
Ruth M. Amundsen, John A. Dec, Joseph F. Gasbarre
The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005 and began aerobraking at Mars in March 2006. In order to save propellant, MRO used aerobraking to modify the initial orbit at Mars. The spacecraft passed through the atmosphere briefly on each orbit; during each pass the spacecraft was slowed by atmospheric drag, thus lowering the orbit apoapsis. The largest area on the spacecraft, most affected by aeroheating, was the solar arrays. A thermal analysis of the solar arrays was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to simulate their performance throughout the entire roughly 6-month period of aerobraking. A companion paper describes the development of this thermal model. This model has been correlated against many sets of flight data. Several maneuvers were performed during the cruise to Mars, such as thruster calibrations, which involve large abrupt changes in the spacecraft orientation relative to the sun.
Technical Paper
John A. Dec, Joseph F. Gasbarre, Ruth M. Amundsen
The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005 and started aerobraking at Mars in March 2006. During the spacecraft's design phase, thermal models of the solar panels and instruments were developed to determine which components would be the most limiting thermally during aerobraking. Having determined the most limiting components, (from a temperature limit standpoint), thermal limits in terms of heat rate were established. Advanced thermal modeling techniques were developed utilizing Thermal Desktop and Patran Thermal. Heat transfer coefficients were calculated using a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo technique. Analysis established that the solar panels were the most limiting components during the aerobraking phase of the mission.
Technical Paper
J. Tweed, S. A. Walker, J. W. Wilson, R. K. Tripathi, F. A. Cucinotta, F. F. Badavi
A new Green’s function code (GRNTRN) capable of simulating HZE ions with either laboratory or space boundary conditions is currently under development. The computational model consists of combinations of physical perturbation expansions based on the scales of atomic interaction, multiple scattering, and nuclear reactive processes with use of the Neumann-asymptotic expansions with non-perturbative corrections. The code contains energy loss due to straggling, nuclear attenuation, nuclear fragmentation with energy dispersion and downshifts. Recent publications have focused on code validation in the laboratory environment and have shown that the code predicts energy loss spectra accurately as measured by solid-state detectors in ion beam experiments. In this paper emphasis is placed on code validation with space boundary conditions.
Technical Paper
J. Tweed, S. A. Walker, J. W. Wilson, R. K. Tripathi, F. F. Badavi, J. Miller, C. Zeitlin, L. H. Heilbronn
To meet the challenge of future deep space programs an accurate and efficient engineering code for analyzing the shielding requirements against high-energy galactic heavy radiations is needed. Such engineering design codes require establishing validation processes using laboratory ion beams and space flight measurements in realistic geometries. In consequence, a new version of the HZETRN code capable of simulating HZE ions with either laboratory or space boundary conditions is currently under development. The new code, GRNTRN, is based on a Green's function approach to the solution of Boltzmann's transport equation and like its predecessor is deterministic in nature. Code validation in the laboratory environment is addressed by showing that GRNTRN accurately predicts energy loss spectra as measured by solid-state detectors in ion beam experiments.
Technical Paper
Brooke Anderson, Steve Blattnig, Martha Clowdsley
Recently a new emphasis has been placed on engineering applications of space radiation analyses and thus a systematic effort of Verification, Validation and Uncertainty Quantification (VV&UQ) of the tools commonly used for radiation analysis for vehicle design and mission planning has begun. There are two sources of uncertainty in geometric discretization addressed in this paper that need to be quantified in order to understand the total uncertainty in estimating space radiation exposures. One source of uncertainty is in ray tracing, as the number of rays increase the associated uncertainty decreases, but the computational expense increases. Thus, a cost benefit analysis optimizing computational time versus uncertainty is needed and is addressed in this paper. The second source of uncertainty results from the interpolation over the dose vs. depth curves that is needed to determine the radiation exposure.
Technical Paper
Thomas J. Yager, Pamela A. Davis, Sandy M. Stubbs, Veloria J. Martinson
Preliminary braking, steering, and tread wear performance results from testing of 26 x 6.6 and 40 x 14 radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) are reviewed. These tire tests are part of a larger, ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction And Radial Tire (START) Program involving these two different tire sizes as well as an H46 x 18-20 tire size which has not yet been evaluated. Both dry and wet surface conditions were evaluated on two different test surfaces - nongrooved Portland cement concrete and specially constructed, hexagonal-shaped concrete paver blocks. Use of paver blocks at airport facilities has been limited to ramp and taxiway areas and the industry needs a tire friction evaluation of this paving material prior to additional airport pavement installations.
Technical Paper
Lisa C. Simonsen, John E. Nealy, Lawrence W. Townsend
Technical Paper
Scott O. Kjelgaard, William L. Sellers
The need for highly accurate measurements of velocity, temperature, pressure and density has required the development of new experimental techniques. While the majority of these development efforts at NASA Langley are focused toward applications for aeronautical programs such as the High-Speed Civil Transport, Advanced Subsonic Transport, and the National Aero-Space Plane, a number are applicable to other fields. The intent of this paper is to review recent instrumentation developments and applications at NASA Langley Research Center that may have applications in automotive testing. Five experimental techniques are described along with recent results obtained in NASA facilities.
Technical Paper
F. Bruce Metzger, John S. Preisser
This paper reviews the status of analytical and empirical propeller noise prediction methods with specific emphasis on those that are suitable for General Aviation propellers. Specifically, the paper reviews the capabilities and limitations of methods that are simple enough for ease of use by industry while providing sufficient accuracy to guide the development of new propeller designs or the modification of existing propeller driven airplanes to satisfy increased certification stringency or cabin comfort objectives.
Technical Paper
William K. Abeyounis, James C. Patterson, H. Paul Stough, Alfred J. Wunschel, Patrick D. Curran
A flight test investigation has been conducted to determine the performance of wingtip vortex turbines and their effect on aircraft performance. The turbines were designed to recover part of the large energy loss (induced drag) caused by the wingtip vortex. The turbine, driven by the vortex flow, reduces the strength of the vortex, resulting in an associated induced drag reduction. A four-blade turbine was mounted on each wingtip of a single-engine, T-tail, general aviation airplane. Two sets of turbine blades were tested, one with a 15° twist (washin) and one with no twist. The power recovered by the turbine and the installed drag increment were measured. A trade-off between turbine power and induced drag reduction was found to be a function of turbine blade incidence angle. This test has demonstrated that the wingtip vortex turbine is an attractive alternate, as well as an emergency, power source.
Technical Paper
R. J. Silcox, H. C. Lester, T. J. Coats
The effect of different types of control force actuator models and geometries on the intensity flow between a cylindrical shell and the contained acoustic space has been analytically investigated. The primary source was an external monopole located adjacent to the exterior surface of the cylinder midpoint. Actuator models of normal point forces and in-plane piezoelectric patches were assumed attached to the wall of a simply-supported, elastic cylinder closed with rigid end caps. Control inputs to the actuators were determined such that the integrated square of the pressure over the interior of the vibrating cylinder was a minimum. Test cases involving a resonant acoustic response and a resonant structural response were investigated. Significant interior noise reductions were achieved for all actuator configurations. Intensity distributions for the test cases show the circuitous path of structural acoustic power flow.
Technical Paper
S. H. Choi, W. E. Meador, J. H. Lee
A new approach for development of a 50-kW directly solar-pumped iodine laser (DSPIL) system as a space-based power station was made using a confocal unstable resonator (CUR). The CUR-based DSPIL has advantages, such as performance enhancement, reduction of total mass, and simplicity which alleviates the complexities inherent in the previous system, master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) configurations. In this design, a single CUR-based DSPIL with 50-kW output power was defined and compared to the MOPA-based DSPIL. Integration of multiple modules for power requirements more than 50-kW is physically and structurally a sound approach as compared to building a single large system. An integrated system of multiple modules can respond to various mission power requirements by combining and aiming the coherent beams at the user's receiver.
Technical Paper
John B. Hall, Carolyn C. Thomas
Alternate Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies were evaluated to reduce Space Station resources and dependence on expendables resupplied from Earth to sustain a multiperson crew in low-Earth orbit. Options were evaluated to close the oxygen (O2) loop by removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the cabin air, reducing the CO2 to water, and electrolyzing the water to provide metabolic O2 for crew consumption. Options were also evaluated to close the urine/flush, condensate, and hygiene water loops to provide potable water for crew use. Specific evaluation parameters were derived which included weight, power, volume, maintenance, resupply consumables, and technology readiness.
Technical Paper
Kelli F. Willshire, Lisa C. Simonsen
Human factors egress testing of the HL-20 Personnel Launch System, a reusable flight vehicle for Space Station crew rotation, was conducted in both the vertical (launch) and horizontal (landing) positions using a full-scale model. Ingress and egress of 10-person crews were investigated with volunteers representing a range of heights. For both the vertical and horizontal positions, interior structural keels had little impact on egress times which were generally less than 30 seconds. Wearing Shuttle partial pressure suits required somewhat more egress time than when ordinary flight suits were worn due to the larger helmet of the Shuttle suit.
Technical Paper
Eric R. Unger, Peter G. Coen
This paper describes recent research in integrated aerodynamic-performance design optimization applied to a supersonic transport wing. The subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics are modeled with linear theory and the aircraft performance is evaluated by using a complete mission analysis. The goal of the optimization problem is to either maximize the aircraft range or minimize the take-off gross weight while constraining the total fuel load and approach speed. A major difficulty encountered during this study was the inability to obtain accurate derivatives of the aerodynamic models with respect to the planform shape. This work addresses this problem and provides one solution for the derivative difficulties. Additional optimization studies reveal the impact of camber design on the global optimization problem. In these studies, the plan-form optimization is first conducted on a flat plate wing and camber optimization is performed on the resulting planform.
Technical Paper
Michael A. Marcolini, Casey L. Burley, David A. Conner, C.W. Acree
Noise is a barrier issue for penetration of civil markets by future tiltrotor aircraft. To address this issue, elements of the NASA Short Haul (Civil Tiltrotor) [SH(CT)] program are working in three different areas: noise abatement, noise reduction, and noise prediction. Noise abatement refers to modification of flight procedures to achieve quieter approaches. Noise reduction refers to innovative new rotor designs that would reduce the noise produced by a tiltrotor. Noise prediction activities are developing the tools to guide the design of future quiet tiltrotors. This paper presents an overview of SH(CT) activities in all three areas, including sample results.
Technical Paper
Y. S. Wie, F. S. Collier, R. D. Wagner
Recently, the concept of the application of hybrid laminar flow to modern commercial transport aircraft was successfully flight tested on a Boeing 757 aircraft. In this limited demonstration, in which only part of the upper surface of the swept wing was designed for the attainment of laminar flow, significant local drag reduction was measured. This paper addresses the potential application of this technology to laminarize the external surface of large, modern turbofan engine nacelles which may comprise as much as 5-10 percent of the total wetted area of future commercial transports. A hybrid-laminar-fiow-control (HLFC) pressure distribution is specified and the corresponding nacelle geometry is computed utilizing a predictor/corrector design method. Linear stability calculations are conducted to provide predictions of the extent of the laminar boundary layer. Performance studies are presented to determine potential benefits in terms of reduced fuel consumption.
Technical Paper
H. Paul Stough, Marianne Rudisill, Philip R. Schaffner, Konstantinos S. Martzaklis
President Clinton announced in February 1997 a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years. Weather continues to be identified as a causal factor in about 30% of all aviation accidents. An Aviation Weather Information Distribution and Presentation project has been established within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Aviation Safety Program to develop technologies that will provide accurate, timely and intuitive information to pilots, dispatchers, and air traffic controllers to enable the detection and avoidance of atmospheric hazards. This project, described herein, addresses the weather information needs of general, corporate, regional, and transport aircraft operators.
Technical Paper
Carl N. Ford, Vicki Crisp
A causal analysis of aviation accidents that involved pilot error is presented. The analysis employs a top-down methodology that investigates the relationship between pilot errors and other causal factors with accidents. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework is utilized to produce a comprehensive causal analysis of accident groups. This analysis will compare and evaluate causal factor patterns for both accidents induced by pilot errors and those where pilot error was a contributor but not the initiating event. Pilot induced accidents are those initiated by an inappropriate action of the aircrew. That is, the National transportation Safety Board (NTSB) report cited pilot error first within its analysis defining accident causes, factors, and findings. Pilot contributed accidents are those that are initiated by some other causal factor (weather, aircraft failure, etc.) and the pilot’s inappropriate action played a part in the outcome.
Technical Paper
J. W. Wilson, M. S. Clowdsley, J. L. Shinn, R. C. Singleterry, R. K. Tripathi, F. A. Cucinotta, J. H. Heinbockel, F. F. Badavi, W. Atwell
The normal working and living areas of the astronaut are designed to provide an acceptable level of protection against the hazards of ionizing space radiation. Attempts to reduce the exposures require intervening shield materials to reduce the transmitted radiation. An unwelcome side effect of the shielding is the production of neutrons, which are themselves dangerous particles that can be (but are not always) more hazardous than the particles that produced them. This is especially true depending on the choice of shield materials. Although neutrons are not a normal part of the space environment, they can be a principle component of astronaut exposure in the massive spacecraft's required for human space travel and habitation near planetary surfaces or other large bodies of material in space.
Technical Paper
David L. Raney, Martin R. Waszak
Natural fliers demonstrate a diverse array of flight capabilities, many of which are poorly understood. NASA has established a research project to explore and exploit flight technologies inspired by biological systems. One part of this project focuses on dynamic modeling and control of micro aerial vehicles that incorporate flexible wing structures inspired by natural fliers such as insects, hummingbirds and bats. With a vast number of potential civil and military applications, micro aerial vehicles represent an emerging sector of the aerospace market. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts for biologically inspired micro aerial vehicles are being explored. Research activities focusing on a flexible fixed-wing micro aerial vehicle design and a flapping-based micro aerial vehicle concept are presented.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 151


  • Range:
  • Year: