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Viewing 1 to 30 of 34
1991-09-01
Technical Paper
912148
John V. Foster, W. Thomas Bundick, Joseph W. Pahle
Emerging advanced controls technology will allow future generation fighter aircraft to aggressively maneuver at high angles-of-attack. Currently there is a need to develop flight-validated design methodologies and guidelines to effectively integrate this technology into future aircraft. As part of the NASA High-Alpha Technology Program (HATP), advanced controls technology is being developed in ground-based research and demonstrated using the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) as a flying testbed. Efforts are in progress to develop flight validated control law design methodologies and design guidelines which could be used to effectively exploit the capabilities provided by advanced controls at high angles of attack. This paper outlines this research effort and summarizes the design process and preliminary methodologies and guidelines developed to date.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
892381
S. H. Goradia, P. J. Bobbitt, W. D. Harvey
Computational experiments have been performed for a few configurations in order to investigate the effects of external flow disturbances on the extent of laminar flow and wake drag. Theoretical results have been compared with experimental data for the AEDC cone, for Mach numbers from subsonic to supersonic, and for both free flight and wind tunnel environments. The comparisons have been found to be very satisfactory, thus establishing the utility of the present method for the design and development of “laminar flow” configurations and for the assessment of wind tunnel data. In addition, the present paper presents results of calculations concerning the effects of unit Reynolds numbers on transition. This phenomenon has been observed by a few experimental investigators but has been analyzed in detail for the first time in the present paper with the aid of the theoretical predictions.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901888
Charles E. Knox, Charles H. Scanlon
Message exchange for air traffic control (ATC) purposes via data link offers the potential benefits of increasing the airspace system safety and efficiency. This is accomplished by reducing communication errors and relieving the overloaded ATC radio frequencies, which hamper efficient message exchanges during peak traffic periods in many busy terminal areas. However, the many uses and advantages of data link create additional questions concerning the interface among the human-users and the cockpit and ground systems. A flight test was conducted in the NASA Langley B-737 airplane to contrast flight operations using current voice communications with the use of data link for transmitting both strategic and tactical ATC clearances during a typical commercial airline flight from takeoff to landing. Commercial airplane pilots were used as test subjects.
1990-07-01
Technical Paper
901343
L. W. Townsend, J. W. Wilson, J. L. Shinn, J. E. Nealy, L. C. Simonsen
The effectiveness of a proposed concept for shielding a manned Mars vehicle using a confined magnetic field configuration is evaluated by computing estimated crew radiation exposures resulting from galactic cosmic rays and a large solar flare event. In the study the incident radiation spectra are transported through the spacecraft structure/magnetic shield using the deterministic space radiation transport computer codes developed at Langley Research Center. The calculated exposures unequivocally demonstrate that magnetic shielding could provide an effective barrier against solar flare protons but is virtually transparent to the more energetic galactic cosmic rays. It is then demonstrated that through proper selection of materials and shield configuration, adequate and reliable bulk material shielding can be provided for the same total mass as needed to generate and support the more risky magnetic field configuration.
1991-04-01
Technical Paper
911006
Gregory S. Manuel, Kamran Daryabeigi, David W. Alderfer, Clifford J. Obara
Abstract A flight test investigation was conducted to evaluate an infrared (IR) imaging technique to visualize off-surface flow phenomena. A single-engine, general-aviation airplane was equipped with an IR imaging system that viewed the region around the left wingtip. Vortical flow at the wingtip was seeded with sulfur hexafluoride, a gas with strong infrared absorbing and emitting characteristics. Different terrain and sky backgrounds were evaluated for their effect on IR images of vortical flow. The best IR images were obtained with a clear sky background. The results of the investigation indicate that IR flow visualization compliments existing smoke generator methods for off-surface flow visualization.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
791096
D. William Conner, John C. Vaughan
A future requirements and advanced market evaluation study indicates derivatives of current wide-body aircraft, using 1980 advanced technology, would be economically attractive through 2008, but new dedicated airfreighters incorporating 1990 technology, would offer little or no economic incentive. They would be economically attractive for all payload sizes, however, if RD and T costs could be shared in a joint civil/military arrangement. For the 1994-2008 cargo market, option studies indicate Mach 0.7 propfans would be economically attractive in trip cost, aircraft price and airline ROI. Spanloaders would have an even lower price and higher ROI but would have a relatively high trip cost because of aerodynamic inefficiencies. Dedicated airfreighters using propfans at Mach 0.8 cruise, laminar flow control, or cryofuels, would not provide any great economic benefits.
1985-07-01
Technical Paper
851376
John B. Hall, Melvin J. Ferebee, Karen H. Sage
Seventeen Environmental Control and Life Support System technology options to provide metabolic oxygen and water to sustain a multiperson crew on Space Station missions have been evaluated. The options included state-of-the-art technologies as well as advanced technologies that offer the potential for improvements in Environmental Control and Life Support Systems performance. The methodology for candidate technology recommendations was based upon specific assessment criteria as functions of prelaunch development activities and postlaunch operational considerations. The electrochemical depolarized cell option for carbon dioxide concentration, the sabatier option for carbon dioxide reduction, the static feed water electrolysis option for metabolic oxygen recovery, and vapor compression distillation and multifiltration options for waste water recovery were recommended.
1984-07-01
Technical Paper
840957
John B. Hall, Shelby J. Pickett, Karen H. Sage
A description is given of a computer program developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) for the assessment of manned space station environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) technology. The program methodology along with the data base and mission model variables are given for 17 candidate technologies that show potential for supplying metabolic oxygen and water on manned space missions. The data base includes metabolic design loads associated with crew activity, engineering design parameters for each technology option, and cost data required for candidate life cycle cost comparisons. The method for ranking the candidate options in order to provide recommendations for space station application or subsequent development is presented.
1987-07-01
Technical Paper
871443
Ann B. Carlson, William A. Roettker
The LIDAR In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) will employ LIDAR techniques to study the atmosphere from space. The LITE instrument will be flown in the Space Shuttle Payload Bay with an earth directed orientation. The experiment thermal control incorporates both active and passive techniques. The Laser Transmitter Module (LTM) and the System Electronics will be actively cooled through the shuttle pallet coolant loop. The Receiver System and Experiment Platform will be passively controlled through the use of insulation and component surface properties. This paper explains the thermal control techniques used and the analysis results, with primary focus on the Receiver System.
1987-11-13
Technical Paper
872400
Charlie M. Jackson, Charles E. K. Morris
Market growth and technological advances are expected to lead to a new generation of long-range transports that cruise at supersonic or even hypersonic speeds. Current NASA/industry studies will define the market windows in terms of time frame, Mach number, and technology requirements for these aircraft. Initial results indicate that, for the years 2000 to 2020, economically attractive vehicles could have a cruise speed up to Mach 6. The resulting research challenges are unique. They must be met with new technologies that will produce commercially successful and environmentally compatible vehicles where none have existed. Several important areas of research have been identified for the high-speed civil transports. Among these are sonic boom, takeoff noise, thermal management, lightweight structures with long life, unique propulsion concepts, unconventional fuels, and supersonic laminar flow.
1987-11-13
Technical Paper
872429
Charles P. Blankenship, Robert J. Hayduk
Large space structures will be a key element of our future space activities. They will include spacecraft such as the planned Space Station and large antenna/reflector structures for communications and observations. These large structures will exceed 100 m in length or 30 m in diameter. Concepts for construction of these spacecraft on orbit and their materials of construction provide some unique research challenges. This paper will provide an overview of our research in space construction of large structures including erectable and deployable concepts. Also, an approach to automated, on-orbit construction will be presented. Materials research for space applications focuses on high stiffness, low expansion composite materials that provide adequate durability in the space environment. The status of these materials research activities will be discussed.
1987-11-13
Technical Paper
872434
William D. Harvey
Although the number of possible applications of boundary-layer control is large, a discussion is given only of those that have received the most attention recently at NASA Langley Research Center to improve airfoil drag characteristics. This research concerns stabilizing the laminar boundary layer through geometric shaping (natural laminar flow, NLF) and active control involving the removal of a portion of the laminar boundary layer (laminar flow control, LFC) either through discrete slots or a perforated surface. At low Reynolds numbers, a combination of shaping and forced transition has been used to achieve the desired run of laminar flow and control of laminar separation. In the design of both natural laminar flow and laminar flow control airfoils and wings, boundary layer stability codes play an important role. A discussion of some recent stability calculations using both incompressible and compressible codes is given.
1987-09-01
Technical Paper
871016
Cynthia C. Croom, Gregory S. Manuel, John P. Stack
The ability of modern airplane surfaces to achieve laminar flow over a wide range of subsonic and transonic cruise flight conditions has been well-documented in recent years. Current laminar flow flight research conducted by NASA explores the limits of practical applications of laminar flow drag reduction technology. Past laminar flow flight research focused on measurements of transition location, without exploring the dominant instability(ies) responsible for initiating the transition process. Today, it is important to understand the specific causes(s) of laminar to turbulent boundary layer transition. This paper presents results of research on advanced devices for measuring the phenomenon of viscous Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) instability in the flight environment. In previous flight tests, T-S instability could only be inferred from theoretical calculations based on measured pressure distributions.
1988-10-01
Technical Paper
881484
S. H. Goradia, P. J. Bobbitt
The results of a design study of a Hybrid Laminar Flow Control (HLFC) wing at transonic speed and correlative studies for finite, swept supersonic wings are discussed in this paper. Transonic HLFC wing was designed such as to obtain laminar laminar flow on the the wing upper surface for X/C of 0.6 and with suction applied from the leading edge to 60% of the chord and with suction applied from just aft of the leading edge to twenty-five percent of the chord. New theoretical methods have been recently developed for predicting pressure distributions, supersonic wave drag and transition location for finite swept wings at transonic and supersonic Mach number conditions and are illustrative computations are given. Results for laminar and turbulent boundary-layer parameters consisting of the displacement effects and skin friction drag are also presented.
1989-04-01
Technical Paper
891039
G. S. Manuel, D. J. DiCarlo, H. P. Stough, P. W. Brown, R. A. Stuever
Abstract Airplane flight tests have been conducted to determine the effects of wing leading-edge modifications and a ventral fin addition on the spin resistance of a typical high-wing, single-engine, general aviation airplane. Drooped wing leading-edge modifications which improve lateral stability at high angles of attack were tested in combination with a ventral fin that improves directional stability. Each modification was evaluated using spin resistance criteria which have been proposed for incorporation into the Federal Aviation Regulations for certification of light aircraft. The best configuration tested, a combination of outboard wing leading-edge droop and a ventral fin, provided a very significant increase in overall airplane spin resistance, but was not sufficient to satisfy all requirements of the spin resistance criteria.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
892310
Pamela F. Richardson, Charles R. McClinton, Robert D. Bittner, A. Douglas Dilley, Kelvin W. Edwards, W. Marc Eppard, Joseph H. Morrison, David R. Riggins, George F. Switzer, Edward B. Parlette
The design and analysis of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) depends heavily on developing critical technology areas through the Technology Maturation Program (TMP). The TMP is being completed almost entirely in government laboratories with technology dissemination to all prime NASP contractors immediately upon completion of any portion of the technology development. These critical technology areas span the entire engineering design of the vehicle; included are structures, materials, propulsion systems, propellants, propulsion/airframe integration, controls, subsystems, and aerodynamics areas. There is currently a heavy dependence on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for verification of many of the classical engineering tools. Quite often the design of an aircraft uses wind tunnel tests for much of this verification, but for NASP, this task is almost impossible from a practical standpoint.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
892312
Gregory M. Gatlin
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 14- By 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to determine the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a powered generic NASP-like configuration in ground effect. The model was a simplified configuration consisting of a triangular wedge forebody, a rectangular mid-section which housed the propulsion simulation system, and a rectangular wedge aftbody. Additional model components included a delta wing, exhaust flow deflectors, and aftbody fences. Six-component force and moment data were obtained over an angle of attack range from −4° to 18° while model height above the tunnel floor was varied from 1/4 inch to 6 feet. Variations in freestream dynamic pressure, from 10 psf to 80 psf, and engine ejector pressure yielded a range of thrust coefficients from 0 to 0.8. Flow visualization was obtained by injecting water into the engine simulator inlets and using a laser light sheet to illuminate the resulting exhaust flow.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
892313
David E. Hahne, James M. Luckring, Peter F. Covell, W. Pelham Phillips, Gregory M. Gatlin, John D. Shaughnessy, Luat T. Nguyen
Wind tunnel investigations were conducted as part of an effort to develop a stability and control database for an aerospace plane concept across a broad range of Mach numbers. The generic conical design used in these studies represents one of a number of concepts being studied for this class of vehicle. The baseline configuration incorporated a 5° cone forebody, a 75.96° delta wing, a 16°leading-edge sweep deployable canard and a centerline vertical tail. Tests were conducted in the following NASA-Langley facilities spanning a Mach range of 0.1 to 6:30- by 60-Foot Tunnel,14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel, National Transonic Facility, Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, and the 20 Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Data were collected for a number of model geometry variations and test conditions in each facility. This paper highlights some of the key results of these investigations pertinent to stability considerations about all three axes.
1989-07-01
Technical Paper
891564
Brian D. Killough
A method for thermally analyzing convectively cooled flight experiments is presented in this paper. A three-dimensional fluid flow analysis code was used to optimize air circulation patterns and predict air velocities in thermally critical areas. A comparison between a fan flow analysis using this code and the performance characteristics of a typical isothermal free jet was made. The velocity profiles and radial distribution agree well for downstream mixing of the flow. Predicted air velocities from the fluid analysis were used to calculate forced convection coefficients for the flight experiment. These convection coefficients were used in a finite difference thermal analysis code to describe the response of air temperature and heat loss for the LIDAR Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) during transient flight profiles. The performance of the existing thermal design is described and the analytical techniques used to arrive at this design are presented.
1983-10-03
Technical Paper
831423
Roger H. Hoh, Hugh Bergeron, David Hinton
This paper represents a first step in developing the criteria for pilot interaction with advanced controls and displays in a single pilot IFR (SPIFR) environment. The research program presented herein is comprised of an analytical phase and an experimental phase. The analytical phase consisted of a review of fundamental considerations for pilot workload taking into account existing data, and using that data to develop a SPIFR pilot workload model. The rationale behind developing such a model was based on the concept that it is necessary to identify and quantify the most important components of pilot workload to guide the experimental phase of the research which consisted of an abbreviated flight test program. The purpose of the flight tests was to evaluate the workload associated with certain combinations of controls and displays in a flight environment. This was accomplished as a first step in building a data base for single pilot IFR controls and displays.
1985-04-01
Technical Paper
850870
Dana Morris Dunham, William L. Sellers, Joe W. Elliott
A two-component LV system was used to make detailed measurements of the flowfield around both a single-rotation and a counter-rotation propeller/nacelle. The conditions measured for the single-rotation tractor configuration include two different blade angles and two propeller advance ratios, and for the counter-rotation propeller configuration include both pusher and tractor mounts. The measurements show the increasing slipstream velocities and contraction with increasing blade angle and with decreasing advance ratio. Data for the counter-rotation system show that the aft propeller turns the flow in the opposite direction from the front propeller. Additionally, the LV system was used as a diagnostic tool to provide data to explain the large side force measured on the propeller/nacelle at angle-of-attack.
1985-10-01
Technical Paper
851816
H. Paul Stough, Frank L. Jordan, Daniel J. DiCarlo, Kenneth E. Glover
Discontinuous wing leading-edge droop designs have been evaluated as a means of modifying wing autorotative characteristics and thus improving airplane spin resistance. Addition of a discontinuous outboard wing leading-edge droop to three typical light airplanes having NACA 6-series wing sections produced significant improvements in stall characteristics and spin resistance. Wind tunnel tests of two wings having advanced natural laminar flow airfoil sections indicated that a discontinuous leading-edge droop can delay the onset of autorotation at high angles of attack without adversely affecting the development of laminar flow at cruise angles of attack.
1991-09-01
Technical Paper
912157
Pamela A. Davis, Veloria J. Martinson, Thomas J. Yager, Sandy M. Stubbs
Preliminary results from testing of 26 X 6.6 radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) are reviewed. These tire tests are part of a larger, on going joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction and Radial Tire (START) Program involving three different tire sizes. The 26 X 6.6 tire size evaluation includes cornering performance tests throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Static test results to define 26 X 6.6 tire vertical stiffness properties are also presented and discussed.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
902019
Brian D. Killough, William Alexander, Doyle P. Swofford
This paper describes the analysis and performance testing of a uniquely designed external heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is attached externally to an aircraft and is used to cool a laser system within the fuselage. Estimates showed insufficient cooling capacity with a conventional staggered tube array in the limited space available. Thus, a non-conventional design was developed with larger tube and fin area exposed to the ram air to increase the heat transfer performance. The basic design consists of 28 circular finned aluminum tubes arranged in two parallel banks. Wind tunnel tests were performed to simulate air and liquid flight conditions for the non-conventional parallel bank arrangement and the conventional staggered tube arrangement. Performance comparisons of each of the two designs are presented. Test results are used in a computer model of the heat exchanger to predict the operating performance for the entire flight profile.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901913
Thomas J. Yager, Sandy M. Stubbs, Pamela A. Davis
An overview is given of the ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction And Radial Tire (START) Program being conducted at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF). The START Program involves tests using three different tire sizes to evaluate tire rolling resistance, braking, and cornering performance throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Preliminary results from recent 40 x 14 size bias-ply, radial-belted, and H-type aircraft tire tests are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of the current program status and planned ALDF test schedule.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
892347
Pamela A. Davis, Sandy M. Stubbs, William A. Vogler
Tests of the Space Shuttle Orbiter nose-gear tire have been completed at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility. The purpose of these tests was to determine the cornering and wear characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter nose-gear tire under realistic operating conditions. The tire was tested on a simulated Kennedy Space Center runway surface at speeds from 100 to 180 kts. The results of these tests defined the cornering characteristics which included side forces and associated side force friction coefficient over a range of yaw angles from 0° to 12°. Wear characteristics were defined by tire tread and cord wear over a yaw angle range of 0° to 4° under dry and wet runway conditions. Wear characteristics were also defined for a 15 kt crosswind landing with two blown right main-gear tires and nose-gear steering engaged.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
892379
I. E. Beckwith, F.-J, Chen, M. R. Malik
Supersonic wind tunnels with much lower stream disturbance levels than in conventional tunnels are required to advance transition research. The ultimate objectives of this research are to provide reliable predictions of transition from laminar to turbulent flow on supersonic flight vehicles and to develop techniques for the control and reduction of viscous drag and heat transfer. The experimental and theoretical methods used at NASA Langley to develop a low-disturbance pilot tunnel are described. Typical transition data obtained in this tunnel are compared with flight and previous wind-tunnel data and with predictions from linear stability theory,
1988-10-01
Technical Paper
881422
J. Chu, R. M. Hall, S. O. Kjelgaard
An experiment was conducted to measure the surface pressures and sectional side forces on a 5° cone with three nose tips. The nose tips included a sharp, an 8.7% blunt, and a 17.5% blunt nose tip. Rings of pressure orifices were located at 40% and 80% of the model length and the model was rolled from ±180° in 9° increments to determine roll dependence. The sectional side force data for the sharp cone showed a strong dependence on the roll orientation of the model. The blunt nose cone configurations also showed a dependence on roll orientation. The blunt nose configurations were effective in reducing the sectional side force for angles of attack up to 25°. However, at angles of attack greater than 35°, the reduction was no longer significant. Pressure distributions for three angles of attack are presented to highlight details of the flow when: vortex asymmetries are just beginning; the vortices are in a steady asymmetric state; a vortex has shed between the 40% and 80% stations.
1988-10-01
Technical Paper
881403
Thomas J. Yager
Tests with specially instrumented NASA B-737 and B-727 aircraft together with several different ground friction measuring devices have been conducted for a variety of runway surface types and wetness conditions. This effort is part of the Joint FAA/NASA Aircraft/Ground Vehicle Runway Friction Program aimed at obtaining a better understanding of aircraft ground handling performance under adverse weather conditions and defining relationships between aircraft and ground vehicle tire friction measurements. Aircraft braking performance on dry, wet, snow-, and ice-covered runway conditions is discussed together with ground vehicle friction data obtained under similar runway conditions. For a given contaminated runway surface condition, the relationship between ground vehicles and aircraft friction data is identified. The influence of major test parameters on friction measurements such as speed, test tire characteristics, and surface contaminant type are discussed.
1988-10-01
Technical Paper
881419
Daniel W. Banks
Abstract Results of a recent low-speed wind-tunnel investigation conducted to define the forebody flow on a 16% scale model of the NASA High Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle (HARV), an F-18 configuration, are presented with analysis. Measurements include force and moment data, oil-flow visualizations, and surface pressure data taken at angles of attack near and above maximum lift (36° to 52°) at a Reynolds number of one million based on mean aerodynamic chord. The results presented identify the key flow-field features on the forebody including the wing-body strake.
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