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Viewing 1 to 25 of 25
1994-04-01
Technical Paper
941195
Scott D. Sudhoff, Paul C. Krause, Oleg Wasynczuk, Barbara H. Kenny, Irving H. Hansen
The steady-state and dynamic performance of a candidate aircraft power distribution system is considered. The system features distribution of both single phase 20-kHz and three-phase 400-Hz power. It is shown that unlike some other recent 20-kHz systems, the power quality of the 20-kHz bus is not a concern due to the use of a synchronous bi-directional rectifier (SBR) as the primary interface to the 20-kHz bus. In addition to showing that the system behaves adequately in the steady-state, the dynamic performance of the system is considered during step changes in load, bolted faults, and sudden variations in jet engine speed.
1993-04-01
Technical Paper
931425
S. D. Sudhoff, O. Wasynczuk, P. C. Krause, B. H. Kenny
The performance of two 20-kHz actuator power systems being built for an advanced launch system are evaluated for a typical launch scenario using an end-to-end system simulation. Aspects of system performance ranging from the switching of the power electronic devices to the vehicle aerodynamics are represented in the simulation. It is shown that both systems adequately stabilize the vehicle against a wind gust during a launch. However, it is also shown that in both cases there are bus voltage and current fluctuations which make system power quality a concern.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929222
Anastacio N. Baez, Michael Mackin, Theodore Wright
The NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio has completed the development and integration of a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) DC Testbed. This testbed is a reduced scale representation of the end to end, sources to loads, Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF EPS). This unique facility is being used to demonstrate DC power generation and distribution, power management and control, and system operation techniques considered to be prime candidates for the Space Station Freedom. A key capability of the testbed is its ability to be configured to address system level issues in support of critical SSF program design milestones. Electrical power system control and operation issues like source control, source regulation, system fault protection, end-to-end system stability, health monitoring, resource allocation and resource management are being evaluated in the testbed.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929221
Larry Trase, Don Fong, Vicki Adkins, Arthur Birchenough
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is responsible for the development, fabrication, and assembly of the electric power system (EPS) for the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Systems Testbed was assembled to support the design and early evaluation of SSF EPS operating concepts. The PMAD Systems Testbed represents a portion of the SSF EPS, containing intelligent switchgear, power conditioning devices, and the EPS Controllers. The PMAD Systems Testbed facility is discussed, including the power sources and loads available. A description of the PMAD Data System (PDS) is presented. The PDS controls the testbed facility hardware, monitors and records the EPS control data bus and external data. The external data includes testbed voltages and currents along with facility temperatures, pressures, and flow rates. Transient data is collected utilizing digital oscilloscopes.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929217
James F. Soeder, Robert J. Frye
Since the beginning of the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has been actively involved in the development of electrical power system test beds to support of the overall design effort. Throughout this time, the SSFP Program has changed the design baseline numerous times, however, the test bed effort has endeavored to track these changes. Beginning in August 1989 with the baselining of an all DC System, a test bed was developed which supported this design baseline. However, about the time of the Test Bed's Completion in December 1990, the SSFP was again going through another design scrub known as Restructure. This paper describes the LeRC PMAD DC Test Bed and highlights the changes that have taken place in the Test Bed configuration and design resulting from the SSFP Restructure Exercise in December 1990.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929085
D. J. Bents, D. A. Knight
A redundancy strategy for reducing micrometeroid armoring mass is investigated, with application to cryogenic reactant storage for a regenerative fuel cell (RFC) on the lunar surface. In that micrometeoroid environment, the cryogenic fuel must be protected from loss due to tank puncture. The tankage must have a sufficiently high probability of survival over the length of the mission that the probability of system failure due to tank puncture is low compared to the other mission risk factors. Assuming that a single meteoroid penetration can cause a storage tank to lose its contents, two means are available to raise the probability of surviving micrometeoroid attack to the desired level. One can armor the tanks to a thickness sufficient to reduce probability of penetration of any tank to the desired level; or add extra capacity, in the form of spare tanks, that results in survival of a given number out of the ensemble at the desired level.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929312
J. Winter, J. Dudenhoefer, A. Juhasz, G. Schwarze, R. Patterson, D. Ferguson, P. Schmitz, J. Vandersande
The SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop technology for military and civil applications. Starting in 1986, NASA has funded a technology program to maintain the momentum of promising aerospace technology advancement started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for a wide range of future space applications. The elements of the CSTI High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. Technology advancement in all elements is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929396
Wayne A. Wong, James E. Cairelli, Diane M. Swec, Thomas J. Doeberling, Thomas F. Lakatos, Frank J. Madi
Free-piston Stirling power converters are a candidate for high capacity space power applications. The Space Power Research Engine (SPRE), a free-piston Stirling engine coupled with a linear alternator is being tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of the Civil Space Technology Initiative. The SPRE is used as a test bed for evaluating converter modifications which have the potential to improve converter performance and for validating computer code predictions. Reducing the number of cooler tubes on the SPRE has been identified as a modification with the potential to significantly improve power and efficiency. This paper describes experimental tests designed to investigate the effects of reducing the number of cooler tubes on converter power, efficiency and dynamics. Presented are test results from the converter operating with a reduced number of cooler tubes and comparisons between this data and both baseline test data and computer code predictions.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929483
D. J. Bents, B. I. McKissock, C. D. Rodriguez, J. C. Hanlon, P. C. Schmitz
To support the Space Exploration Initiative, studies were performed to investigate and characterize Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) alternatives for the surface mission elements associated with a lunar base and subsequent manned Mars expedition. A key part of this characterization was to determine how the mission environment affects system design. The impact of shielding to provide astronaut protection from power system radiation was also examined. Impacts of mission environment and shielding were examined for two representative DIPS types (closed Brayton cycle and Stirling cycle converters). Mission environmental factors included: (1) thermal background; (2) dust and atmospheric corrosion; (3) meteoroid damage; and (4) presence of an atmosphere on Mars. Physical effects of these factors on thermal power systems were identified and their parametric range associated with the mission and mission environment were determined.
1985-12-01
Technical Paper
851839
V.C. Stevens, S.B. Wilson, C.A. Zola
The short takeoff and landing capabilities that characterize the performance of powered-lift aircraft are dependent on engine thrust and are, therefore, severely affected by loss of an engine. This paper shows that the effects of engine loss on the short takeoff and landing performance of powered-lift aircraft can be effectively mitigated by cross-shafting the engine fans in a twin-engine configuration. Engine-out takeoff and landing performances are compared for three powered-lift aircraft configurations: one with four engines, one with two engines, and one with two engines in which the fans are cross-shafted. The results show that the engine-out takeoff and landing performance of the cross-shafted two-engine configuration is significantly better than that of the two-engine configuration without cross-shafting.
1980-09-01
Technical Paper
801196
N. E. Samanich, D. C. Reemsnyder, H. E. Bloomer
Results of steady-state reverse and forward-to-reverse thrust transient performance tests are presented. The original QCSEE 4-segment variable fan nozzle was retested in reverse and compared with a continuous, 30° half-angle conical exlet. Data indicated that the significantly more stable, higher pressure recovery flow with the fixed 30° exlet resulted in lower engine vibrations, lower fan blade stress and approximately a 20% improvement in reverse thrust. Objective reverse thrust of 35% of takeoff thrust was reached. Thrust response of less than 1.5 sec was achieved for the approach and the takeoff-to-reverse thrust transients.
1980-09-01
Technical Paper
801116
Robert J. Antl, John E. McAulay
NASA is currently involved in the Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program (ACEE) which is directed toward developing technology for more fuel efficient aircraft. As part of this overall program, the Engine Component Improvement (ECI) Project was formulated to address near-term improvements for current engines. One part of this effort is Engine Diagnostics which is directed at investigating the causes for in-service performance deterioration of the CF6 and JT9D high bypass ratio turbofan engines. The other part is Performance Improvement, which is directed at development of component technologies to reduce the fuel consumption of CF6, JT9D and JT8D engines. This paper discusses the Performance Improvement part. Nine of sixteen concepts being developed under the ECI project are now complete and four are in service. The remaining five are being offered to the airlines.
1984-08-01
Technical Paper
841018
Phillip R. Meng, William F. Hady, Richard F. Barrows
This paper presents a brief overview and technical highlights of the research efforts and studies on rotary engines over the last several years at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The review covers the test results obtained from turbocharged rotary engines and preliminary results from a high performance single-rotor engine. Combustion modeling studies of the rotary engine and the use of a Laser Doppler Velocimeter to confirm the studies are discussed. An in-house program in which a turbocharged rotary engine was installed in a Cessna Skymaster for ground test studies is also covered. Details are presented on single-rotor stratified-charge rotary engine research efforts, both in-house and on contract.
1999-04-06
Technical Paper
1999-01-1372
Anthony J. Colozza, David A. Scheiman, David J. Brinker
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration aircraft. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such an aircraft, solar array generated electric power can be a viable alternative to air-breathing engines for certain missions. Development of such an aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has built a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office.
1998-04-21
Technical Paper
981261
David J. Bents, Ted Mockler, Jaime Maldonado, James L. Harp, Joseph F. King, Paul C. Schmitz
This paper explains why a spark ignited gasoline engine, intake pressurized with three cascaded stages of turbocharging, was selected to power NASA's contemplated next generation of high altitude atmospheric science aircraft. Beginning with the most urgent science needs (the atmospheric sampling mission) and tracing through the mission requirements which dictate the unique flight regime in which this aircraft has to operate (subsonic flight @ >80 kft) we briefly explore the physical problems and constraints, the available technology options and the cost drivers associated with developing a viable propulsion system for this highly specialized aircraft. The paper presents the two available options (the turbojet and the turbocharged spark ignited engine) which are discussed and compared in the context of the flight regime.
1998-04-21
Technical Paper
981260
Anthony J. Colozza, David A. Scheiman, David J. Brinker
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration aircraft. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such an aircraft, solar array generated electric power can be a viable alternative to air-breathing engines for certain missions. Development, of such an aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has built a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office.
1994-06-01
Technical Paper
941328
Karl Baker, James E. Calogeras, Scott W. Richter
An experiment was designed, fabricated and tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center to investigate the concept of using the surface layer of the moon to store thermal energy. The concept includes using the energy stored within the surface as a thermal input to drive a solar dynamic power system. The solar dynamic power system would operate using the suns thermal input during the lunar day and would continue to operate during the lunar night using the thermal energy stored within the cavity. The experiment modeled in a lunar thermal energy storage concept by applying a heat flux to the surface of simulated lunar soil equivalent to what a primary and secondary solar concentrator could produce with a concentration ratio of 2000:1. The experiment was designed to determine if the surface layer of the lunar soil could be melted using the equivalent heat flux from a radiative heating element mounted above the simulated lunar soil.
1994-06-01
Technical Paper
941327
Albert J. Juhasz, Harvey S. Bloomfield
This report discusses application of a new lightweight carbon-carbon (C-C) space radiator technology developed under the NASA Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power Program to a 20 kWe lunar based power system. This system comprises a nuclear (SP-100 derivative) heat source, a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) power conversion unit with heat rejection by means of a plane radiator. The new radiator concept is based on a C-C composite heat pipe with integrally woven fins and a thin walled metallic liner for containment of the working fluid. Using measured areal specific mass values (1.5 kg/m2) for flat plate radiators, comparative CBC power system mass and performance calculations show significant advantages if conventional heat pipes for space radiators are replaced by the new C-C heat pipe technology.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760918
Albert Kaufman, Raymond E. Gaugler
The creep-fatigue behavior of a fully impingement-cooled blade for four cyclic cases was analyzed by using the Elas 55, finite-element, nonlinear structural computer program. Expected cyclic lives were calculated by using the method of Strainrange Partitioning for reversed inelastic strains and time fractions for ratcheted tensile creep strains. Strainrange Partitioning was also applied to previous results from a one-dimensional cyclic analysis of a film-impingement-cooled vane. The analyses indicated that Strainrange Partitioning is more applicable to a constrained airfoil such as the film-impingement-cooled vane than to the relatively unconstrained fully impingement-cooled airfoil. STAR category 39
1987-10-01
Technical Paper
871784
Royce Moore, Donald Boldman, Rickey Shyne, Thomas Gelder
Two types of turning vane airfoils (a controlled-diffusion shape and a circular-arc shape) have been evaluated in the high-speed and fan-drive corners of a 0.1-scale model of NASA Lewis Research Center's proposed Altitude Wind Tunnel. The high-speed corner was evaluated with and without a simulated engine exhaust removal scoop. The fan-drive corner was evaluated with and without the high-speed corner. Flow surveys of pressure and flow angle were taken for both the corners and the vanes to determine their respective losses. The two-dimensional vane losses were low; however, the overall corner losses were higher because three-dimensional flow was generated by the complex geometry resulting from intersection of the turning vanes with the end wall. The three-dimensional effects were especially pronounced in the outer region of the circular corner.
1992-04-01
Technical Paper
921028
Robert C. Hendricks, Anita D. Liang, Dara W. Childs, Margaret P. Proctor
Current activities in seals for space propulsion turbomachinery that the NASA Lewis Research Center sponsors are surveyed. The overall objective is to provide the designer and the researcher with the concepts and the data to control seal dynamics and leakage. Included in the program are low-leakage seals, such as the brush seal, the “ceramic rope” seal, low-leakage seals for liquid oxygen turbopumps, face seals for two-phase flow, and swirl brakes for stability. Two major efforts are summarized: a study of seal dynamics in rotating machinery and an effort in seals code development.
1994-04-01
Technical Paper
941201
C. A. Blue, R. A. Blue, R. Y. Lin, Jih-Fen Lei, W. D. Williams
Joining of a PdCr Strain Gage with a Hastelloy X carrier shim to Inconel by a rapid infrared processing technique has been investigated at 1150 °C using a nickel based brazing alloy AMS 4777, Ni-7Cr-3Fe-3.2B-4.5Si-.06C in wt%. The effects of the infrared joining parameters on the joint and base material microstructure, joint shear strength, and delamination tendency of the PdCr gage was investigated. Results show that the joint shear strength is as high as 503 MPa when processed at approximately 1150 °C for 120 seconds. Microstructural examinations of the joint with both an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope indicate that good wetting exists between the brazing alloy with both the Hastelloy X and Inconel 718. And, the Hastelloy X and Inconel 718 exhibits no noticeable change in microstructure due to the rapid processing cycle of the infrared heating process while the stabilized PdCr wire gage shows little change in resistance.
1994-04-01
Technical Paper
941151
Daniel W. Manchala, Alan B. Palazzolo, Albert F. Kascak, Gerald T. Montague, Gerald V. Brown, Charles Lawrence, Steve Klusman
Jet Engines may experience severe vibration due to the sudden imbalance caused by blade failure. This research investigates employment of on board magnetic bearings or piezolectric actuators to cancel these forces in flight. This operation requires identification of the source of the vibrations via an expert system, determination of the required phase angles and amplitudes for the correction forces, and application of the desired control signals to the magnetic bearings or piezo electric actuators. This paper will show the architecture of the software system, details of the control algorithm used for the sudden imbalance correction project described above, and the laboratory test results.
1993-04-01
Technical Paper
931372
Thomas P. Herbell, Andrew J. Eckel, Jerry W. Brockmeyer, Michael R. Mitchell
Use of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites (FRCMC) for turbopump hot section components offers a number of benefits. The performance benefits of increased turbine inlet temperature are apparent and readily quantifiable. Perhaps less obvious are the potential benefits of increased component life. At nominal turbopump operating conditions, FRCMC offer increased operating temperature margin relative to conventional materials. This results in potential for significant life enhancement. Other attributes (e.g., thermal shock resistance and high cycle fatigue endurance) of FRCMC provide even greater potential to improve life and reduce maintenance requirements. Silicon carbide (Sic) matrix composites with carbon fibers (C/SiC) do not degrade when exposed to hydrogenrich steam for 10 hours at 1200°C. This FRCMC is resistant to thermal shock transients far in excess of those anticipated for advanced, high temperature turbomachinery.
1981-04-01
Technical Paper
810624
Edward A. Willis, William C. Strack
This paper presents a brief overview and technical highlights of general aviation (g/a) propulsion research efforts and studies which have been underway at NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC) for the past several years. The review covers near-term improvements for current-type piston engines, as well as studies and limited corroborative research on several advanced g/a engine concepts, including diesels, small turboprops and both piston and rotary stratified-charge engines. Also described is basic combustion research, cycle modeling and diagnostic instrumentation work that will be required to make the new engines a reality. The discussion emphasizes the most recently-completed studies and the basic underlying research work, which have not been reported previously.
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