Criteria

Text:
Sector:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 57
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2837
Layne Carter, David Tabb, James D. Tatara, Richard K. Mason
The Water Processor Assembly (WPA) for use on the International Space Station (ISS) includes various technologies for the treatment of waste water. These technologies include filtration, ion exchange, adsorption, catalytic oxidation, and iodination. The WPA hardware implementing portions of these technologies, including the Particulate Filter, Multifiltration Bed, Ion Exchange Bed, and Microbial Check Valve, was recently qualified for chemical performance at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Waste water representing the quality of that produced on the ISS was generated by test subjects and processed by the WPA. Water quality analysis and instrumentation data was acquired throughout the test to monitor hardware performance. This paper documents operation of the test and the assessment of the hardware performance.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2877
M.S. Hull, R.L. Van Tassell, C.D. Pennington, M. Roman
Researchers at Luna Innovations Inc. and the National Aeronautic and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA MSFC) are developing an integrated fiber-optic sensor system for real-time monitoring of chemical contaminants and whole-cell bacterial pathogens in water. The system integrates interferometric and evanescent-wave optical fiber-based sensing methodologies to provide versatile measurement capability for both micro- and nano-scale analytes. Sensors can be multiplexed in an array format and embedded in a totally self-contained laboratory card for use with an automated microfluidics platform.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3041
John F. Lewis, Molly S. Anderson, Michael K. Ewert, Ryan A. Stephan, Robyn L. Carrasquillo
In preparation for the contract award of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) produced two design reference missions for the vehicle. The design references used teams of engineers across the agency to come up with two configurations. This process helped NASA understand the conflicts and limitations in the CEV design, and investigate options to solve them.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3036
Kristin Tomes, David Long, Layne Carter, Michael Flynn
The Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) technology has been previously discussed as a viable option for the Exploration Water Recovery System. This technology integrates a phase change process with catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase to produce potable water from exploration mission wastewaters. A developmental prototype VPCAR was designed, built and tested under funding provided by a National Research Announcement (NRA) project. The core technology, a Wiped Film Rotating Device (WFRD) was provided by Water Reuse Technologies under the NRA, whereas Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International performed the hardware integration and acceptance test of the system. Personnel at the Ames Research Center performed initial systems test of the VPCAR using ersatz solutions. To assess the viability of this hardware for Exploration Life Support (ELS) applications, the hardware has been modified and tested at the MSFC ECLS Test Facility.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929096
Norma R. Dugal-Whitehead, Yvette B. Johnson
Abstract NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center has implemented fault injection into an electrical power system breadboard to study the reactions of the various control elements of this breadboard. Among the elements studied are the Remote Power Controllers (RPC), the algorithms in the control computers and the artificially intelligent control programs resident in this breadboard. To this end, a study of electrical power system faults was performed to yield a list of the most common power system faults. The results of this study were applied to a multichannel high voltage dc spacecraft power system called the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System Breadboard (LASEPS). The results of the study into the most common electrical power system faults was presented in two papers at this conference during the last two years;* the remainder of the results of this study are to be presented in this paper.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929330
Norma R. Dugal-Whitehead, Yvette B. Johnson
Abstract NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center is creating a large high voltage electrical power system testbed called LASEPS. This testbed is being developed to simulate an end-to-end power system from power generation and source to loads. When the system is completed it will have several power configurations, which will include several battery configurations. These configurations are: two 120 V batteries, one or two 150 V batteries, and one 250 to 270 V battery. This breadboard encompasses varying levels of autonomy from remote power converters to conventional software control to expert system control of the power system elements. In this paper, the construction and provisions of this breadboard will be discussed.
1992-07-01
Technical Paper
921117
Donald W. Holder, Robert M. Bagdigian
A series of tests has been conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to evaluate the performance of a Space Station Freedom (SSF) pre-development water recovery system. Potable, hygiene, and urine reclamation subsystems were integrated with end-use equipment items and successfully operated for a total of 35 days, including 23 days in closed-loop mode with man-in-the-loop. Although several significant subsystem physical anomalies were encountered, reclaimed potable and hygiene water routinely met current SSF water quality specifications. This paper summarizes the test objectives, system design, test activities/protocols, significant results/anomalies, and major lessons learned.
1992-07-01
Technical Paper
921278
S. Bancroft, R. Key, S. Kittredge
Spacelab mission thermal integration is one of many activities performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The Spacelab carrier system has been expanded from the original module/pallet system. Thermodynamics and heat transfer as well as fluid mechanics and fluid dynamics are the support areas discussed here. This support incorporates preflight mission analysis in conjunction with real time mission support and postflight mission analysis. This paper summarizes these activities for the Spacelab carrier complement, citing some of the more challenging thermal control designs for which the Center is and has been responsible. Technology advancements, coupled with the ever increasing needs of the payload community and the desire for flexibility to manifest several distinct payload elements on a single mission, has aided in the evolution of a more diverse Spacelab carrier complement.
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951586
Donald W. Holder, D. Layne Carter, Cindy F. Hutchens
A test has been completed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to evaluate the latest Water Recovery and Management (WRM) system and Waste Management (WM) urinal design for the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) with higher fidelity hardware and integration than has been achieved in previous integrated tests. Potable and urine reclamation processors were integrated with waste water generation equipment and successfully operated for a total of 116 days to evaluate the impacts of changes made as a result of the redesign from Space Station Freedom (SSF) to the ISS. This testing marked the first occasion in which the WRM was automated at the system level, allowing for evaluation of the hardware performance under ISS operating conditions. It was also the first time a “flight-like” Process Control Water Quality Monitor (PCWQM) and a WM urinal were tested in an integrated system.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929243
Douglas Alexander, Ted Edge, Douglas Willowby, Lothar Gerlach
The Hubble space telescope (HST) solar array consists of two identical double roll-out wings designed after the Hughes flexible roll-up solar array (FRUSA) and was developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to meet specified HST power output requirements at the end of 2 years, with a functional lifetime of 5 years. The requirement that the HST solar array remain functional both mechanically and electrically during its 5-year lifetime meant that the array must withstand 30,000 low-Earth orbit (LEO) thermal cycles between approximately +100 and -100 °C. In order to evaluate the ability of the array to meet this requirement, an accelerated thermal cycle test in vacuum was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), using two 128-cell solar array modules which duplicated the flight HST solar array. Several other tests were performed on the modules.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961513
R. M. Bagdigian, D. W. Holder, C. F. Hutchens, K. U. Jones, K. Y. Ogle, D. Parker, F. Schubert
Flight experiments are being developed to assess the microgravity performance of U.S.-developed physical/chemical life support technologies baselined for operation on the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments will take advantage of flight opportunities available on the Space Shuttle prior to the production of ISS flight systems. Early microgravity demonstrations of these technologies will allow the ISS life support system to be developed from flight-proven processes, thereby reducing programmatic risks and enhancing overall life support efficiencies. This paper will provide an overview of the life support flight experiment program.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961519
J. L. Perry, R. L. Carrasquillo, G. D. Franks, K. R. Frederick, J. C. Knox, D. A. Long, K. Y. Ogle, K. J. Parrish
Testing of the International Space Station (ISS) U.S. Laboratory baseline configuration of the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been conducted as part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design and development program. This testing addressed specific questions with respect to the control and performance of the baseline ARS subassemblies in the ISS U.S. Laboratory configuration. The test used pressurized oxygen injection, a mass spectrometric major constituent analyzer (MCA), a four-bed molecular sieve carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA), and a trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS) to maintain the atmospheric composition in a sealed chamber within ISS specifications. Human metabolic processes for a crew of four are simulated according to projected ISS mission timelines. The Integrated ARS Test (IART) builds upon previous integrated ECLSS testing conducted at MSFC between 1987 and 1992.
1994-06-01
Technical Paper
941251
Cindy F. Hutchens
The Russian space program has maintained crews on long duration space flights nearly continuously over the past two decades. As a result, a strong emphasis has been placed on the development of regenerative life support systems. One of these systems is a urine processor which has been operating on-orbit since 1990. The U. S has also been developing urine processing systems to reclaim water from urine over the past twenty years. This paper will describe the two different technologies used for urine processing for long-term human presence in space and will compare the operating characteristics of the two systems.
1994-06-01
Technical Paper
941506
Catherine C. Johnson, Richard J. Twarowski, William E. Hinds, Paul D. Savage, Marianne K. Steele, Donald Layne Carter, Monserrate C. Roman
Life Sciences research on Space Station will utilize rats to study the effects of the microgravity environment on mammalian physiology and to develop countermeasures to those effects for the health and safety of the crew. The animals will produce metabolic water which must be reclaimed to minimize logistics support. The condensate from the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) flown on Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) in October 1993 was used as an analog to determine the type and quantity of constituents which the Space Station (SS) water reclamation system will have to process. The most significant organics present in the condensate were 2-propanol, glycerol, ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, acetic acid, acetone, total proteins, urea and caprolactam while the most significant inorganic was ammonia. Microbial isolates included Xanthomonas, Sphingobacterium, Pseudomonas, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Chrysosporium.
1993-07-01
Technical Paper
932048
Donald Layne Carter, Robert M. Bagdigian
A series of tests has been conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to evaluate the performance of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) water recovery system. Potable and urine reclamation processors were integrated with waste water generation equipment and successfully operated for a total of 144 days. This testing marked the first occasion in which the waste feed sources for previous potable and hygiene loops were combined into a single loop and processed to potable water quality. Reclaimed potable water from the combined waste waters routinely met the SSF water quality specifications. In the last stage of this testing, data was obtained that indicated that the Water Processor (WP) presterilizer may not be required to meet the potable water quality specification.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2249
Charles D. Ray, Jay L. Perry, David M. Callahan
As the International Space Station's (ISS's) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) and the internal thermal control system (ITCS). Without either, life on board the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The ECLSS/ITCS sustaining engineering test bed will be used to assist the ISS program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2252
D.W. Hand, J. Yang, D.R. Hokanson, E.J. Oman, J.C. Crittenden, D. Audeves, D.L. Carter, C.E. Martin
A three phase catalytic mathematical model was developed for analysis and optimization of the volatile reactor assembly (VRA) used on International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood Hougen-Watson (L-H) expression was used to describe the surface reaction rate. Small column experiments were used to determine the L-H rate parameters. The test components used in the experiments were acetic acid, acetone, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol and propionic acid. These compounds are the most prevalent ones found in the influent to the VRA reactor. The VRA model was able to predict performance of small column data and experimental data from the VRA flight experiment.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2538
Jack W. Stokes
An austere fiscal environment in the aerospace community creates pressure to reduce program costs, often minimizing or even deleting human interface requirements from the design process. With the assumption that the flight crew can recover, in real time, from a poorly human factored space vehicle design, the classical crew interface requirements have either been not included in the design or not properly funded, even though they are carried as requirements. Cost cuts have also affected the quality of retained human factors engineering personnel. Planning is ongoing to correct these issues. Herein are techniques for ensuring that human interface requirements are integrated with flight design from proposal through verification and launch activation.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2490
Robyn L. Carrasquillo, Kathryn Y. Ogle, Danny Harris, Dario Bertotto
The International Space Station (ISS) modules Nodes 2 and 3 are progressing through the design phase into integration, test, and verification. This paper gives a status of the Nodes 2 and 3 Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design progress since 1999 (ICES paper 1999-01-2146). The Node 2 Design Review 2 was completed in March 2001. Node 2 is currently in the hardware integration/test phase at Alenia Spazio. The ECLSS for Node 2 includes inter- and intramodule ventilation, temperature and humidity control, distribution of atmosphere samples, low pressure and recharge oxygen and nitrogen, fuel cell and wastewater, and fire detection and suppression. Changes/challenges since 1999 have included the addition of a low temperature loop coolant bypass around the Common Cabin Air Assembly condensing heat exchanger and resolution of common hardware and verification issues. The current status of hardware integration and testing is also discussed.
1997-07-01
Technical Paper
972331
Charles D. Ray, Robyn L. Carrasquillo, Silvia Minton-Summers
The paper provides a summary of current work accomplished under technical task agreement (TTA) by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) regarding the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as future planning activities in support of the International Space Station(ISS).Current activities computer model development, component design and development, subsystem/integrated system testing, life testing, and government furnished equipment delivered to the ISS program. A long range plan for the MSFC ECLSS test facility is described whereby the current facility would be upgraded to support integrated station ECLSS operations. ECLSS technology development efforts proposed to be performed under the Advanced Engineering Technology Development (AETD) program are also discussed.
1997-07-01
Technical Paper
972332
Robyn L. Carrasquillo, James L. Reuter, Cynthia L. Philistine
The assembly complete Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system for the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of components and subsystems in both the U.S. and International partner elements which together will perform the functions of Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Waste Management (WM), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), and Vacuum System (VS) for the station. Due to limited resources available on ISS, detailed attention is given to minimizing and tracking all resources associated with all systems, beginning with estimates during the hardware development phase through measured actuals when flight hardware is built and delivered. A comprehensive summary of resources consumed by the U.S.
1997-07-01
Technical Paper
972375
D. Layne Carter
A test has been completed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to evaluate the Water Recovery and Management (WRM) system and Waste Management (WM) urinal design for the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS). Potable and urine reclamation processors were integrated with waste water generation equipment and successfully operated for a total of 128 days in recipient mode configuration to evaluate the accumulation of contaminants in the water system and to assess the performance of various modifications to the WRM and WM hardware. No accumulation of contaminants were detected in the product water over the course of the recipient mode test. An additional 18 days were conducted in donor mode to assess the ability of the system to removal viral contaminants, to monitor the breakthrough of organic contaminants through the multifiltration bed, and for resolving anomalies that occurred during the test.
1997-07-01
Technical Paper
972376
Robert J. Erickson, Robert J. Roy, Richard K. Mason
A two year test program has been initiated to evaluate the effects of extended duration operation on a solid polymer electrolyte Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA); in particular the cell stack and membrane phase separators. As part of this test program, the OGA was integrated into the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Water Recovery Test (WRT) Stage 10, a six month test, to use reclaimed water directly from the water processor product water storage tanks. This paper will document results encountered and evaluated thus far in the life testing program.
1988-07-01
Technical Paper
880996
J. L. Perry, W. R. Humphries
The Space Station provides a unique facility for conducting material processing and life science experiments under microgravity conditions. These conditions place special requirements on the U.S. Laboratory for storing and transporting chemicals and process fluids, reclaiming water from selected experiments, treating and storing experiment wastes, and providing vacuum utilities. To meet these needs and provide a safe laboratory environment, the Process Material Management System (PMMS) is being developed. Preliminary design requirements and concepts related to the PMMS are addressed in addition to discussing the MSFC PMMS breadboard test facility and a preliminary plan for validating the overall system design. The system contains a fluid handling subsystem which manages process fluids required by each experiment while a chemical storage facility safely stores potentially hazardous chemicals.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961475
R. L. Carrasquillo, P. O. Wieland, J. L. Reuter
The baseline Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the International Space Station (ISS) includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies for Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Waste Management (WM), and Vacuum System (VS). The U.S. Lab module will contain complete THC and ACS subsystems and an open loop AR including a Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly (TCCS), and a Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA). An Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) is added with the U. S. Hab module, along with the WRM and WM subsystems. The final baseline configuration is a closed water loop and partially closed atmosphere loop and represents the best available mature technologies.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961474
J. L. Reuter, J. L. Perry, D. L. Carter
The appropriate role of human testing in life support systems design has been a key concern for human spacecraft development. This discussion intensified over the past one and a half years as the International Space Station (ISS) evaluated the risk associated with the baseline program while conducting cost and schedule convergence activities. The activity was carried from the traditional top-level discussion to evaluation of the specific Space Station Life Support concerns associated with human interaction, weighed against cost impacts. This paper details the results of this activity, providing the rationale for the present ISS approach.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961472
Harold E. Cole, Samuel Manuel, David R. Rather, Sandra E. Ward, Kathy Jones, Jay Perry, Arkady Gouzenberg, Valentina Savina, Konstantine Mikos
Eight SUMMA passivated sampling canisters were shipped to the Russian Space Station Mir in February of 1995 to assess ambient trace contaminant concentrations. Prior to flight, the canisters were injected with isotope labeled surrogates and internal standards to measure potential negative impacts on measurement accuracy caused by the trip environmental conditions of launch and return. Three duplicate canister samples were collected in parallel with Russian sorbent samples to acquire data for comparative purposes. A total of 32 target and 13 non-target volatile compounds were detected in each of the samples analyzed. The concentrations of the compounds remained relatively consistent for the three sampling events, and all of the concentrations of detected contaminants were well below both US and Russian Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMAC). Five different fluorocarbons were consistently detected at relatively high concentrations.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2766
Narayanan Ramachandran, Jay Perry
This paper describes the development plan for a comprehensive research and diagnostic tool for aspects of advanced life support systems in space-based laboratories. Specifically, it aims to build a high fidelity tabletop model that can be used for the purpose of risk mitigation, failure mode analysis, contamination tracking, and testing reliability. The work envisions a comprehensive approach involving experimental work coupled with numerical simulation to develop this diagnostic tool. The use of an index matching fluid (fluid that matches the refractive index of cast acrylic, the model material) allows making the entire model (with complex internal geometry) transparent and hence conducive to non-intrusive optical diagnostics. Experimental and modeling work to date will be presented.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929089
Jeffrey C. Brewer, Thomas H. Whitt
Nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) technology has only recently been utilized in low earth orbit (LEO) applications. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) program, over the past five years, played a key role in developing this application. The HST not only became the first reported, nonexperimental program to fly Ni-H2 batteries in a LEO application, but funded numerous, ongoing tests that served to validate this usage. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been testing HST Ni-H2 batteries and cells for over three years. The major tests include a 6-battery system (SBS) test and a single 22-cell battery (FSB) test. The SBS test has been operating for 34 months and completed approximately 15,200 cycles. The performance of the cells and batteries in this test is nominal. Currently, the batteries are operating at an average end-of-charge (EOC) pressure that indicates an average capacity of approximately 79 ampere-hours (Ah).
1992-04-01
Technical Paper
921030
W.T. Powers, A.E. Cooper, T.L. Wallace
Significant erosion of preburner faceplates was observed during recent Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) test firings at the NASA Technology Test Bed (TTB), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Al. The OPAD instrumentation acquired exhaust plume spectral data during each test which indicate the occurrence of metallic species consistent with faceplate component composition. A qualitative analysis of the spectral data was conducted to evaluate the state of the engine versus time for each test according to the nominal conditions of TTB firing #17 and #18. In general the analyses indicate abnormal erosion levels at or near startup. Subsequent to the initial erosion event, signal levels tend to decrease towards nominal baseline values. These findings, in conjunction with post-test engine inspections, suggest that in cases under study, the erosion may not have been catastrophic to the immediate operation of the engine.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 57

Filter

  • Aerospace
    57
  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: