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Viewing 1 to 30 of 30
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2494
N. M. Samsonov, E. A. Kurmazenko, L. I. Gavrilov, N. S. Farafonov, N. V. Pavlova, T. N. Pavlova, V. Ju. Proshkin, S. Ju. Romanov, A. M. Rjabkin, A. S. Guzenberg, A. N. Slyshchenkov, O. V. Kirjushin
The Regenerative Atmosphere Revitalization and Monitoring system (ARMS), been part of Integrated Life Support System (ILSS), is intended for maintenance in the manned modules of a necessary chemical composition of an artificial gas atmosphere (AGA) on base of the crew metabolism product transform to environment initial components. Generally, the ARMS structure includes the individual systems and units intended for: → oxygen generation; → carbon dioxide removal and it concentration; → trace contaminants removal; → carbon dioxide reduction with the goal to produce an additional quantity of water necessary to increase the degree of the oxygen loop clousure. The ARMS structure of the International Space Station (ISS) Russian Segment (RS) includes the Electron-VM Oxygen Generation System (OGS), Vozdukh Carbon Dioxide Removal System (CDRS) and SBMP Trace Contaminants Removal Means (TCRM) installed in the Service Module.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2489
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, N. S. Farafonov, V. A. Soloukhin, S. Ju. Romanov, P. O. Andrejchuk, N. N., Protasov, Ju. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper deals with the performance data of the service module Zvezda integrated water supply system of the International Space Station (ISS) as of March 31, 2004. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. It is shown that water recovery from humidity condensate has been especially important when water delivery by Space Shuttles was terminated. The SRV-K contribution in potable water supply for crew needs was up to 76%. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown. Water recovery future prospects are discussed.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2191
L. S. Bobe, A. A. Kochetkov, V. A. Soloukhin, P. O. Andreichuk, N. N. Protasov, Ju. E. Sinyak
The paper summarizes the experience gained on the ISS water management system during the missions of ISS-1 through ISS-16 (since November 2 2000, through December 31, 2007). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on a board the ISS and the need to supplement the station's water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine, water from a carbon dioxide reduction system and hygiene water is shown.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2188
L. S. Bobe, L. I. Gavrilov, A. A. Kochetkov, E. A. Kurmazenko, N. M. Samsonov, M. Yu Tomashpolskiy
Based on experience obtained in operation of the water and oxygen recovery systems installed onboard the Russian space stations Salut, Mir and the International Space Station ISS, data on the water and oxygen balance for a space station are presented as well as operational parameters and performance data of the systems. Using the data obtained design analysis of an integrated life support system for water and oxygen recovery based on physical/chemical means to be installed on a promising space station is carried out. Mandatory verification tests of new process (technologies) and recovery systems are to be conducted on ISS.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2806
L. S. Bobe, N. M. Samsonov, V. A. Soloukhin, N. S. Farafonov, V. M. Novikov, P. O. Andreichuk, N. N. Protasov, S. Ju. Romanov, Ju. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-10 (since November 2 2000, through November 30, 2004). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station’s water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is emphasized. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2269
L. S. Bobe, N. M. Samsonov, V. A. Soloukhin, P. O. Andreichuk, N. N. Protasov, Ju. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-11 (since November 2 2000, through October 10, 2005). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station’s water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is shown. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961336
J. J. Kennedy, O. A. Buchmann, A. L. MacKnight, N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, V. M. Novikov
This paper reviews designs of urine distillation systems for spacecraft water recovery. Consideration is given to both air evaporation and vacuum distillation cycles, to the means for improving cycle performance (such as heat pumps, multistaging, and rotary evaporators), and to system concepts offering promise for future development. Vacuum distillation offers lower power consumption, at some increase in system complexity; air evaporation distillation is capable of providing higher water recovery efficiency, which could offset the lower power consumption advantage of vacuum distillation for long-duration missions.
1999-07-12
Technical Paper
1999-01-1993
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, V. M. Novikov, N. S. Farafonov, B. Ja. Pinsky, V. V. Rakov, V. I. Margulis, V. G. Rifert, Ju. I. Grigoriev, V. V. Komolov, N. N. Protasov
This paper reviews the development and testing of the distillation subsystem of water regeneration system from urine (WRS-UM) based on a method of vacuum distillation with a rotary multistage vacuum distiller and a thermal pump. Test results show that with relatively small power consumption the subsystem using rotary three-stage vacuum distiller provides high rates of heat and mass transfer processes, useful productivity and distillate quality. The conducted tests have confirmed that it will be efficient to use the presented system as a part of WRS-UM system in Russian segment of the International Space Station.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2368
N. M. Samsonov, E. A. Kurmazenko, N. S. Farafonov, I. V. Dokunin, R. Yu. Sachkov, M. V. Kotelnikova
This paper reviews a Crew Simulation Model (CSM) for Space Vehicle Integrative Life Support System (ILSS) operation study. It is designed to simulate crew metabolic reaction mass and energy flows in accelerated time mode with each crew member specifics consideration. This CSM formally is based on human body general simulation, which includes main functional systems like: the cardiac-vascular, external respiration, thermal regulation and water/mineral balance. Work and rest time schedules are also considered as well as each crew member presence in a particular module. The CSM considers trace contaminants in metabolic products due to nutrition and environment temperature. This simulations' formal review is shown in the paper as well as formal implementation with computed experiment results. Some of the possible applications are also approached.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2396
N. M. Samsonov, E. A. Kurmazenko, N. S. Farafonov, E. V. Menkin
The research conducted at NIICHIMMASH for the past several years in the area of Integrated Life Support System (ILSS) strategy development for technology efficiency analysis and system structure synthesis is reviewed in this paper. This study proposes an generalized efficiency model for ILSS development, which includes global, thermodynamic and local quantitative and qualitative factors. The research resulted in a strategy for the synthesis of ILSS structure based on evolutionary and integral- hypothhetical approaches. This strategy allows development of new system configurations, evaluation of existing ILSS effectiveness and considers decision marker's (DM) preferences. Uncertainty in the initial information about properties of the system or technology has a big influence on DM making decisions about future system appearance. Fuzzy set theory is used to define the uncertainty in the initial information.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2622
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, V. M. Novikov, N. S. Farafonov, V.A. Soloukhin, S. Ju. Romanov, P. O. Andrejchuk, N. N. Protasov, N. A. Koledov, A. A. Telegin, Ju. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper deals with the performance data of the service module Zvezda water supply and urine collection systems of the International Space Station (ISS) as of December 31, 2002. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown.
2001-07-09
Technical Paper
2001-01-2355
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, V. M. Novikov, N. S. Farafonov, V. A. Soloukhin, S. Ju. Romanov, P. O. Andrejchuk, N. N. Protasov, N. A. Koledov, Ju. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper deals with the construction and performance data of the service module Zvezda water supply system of the International Space Station (ISS). The performance data at an initial phase of manned station functioning are provided. The data on humidity condensate and recovered water composition are reviewed. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The effective cooperation of international partners on part of water supply for the crew is shown.
2001-07-09
Technical Paper
2001-01-2366
N. M. Samsonov, E. A. Kurmazenko, E. V. Menkin, L. I. Gavrilov, N. S. Farafonov
This paper reviews the preliminary definition of integrated life support system configurations based on a single criterion decision-making task (SCDMT). Comparative analysis results are shown for currently used effectiveness models based on SCDMT. Possible areas of application for those models are determined. It is also proven that well-known effectiveness model, which uses an equivalent mass approach to determine system expenditures, can be used only in cases where useful effect from system operation is the same. The article proposes the use of a global thermodynamic effectiveness criterion based on the exergy method to account for ECLSS functional expenditures, i.e. functional costs. Exergy is a concept that fuses energy and material quality information in a measure that is both descriptive and physically significant. This method accounts for nonequivalence of different forms of energy and allows measuring technological flows in the system using same measuring units.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2390
N. M. Samsonov, E. A. Kurmazenko, N. S. Farafonov, E. V. Menkin
This paper describes the concept of Ecotechnical System (ETS) based on the analysis of mass, power and data flow exchange within a biocenosis and between a biocenosis and technical systems that support life and activity of any biological entity in isolated environment of space vehicle. A biocenosis is considered to be a gathering of live organisms (generally people, animals, plants and micro-organisms) in an artificial habitat of the isolated environment. An Ecotechnical System is defined and it is shown that the given concept brings together different life support systems based on physical-chemical and biological means of regeneration of crew metabolic products. The existing limitations to the ETS development are reviewed in the paper in respect to limited volumes of space vehicles based on the vehicle characteristics and particular space program tasks. Three step analysis approach proposed for ETS effectiveness evaluation.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961501
N. M. Samsonov, N. S. Farafonov, E. A. Kurmazenko, I. V. Dokunin, A. O. Jakimenko
The paper is devoted to consideration of the possible approach to forecasting functioning physico/chemical Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) in regular and off-normal conditions of operation on the basis of methods of mathematical simulation. Prediction of RLSS functioning under operating conditions represents the special interest for the analysis of off-normal situations, caused by development of a resource or presence that or that or of the other of failure of the equipment, or change of external conditions. In the given situations working mechanisms of transfer of mass and energy change not only characteristic and modes of operations of separate apparatus, but also, in a number of cases. The given peculiarities should be taken into account at formation of the formalized descriptions of the RLSS hardware.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2485
L. S. Bobe, A. A. Kochetkov, V. A. Soloukhin, M. Ju. Tomashpolskiy, P. O. Andreichuk, N. N. Protasov, Ju. E. Sinyak
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-17 (since November 2, 2000, through October 23, 2008). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station's water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is emphasized. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3174
L. S. Bobe, N. M. Samsonov, P. O. Andreychuk, N. N. Protasov, Yu. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper summarizes the six years' experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-14 (since November 2, 2000 through October 31, 2006). The water supply sources, consumption structure and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery during space missions and the prospects of regenerative water supply of an interplanetary space station are discussed. The aim of this paper is to summarize the water supply experience and to provide recommendations for a perspective water supply integrated system based on water recovery.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2363
N. M. Samsonov, E. A. Kurmazenko, E. V. Menkin
The design of any complex system, especially eco-technical is very challenging due to the variety of processes, system composition, relation between different components and presence of the human. Process and technology selections affect the flow rate, composition, and phase of all resulting components. Therefore, evaluating alternative processes and/or technologies used often requires one to compare the relative environmental merits of distinctly different residual streams. Traditional thermodynamic analysis based on the first law of thermodynamics describes the conservation of energy. In this type of analysis all forms of energy are considered to be equivalent. The loss of quality of energy is not taken into account. It shows the energy flow to be continuous and energy balance is always closed. There can never be an energy loss, only energy transfer to the environment in which case it is useless.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2386
A. Lubman, A. MacKnight, M. Reddig, S.L. Bobe, B.Y. Pinski, V.V. Rakov, M. Edeen
Simulated spacecraft water recovery wastewater feed streams were purified with a three-stage vacuum rotary distillation processor (TVRD) during a series of tests conducted to evaluate the operation of this technology. The TVRD was developed to efficiently reclaim potable water from urine in microgravity by NIICHIMMASH (Moscow, Russia). A prototype was evaluated at the Honeywell Space Water Reclamation test lab, where a special test setup was assembled to evaluate the performance of the TVRD. This paper discusses the TVRD technology, test description, test results, and performance analysis. Tests were conducted using four streams of wastewater: pretreated human urine, bioprocessor effluent, reverse osmosis brine ersatz, and deionized water. The testing demonstrated that greater than 90 percent water recovery can be reached with production rates of 2.2 to 2.9 kg/hr (4.84 to 6.30 lb/hr).
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2367
N. M. Samsonov, E. A. Kurmazenko, N. S. Farafonov, L. I. Gavrilov, Ju. P. Butilkin, A. V. Averin, D. M. Bogenhkov, A. Ju. Shmelkov, S. Yu. Romanov, A. M. Ryabkin, O. V. Kiryushin
This paper reviews Air Revitalization System (ARS) for Russian Segment of International Space Station software simulation development and implementation by the example the Service Module (SM) ARS. This simulation is designed for the ARS ground test functional analysis and in-flight support Individual ARS complex systems formal description is based on each system description as a unit, using information received from experiments and detailed simulations. Failure can be introduced for contingency simulation.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961410
N. M. Samsonov, N. S. Farafonov, L. I. Gavrilov, V. A. Naumov, T. N. Pavlova, Ju. E. Sinjak
Development of closed life support systems for water recovery, oxygen generation and food processing is achievable in the future. However, currently the possibility of partial reproduction of food components from metabolic products and biocomplex waste should be taken into account when advanced life support system development is under consideration. Studies on carbohydrate synthesis from products of life are of particular interest because carbohydrates hold the first place in terms of mass in the food. The paper discusses possible ways of carbohydrate synthesis by physical/chemical means. Separate stages of a carbohydrate synthesis process are considered.
1994-06-01
Technical Paper
941252
Donald Rethke, Philip Birbara, Norman Grabowski, Patricia O'Donnell, John Steele, Leonid Bobe, Lev Gavrllov
Hamilton Standard Space Systems International, Inc. (HSSSI) has obtained and is currently testing a variety of Russian life support hardware. These units have been or are contemplated for use on Mir I and II space stations. This paper presents the current status of performance testing of a Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Processing Unit (CDPU) and components of a Potable Water Processing System (PWP). These systems were fabricated by NIICHIMMASH, the supplier of these units to the Russian space program. It is the intent of this testing program to obtain a data base for technology comparisons to support planned and future international missions. For the CDPU, reactant conversion efficiencies in excess of 99 percent have been noted for the variation in test conditions with 2 to 6 man processing (flows) tested. The CDPU's effluent water has been produced at anticipated rates and is relatively contaminant free.
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951557
N.M. Samsonov, E.A. Kurmazenko, L.I. Gavrilov, N.S. Farafonov, I.V. Dokunin, S.V. Markin, T.N. Pavlova, V.A. Naumov, A.O. Jakimenko
The paper reviews some problems of providing the thermal conditions in the Sabatier reactor of the CO2 processing system designed to be operated on Russia's service module of ISSA. The possibility of providing and maintaining the autothermal process with heat removal off the canister surface enclosing the reactor. Some results of control system checks in the start-up, steady-state and shutdown modes are presented. The results of Russia's hardware undergone testing onsite at Dornier (Germany) and Hamilton Standard (U.S.) are discussed.
1999-07-12
Technical Paper
1999-01-2034
L. S. Bobe, V. M. Novikov, M. S. Amiragov, R. A. Gurovskaya, Y. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov, N. N. Protasov, V. V. Komolov
The paper reviews the results obtained with a Sievers-820 total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer during ground tests of the Mir water recovery system (WRS). Calibration analysis results for water solution samples of individual compounds, typical of spacecraft atmospheric humidity condensate, and their mixtures are provided. Comparison of the test results to the calculated data and laboratory analyses performed by other methods are made. Analyzer readings are in good agreement with the chemical analyses of initial condensate and recovered water. The analyzer shows promise as an instrument for ground and future onboard spacecraft testing.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2517
N.M. Samsonov, L.S. Bobe, V.M. Novikov, N.S. Farafonov, M.S. Amiragov, B.Ja. Pinsky, Ju. I. Grigoriev, S.Ju. Romanov, N.N. Protasov, Ju.E. Sinyak, V.M. Baranov
The paper discusses the 13.5 year flight operation experience of the orbiting space station Mir's water supply system (WSS) comprising a regenerative system and a water storage system. The basic water recovery system operational data are analyzed. It is shown that stage-by-stage introduction of additional recovery systems and updated units during its operation allows the system performance to be improved considerably and its functions to be expanded. Data on the quantity and quality of the water processed are presented including the economic efficiency of water recovery aboard the OSS. The experience in international cooperation of water management is described. It is shown that an updated water supply system of the Russian segment of the International Space Station fully accounts for the experience gained in development and operation of Mir's WSS.
2001-06-26
Technical Paper
2001-01-2097
Timofey V. Matjushev, Nikolay N. Khabarovsky, Edward A. Kurmazenko, Ivan V. Dokunin
The paper is dedicated to adequacy analysis of Simulation Model of Human Body Thermoregulation System (HTSSM), intended for design of air/space Autonomous Life Support System (ALSS) The formal description of the HTSSM consists 51 equations to describe different body compartments, which consider different properties and individualities of human body as well as complexity dynamic characteristics of the studied functional system, and also includes the equation, which describes heat exchange processes in the heart and lung area. Active heat exchange mechanisms of thermoregulation system are described on the basis of fuzzy set theory. This paper discusses the HTMSS and its applications for: The analysis of a human heat state under heat stress conditions for a helmet area ventilation system design. The analysis of the temperature/moisture fields in the extra-vehicular suit for design of thermal control system. The results of computed experiments obtained using the HTMSS are also reviewed.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2358
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, L. I. Gavrilov, V. P. Korolev, V. M. Novikov, N. S. Farafonov, V. A. Soloukhin, S. Ju. Romanov, P. O. Andrejchuk, N. N. Protasov, A. M. Rjabkin, A. A. Telegin, Ju. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper deals with the construction and performance data of the service module Zvezda water and oxygen supply systems of the International Space Station (ISS). The performance data at the first 14 months of manned station functioning are provided. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The system of oxygen generation “Electron-VM” and its functioning results are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown.
1997-07-01
Technical Paper
972536
Nicolay M. Samsonov, Edward A. Kurmazenko, Nicolay S. Farafonov, Ivan V. Dokunin, Lev I. Gavrilov, Vitaly P. Korolev, Vladimir Ju. Proshkin, Roman Ju. Sachkov
The paper reviews one of the possible approaches to developing an analysis technique of Oxygen Generation System (OGS) thermal conditions. As an object of simulation a 30% KOH water electrolysis system with forced electrolyte circulation through the both electrolyzer chamber followed by separation of a gas/liqiud mixture using hydrophobic porous membranes. A formalized description of the key system components (an electrolyzer, set of coolers, separator, canister) is presented. A mathematical model simulating stationary and non-stationary thermal conditions of the system is constructed and its programming is reviewed. Some results of computational and operational experiments obtained for checking the model adecuacy are presented.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2356
N. M. Samsonov, N. S. Farafonov, L. I. Gavrilov, V. P. Korolev, Ju. E. Belaventsev, Ju. I. Grigoriev, S. Ju. Romanov, A. M. Rjabkin
The paper describes the design specifics of the system for oxygen generation by electrolysis Elektron and major results obtained in long-term operation of the system aboard space station Mir. Operational data analysis makes possible to draw a conclusion that the system is capable to attain life parameters for at least 2 years with maintaining serviceability for no less than 8 years without attendance and unit replacement. Based on flight operation the possibility of reducing power consumption by 10 per cent is proven. System design updates are realized in the water electrolysis system intended for the Russian segment of the international space station.
1999-07-12
Technical Paper
1999-01-1951
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, V. M. Novikov, N. S. Farafonov, S. Ju. Romanov, E. N. Zaitsev, N. N. Protasov, A. I. Grigoriev, Ju. E. Sinjak
This paper reviews the design and properties of the Water Supply System (WSS). It also discusses the water balance and its delivery amounts, as well as it presents diagrams and properties of water recovery system from humidity condensate WRS-CM and regeneration from urine WRS-UM which are the part of WSS. Some results of activities conducted for provision of water intake in a system of WRS-CM from different modules of station are shown and the problems of WSS interaction of Russian segment (RS) and American segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) are discussed.
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