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Viewing 1 to 30 of 43
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2789
J. Scott Cupples, Brian J. Johnson
As the duration of space missions increases, the importance of astronaut health monitoring systems increases. Health monitoring during extra-vehicular activity is especially crucial because it is among the most physically demanding phases of space flight With the existing space suit bioinstrumentation system nearing completion of its third decade of service, it is time to consider developing the next generation of bioinstrumentation systems, building on the lessons of the past while incorporating updated technology.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2056
Gregory J. Gentry, Richard P. Reysa, David E. Williams
The International Space Station (ISS) continues to mature and operate its life support equipment. Major events occurring between February 2005 and February 2006 are discussed in this paper, as are updates from previously ongoing hardware anomalies. This paper addresses the major ISS operation events over the last year. Impact to overall ISS operations is also discussed.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2248
James L. Reuter
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies which provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between May 1999 and April 2000. Assembly of the ISS has been delayed due to changes in element processing schedules. The 2A.1 logistics flight to ISS occurred in May 1999. The remaining Phase 2 elements have completed most of the element level testing and integration and are approaching final reviews for acceptance for flight. The Phase 3 regenerative ECLS designs have reached the Critical Design Review phase, while several of the Phase 3 elements have held Preliminary or Critical Design Reviews.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2250
Brian Dunaway, Marybeth Edeen, Ching-Fen Tsai, Edward Turner
Crewmember ingress of the International Space Station (ISS) before that time accorded by the original ISS assembly sequence, and thus before the ISS capability to adequately control the levels of temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide, poses significant impacts to ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS). Among the most significant considerations necessitated by early ingress are those associated with the capability of the Shuttle Transportation System (STS) Orbiter to control the aforementioned levels, the capability of the ISS to deliver the conditioned air among the ISS elements, and the definition and distribution of crewmember metabolic heat, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. Even under the assumption that all Orbiter and ISS elements would be operating as designed, condensation control and crewmember comfort were paramount issues preceding each of the ISS Missions 2A and 2A.1.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2483
Albert J. Juhasz, Roy C. Tew
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2490
J. L. Perry, R. G. von Jouanne, E. H. Turner
The International Space Station (ISS) uses high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters to remove particulate matter from the cabin atmosphere. Known as Bacteria Filter Elements (BFEs), there are 13 elements deployed on board the ISS's U.S. Segment. The pre-flight service life prediction of 1 year for the BFEs is based upon performance engineering analysis of data collected during developmental testing that used a synthetic dust challenge. While this challenge is considered reasonable and conservative from a design perspective, an understanding of the actual filter loading is required to best manage the critical ISS Program resources. Thus testing was conducted on BFEs returned from the ISS to refine the service life prediction. Results from this testing and implications to ISS resource management are discussed. Recommendations for realizing significant savings to the ISS Program are presented.
1962-01-01
Technical Paper
620462
Howard F. Calvert, Richard H. Kemp
A facility was designed to burst scale model propellant tanks in the form of 6-in. diameter cylinders and which contained liquid hydrogen. The cylinders were machined from 2014-T6 extruded aluminum tubing and had notches of various radii. Conventional uniaxial notched tensile specimens were fabricated from the same tubing and the data were correlated with the burst results from the biaxially stressed cylinders.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821493
Melvin D. Montemerlo
NASA is initiating a space human factors research and technology development program in October 1982. The impetus for this program stems from: the frequent and economical access to space provided by the Shuttle, the advances in control and display hardware/software made possible through the recent explosion in microelectronics technology, heightened interest in a space station, heightened interest by the military in space operations, and the fact that the technology for long duration stay times for man in space has received relatively little attention since the Apollo and Skylab missions. The rationale for and issues in the five thrusts of the new program are described. The main thrusts are: basic methodology, crew station design, ground control/operations, teleoperations and extra vehicular activity.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2433
Tatiana Aguilera, Jay L. Perry
The trace contaminant control system (TCCS) located in the International Space Station's (ISS) U.S. laboratory module employs physical adsorption, thermal catalytic oxidation, and chemical adsorption to remove trace chemical contamination produced by equipment offgassing and anthropogenic sources from the cabin atmosphere. The chemical adsorption stage, consisting of a packed bed of granular lithium hydroxide (LiOH), is located after the thermal catalytic oxidation stage and is designed to remove acid gas byproducts that may be formed in the upstream oxidation stage. While in service on board the ISS, the LiOH bed exhibited a change in flow resistance that leading to flow control difficulties in the TCCS. Post flight evaluation revealed LiOH granule size attrition among other changes. An experimental program was employed to investigate mechanisms hypothesized to contribute to the change in the packed bed's flow resistance.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3186
Ariel V. Macatangay, Kimberlee S. Prokhorov, Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch
The management of off-nominal situations on-board the International Space Station (ISS) is crucial to its continuous operation. Off-nominal situations can arise from virtually any aspect of ISS operations. One situation of particular concern is the inadvertent release of a chemical into the ISS atmosphere. In sufficient quantities, a chemical release can render the ISS uninhabitable regardless of the chemical's toxicity as a result of its effect on the hardware used to maintain the environment. This is certainly true with system chemicals which are integral components to the function and purpose of the system. Safeguards, such as design for minimum risk, multiple containment, hazard assessments, rigorous safety reviews, and others, are in place to minimize the probability of a chemical release to the ISS environment thereby allowing the benefits of system chemicals to outweigh the risks associated with them. The thermal control system is an example of such a system.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2383
Gregory J. Gentry, Richard P. Reysa, Dave E. Williams
The International Space Station continues to build up its life support equipment capability. Several ECLS equipment failures have occurred since Lab activation in February 2001. Major problems occurring between February 2001 and February 2002 were discussed in reference 1. Major problems occurring between February 2002 and February 2003 are discussed in this paper, as are updates from previously ongoing unresolved problems. This paper addresses failures, and root cause, with particular emphasis on likely micro-gravity causes. Impact to overall station operations and proposed and accomplished fixes will also be discussed.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2442
S. Roychoudhury, D. Walsh*, J. Perry
The development of energy efficient, lightweight sorption systems for removal of environmental contaminants in space flight applications is an area of continuing interest to NASA. The current CO2 removal system on the International Space Station employs two pellet bed canisters of 5A molecular sieve that alternate between regeneration and sorption. A separate disposable charcoal bed removes trace contaminants. An alternative technology has been demonstrated using a sorption bed consisting of metal meshes coated with a sorbent, trademarked and patented [1] as Microlith® by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI); these meshes have the potential for direct electrical heating for this application. This allows the bed to be regenerable via resistive heating and offers the potential for shorter regeneration times, reduced power requirement, and net energy savings vs. conventional systems. The capability of removing both CO2 and trace contaminants within the same bed has also been demonstrated.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760917
Thomas P. Moffitt, Francis S. Stepka, Harold E. Rohlik
Aerodynamic effects of trailing edge geometry, hole size, angle, spacing, and shape have been studied in two- and three-dimensional cascades and in a warm turbine test series. Heat transfer studies have been carried out in various two- and three-dimensional test facilities in order to provide corresponding heat transfer data. Results are shown in terms of cooling effectiveness and aerodynamic efficiency for various coolant fractions, coolant-primary temperature ratios, and cooling configurations.
1975-02-01
Technical Paper
750516
Domenic J. Maglieri, Harvey H. Hubbard
The factors affecting noise from small propeller driven airplanes are reviewed to quantify their affects where possible, and to indicate the potential for noise reduction. The main sources of external noise are noted to be the propellers and engines; the airframe being of less importance for both aural detection and community annoyance. Propeller noise is a strong function of tip speed and is affected adversely by non-uniform inflows. Reciprocating engine exhausts are noisier than those of comparably rated turboshaft engines, but their noise can be reduced by the use of flight certified exhaust mufflers. Presently, there are no generally accepted engineering methods for development of optimized propellers and exhaust muffler designs from weight and performance penalty standpoints. Flight demonstration results, however, suggest that required noise reductions for future certification should be possible with potentially small penalties.
1984-10-01
Technical Paper
841623
William R. Marshall, Billy W. Shelton, George C. Marshall
Vehicles capable of lifting very large and heavy payloads into low earth orbit (LEO) will be needed to support certain large-scale space missions being considered for the late 1990-2000 time period. These missions include the support of strategic national commitments, large space power systems, and interplanetary and lunar exploration. Nearer term missions will utilize the Space Shuttle and its direct derivatives, the Shuttle-Derived Vehicles (SDV), currently being defined under NASA and DOD sponsored studies. A conceptual design of a Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) that will lift a half million pounds to low earth orbit is presented. Design alternatives and key system design problems and issues are discussed. The new developments required, such as a new large liquid booster engine and Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) modifications, are identified. New candidate launch locations and launch facility requirements are also discussed.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2353
Ariel V. Macatangay, Jay L. Perry, Paul L. Belcher, Sharon A. Johnson
A habitable atmosphere is a fundamental requirement for human spaceflight. To meet this requirement, the cabin atmosphere must be constantly scrubbed to maintain human life and system functionality. The primary system for atmospheric scrubbing of the US on-orbit segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS). As part of the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems' (ECLSS) atmosphere revitalization rack in the US Lab, the TCCS operates continuously, scrubbing trace contaminants generated primarily by two sources: the metabolic off-gassing of crew members and the off-gassing of equipment in the ISS. It has been online for approximately 95% of the time since activated in February 2001. The TCCS is comprised of a charcoal bed, a catalytic oxidizer, and a lithium hydroxide post-sorbent bed, all of which are designed to be replaced on-orbit when necessary.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2868
J. L. Perry, K. M. Tomes, S. Roychoudhury, J. D. Tatara
Contaminated air and process gases, whether in a crewed spacecraft cabin atmosphere, the working volume of a microgravity science or ground-based laboratory experiment facility, or the exhaust from an automobile, are pervasive problems that ultimately effect human health, performance, and well-being. The need for highly-effective, economical decontamination processes spans a wide range of terrestrial and space flight applications. Adsorption processes are used widely for process gas decontamination. Most industrial packed bed adsorption processes use activated carbon because it is cheap and highly effective. Once saturated, however, the adsorbent is a concentrated source of contaminants. Industrial applications either dump or regenerate the activated carbon. Regeneration may be accomplished in-situ or at an off-site location. In either case, concentrated contaminated waste streams must be handled appropriately to minimize environmental impact.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3149
Wayne Johnson, Gloria K. Yamauchi, Michael E. Watts
The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3219
Ariel V. Macatangay, Jay L. Perry
The maintenance of the cabin atmosphere aboard spacecraft is critical not only to its habitability but also to its function. Ideally, air quality can be maintained by striking a proper balance between the generation and removal of contaminants. Both very dynamic processes, the balance between generation and removal can be difficult to maintain and control because the state of the cabin atmosphere is in constant evolution responding to different perturbations. Typically, maintaining a clean cabin environment on board crewed spacecraft and space habitats is a central function of the environmental control and life support (ECLS) system. While active air quality control equipment is deployed on board every vehicle to remove carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace chemical components from the cabin atmosphere, perturbations associated with logistics, vehicle construction and maintenance, and ECLS system configuration influence the resulting cabin atmospheric quality.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3181
Richard P. Reysa, John P. Lumpkin, Dina El Sherif, Robert Kay, David E. Williams
The Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) is a part of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system. The CDRA provides carbon dioxide (CO2) removal from the ISS on-orbit modules. Currently, the CDRA is the secondary removal system on the ISS, with the primary system being the Russian Vozdukh. Within the CDRA are two Desiccant/Adsorbent Beds (DAB), which perform the carbon dioxide removal function. The DAB adsorbent containment approach required improvements with respect to adsorbent containment. These improvements were implemented through a redesign program and have been implemented on units on the ground and returning from orbit. This paper presents a DAB design modification implementation description, a hardware performance comparison between the unmodified and modified DAB configurations, and a description of the modified DAB hardware implementation into the on-orbit CDRA.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2218
Jay L. Perry, William A. Arnold
The design and operation of crewed spacecraft requires identifying and evaluating chemical compounds that may present reactivity and compatibility risks with the environmental control and life support (ECLS) system. Such risks must be understood so that appropriate design and operational controls, including specifying containment levels, can be instituted or an appropriate substitute material selected. Operational experience acquired during the International Space Station (ISS) program has found that understanding ECLS system and environmental impact presented by thermal control system working fluids is imperative to safely operating any crewed space exploration vehicle. Perfluorocarbon fluids are used as working fluids in thermal control fluid loops on board the ISS. Also, payload hardware developers have identified perfluorocarbon fluids as preferred thermal control working fluids.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2274
Mary Jane E. O'Rourke, Jay L. Perry, Donald L. Carter
A new water recovery system designed towards fulfillment of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration is presented. This water recovery system is an evolution of the current state-of-the-art system. Through novel integration of proven technologies for air and water purification, this system promises to elevate existing technology to higher levels of optimization. The novel aspect of the system is twofold: Volatile organic contaminants will be removed from the cabin air via catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase, prior to their absorption into the aqueous phase, and vapor compression distillation technology will be used to process the condensate and hygiene waste streams in addition to the urine waste stream. Oxidation kinetics dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase is more efficient.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2650
J. L. Perry, B. V. Peterson
Spacecraft cabin air quality is influenced by a variety of factors. Beyond normal equipment offgassing and crew metabolic loads, the vehicle's operational configuration contributes significantly to overall air quality. Leaks from system equipment and payload facilities, operational status of the atmospheric scrubbing systems, and the introduction of new equipment and modules to the vehicle all influence air quality. The dynamics associated with changes in the International Space Station's (ISS ) configuration since the launch of the U.S. Segment's laboratory module, Destiny, is summarized. Key classes of trace chemical contaminants that are important to crew health and equipment performance are emphasized. The temporary effects associated with attaching each multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS and influence of in-flight air quality on the post-flight ground processing of the MPLM are explored.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2651
J. L. Perry
Since activating the International Space Station's (ISS) Service Module in November 2000, archival air quality samples have shown highly variable concentrations of octafluoropropane in the cabin. This variability has been directly linked to leakage from air conditioning systems on board the Service Module, Zvezda. While octafluoropropane is not highly toxic, it presents a significant challenge to the trace contaminant control systems. A discussion of octafluoropropane concentration dynamics is presented and the ability of on board trace contaminant control systems to effectively remove octafluoropropane from the cabin atmosphere is assessed. Consideration is given to operational and logistics issues that may arise from octafluoropropane and other halocarbon challenges to the contamination control systems as well as the potential for effecting cabin air quality.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2568
Mark Wilson, Harold Cole, Natalee Weir, Monsi Roman, John Steele, Clark Lukens
The International Space Station (ISS) IATCS (Internal Active Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that use an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide was used initially as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms in the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing has demonstrated that the silver salt is rapidly depleted and not effective as a long-term biocide. Efforts are now underway to select an alternate biocide for the IATCS coolant loop with greatly improved performance. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to select several candidates for test trials.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2487
J. L. Perry, H. E. Cole, E. L. Cramblitt, H. N. El-Lessy, S. Manuel, C. D. Tucker
Trace chemical contaminants produced by equipment offgassing and human metabolic processes are removed from the atmosphere of the International Space Station's U.S. Segment by a trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS). The TCCS employs a combination of physical adsorption, thermal catalytic oxidation, and chemical adsorption processes to accomplish its task. A large bed of granular activated charcoal is a primary component of the TCCS. The charcoal contained in this bed, known as the charcoal bed assembly (CBA), is expendable and must be replaced periodically. Pre-flight engineering analyses based upon TCCS performance testing results established a service life estimate of 1 year. After nearly 1 year of cumulative in-flight operations, the first CBA was returned for refurbishment. Charcoal samples were collected and analyzed for loading to determine the best estimate for the CBA's service life.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2496
K. Murdoch, J. Perry, F. Smith
To facilitate life support system loop closure on board the International Space Station (ISS), the Node 3 Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack contains a functional scar to accommodate a future Carbon dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA). This CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water from CO2 scrubbed from cabin air and hydrogen byproduct from OGS electrolysis. As part of the effort to better understand and define the functional scar, significant risk mitigation activities have been performed. To address integration risks, a CRA Engineering Development Unit (EDU) has been developed that is functionally equivalent to a flight CRA and is suitable for integrating with ground based carbon dioxide removal and oxygen generation systems. The CRA EDU has been designed to be functionally equivalent to the Sabatier Reactor Subsystem (SRS) portion of the CRA. This paper discusses the CRA design and the major issue expected with the flight unit integration.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2518
Paul Wieland, Mike Holt, Monsi Roman, Harold Cole, Steve Daugherty
Operation of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) Cold Plate/Fluid-Stability Test Facility commenced on September 5, 2000. The facility was intended to provide advance indication of potential problems on board the International Space Station (ISS) and was designed: To be materially similar to the flight ITCS. To allow for monitoring during operation. To run continuously for three years. During the first two years of operation the conditions of the coolant and components were remarkably stable. During this same period of time, the conditions of the ISS ITCS significantly diverged from the desired state. Due to this divergence, the test facility has not been providing information useful for predicting the flight ITCS condition. Results of the first two years are compared with flight conditions over the same time period, showing the similarities and divergences.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2385
Robyn L. Carrasquillo, Robert M. Bagdigian, John F. Lewis, Jay L. Perry
The baseline environmental control and life support (ECLS) systems currently deployed on board the International Space Station (ISS) and that planned to be launched in Node 3 are based upon technologies selected in the early 1990's. While they are generally meeting or exceeding requirements for supporting the ISS crew, lessons learned from years of on orbit and ground testing, together with new advances in technology state of the art, and the unique requirements for future manned missions prompt consideration of the next logical step to enhance these systems to increase performance, robustness, and reliability, and reduce on-orbit and logistical resource requirements. This paper discusses the current state of the art in ISS ECLS system technologies, and identifies possible areas for enhancement and improvement.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2592
J. L. Perry
Successful trace chemical contamination control is one of the components necessary for achieving good cabin atmospheric quality. While employing seemingly simple process technologies, sizing the active contamination control equipment must employ a reliable design basis for the trace chemical load in the cabin atmosphere. A simplified design basis that draws on experience gained from the International Space Station program is presented. The trace chemical contamination control design load refines generation source magnitudes and includes key chemical functional groups representing both engineering and toxicology challenges.
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