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Viewing 1 to 30 of 132
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2020
Gregory Fitch, Myra Blanco, Richard Hanowski, Paul Rau, Chris Flanigan
On-board Camera/Video Imaging Systems (C/VISs) for heavy vehicles display live images to the driver of selected areas to the sides, and in back of the truck's exterior using displays inside the truck cabin. They provide a countermeasure to blind-spot related crashes by allowing drivers to see objects not ordinarily visible by a typical mirror configuration, and to better judge the clearance between the trailer and an adjacent vehicle when changing lanes. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute is currently investigating commercial motor vehicle (CMV) driver performance with C/VISs through a technology field demonstration sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). Data collection, which consists of recording twelve CMV drivers performing their daily employment duties with and without a C/VIS for four months, is currently underway.
2013-11-11
Technical Paper
2013-22-0010
Erik G. Takhounts, Matthew J. Craig, Kevin Moorhouse, Joe McFadden, Vikas Hasija
Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1072
Mohamed Kamel Salaani, Gary J. Heydinger, Paul A. Grygier
This paper presents the details of the model for the physical steering system used on the National Advanced Driving Simulator. The system is basically a hardware-in-the-loop (steering feedback motor and controls) steering system coupled with the core vehicle dynamics of the simulator. The system's torque control uses cascaded position and velocity feedback and is controlled to provide steering feedback with variable stiffness and dynamic properties. The reference model, which calculates the desired value of the torque, is made of power steering torque, damping function torque, torque from tires, locking limit torque, and driver input torque. The model also provides a unique steering dead-band function that is important for on-center feel. A Simulink model of the hardware/software is presented and analysis of the simulator steering system is provided.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0879
Brian T. Park, Susan C. Partyka, Richard M. Morgan, James R. Hackney, John Lee, Lori Summers, Johanna C. Lowrie, Nathaniel M. Beuse
The frontal crash standard in the USA specifies that the full front of a vehicle impact a rigid barrier. Subsequently, the European Union developed a frontal crash standard that requires 40 percent of the front of a vehicle to impact a deformable barrier. The present study conducted paired crashes of vehicles using the full-frontal barrier procedure and the 40 percent offset deformable barrier procedure. In part, the study was to examine the feasibility of adding an offset test procedure to the frontal crash standard in the USA. Frontal-offset and full-frontal testing was conducted using both the mid-size (50th percentile male Hybrid III) and the small stature (5th percentile female Hybrid III) dummies. Five vehicle models were used in the testing: Dodge Neon, Toyota Camry, Ford Taurus, Chevrolet Venture and Ford Contour. In the crash tests, all dummies were restrained with the available safety belt systems and frontal air bags.
2011-11-07
Technical Paper
2011-22-0011
Heather Rhule, Brian Suntay, Rodney Herriott, Tara Amenson, Jim Stricklin, John H. Bolte
In ISO Technical Report 9790 (1999) normalized lateral and oblique thoracic force-time responses of PMHS subjected to blunt pendulum impacts at 4.3 m/s were deemed sufficiently similar to be grouped together in a single biomechanical response corridor. Shaw et al., (2006) presented results of paired oblique and lateral thoracic pneumatic ram impact tests to opposite sides of seven PMHS at sub-injurious speed (2.5 m/s). Normalized responses showed that oblique impacts resulted in more deflection and less force, whereas lateral impacts resulted in less deflection and more force. This study presents results of oblique and lateral thoracic impacts to PMHS at higher speeds (4.5 and 5.5 m/s) to assess whether lateral relative to oblique responses are different as observed by Shaw et al., or similar as observed by ISO.
2012-10-29
Technical Paper
2012-22-0003
Jason A. Stammen, Rodney Herriott, Yun-Seok Kang, Rebecca Dupaix, John Bolte IV
Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) should accurately depict head kinematics in crash tests, and thoracic spine properties have been demonstrated to affect those kinematics. To investigate the relationships between thoracic spine system dynamics and upper thoracic kinematics in crash-level scenarios, three adult post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) were tested in both Isolated Segment Manipulation (ISM) and sled configurations. In frontal sled tests, the T6-T8 vertebrae of the PMHS were coupled through a novel fixation technique to a rigid seat to directly measure thoracic spine loading. Mid-thoracic spine and belt loads along with head, spine, and pectoral girdle (PG) displacements were measured in 12 sled tests conducted with the three PMHS (3-pt lap-shoulder belted/unbelted at velocities from 3.8 - 7.0 m/s applied directly through T6-T8).
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1169
James W. Saunders, Shashi Kuppa, Aloke Prasad
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is conducting a research program to investigate the use of the 40 percent offset deformable barrier (ODB) crash test procedure to reduce death and injury, in particular debilitating lower extremity injuries in frontal offset collisions. This paper presents the results of 22 ODB crash tests conducted with 50th percentile male and 5th percentile female Hybrid III (HIII) dummies fitted with advanced lower legs, Thor-Lx/HIIIr and Thor-FLx/HIIIr, to assess the potential for debilitating and costly lower limb injuries. This paper also begins to investigate the implications that the ODB test procedure may have for fleet compatibility by evaluating the results from vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0017
Jason Stammen, Kevin Moorhouse, Brian Suntay, Michael Carlson, Yun-Seok Kang
When the Hybrid III 10-year old (HIII-10C) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was adopted into Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 49 Part 572 as the best available tool for evaluating large belt-positioning booster seats in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 213, NHTSA stated that research activities would continue to improve the performance of the HIII-10C to address biofidelity concerns. A significant part of this effort has been NHTSA’s in-house development of the Large Omnidirectional Child (LODC) ATD. This prototype ATD is comprised of (1) a head with pediatric mass properties, (2) a neck that produces head lag with Z-axis rotation at the atlanto-occipital joint, (3) a flexible thoracic spine, (4) multi-point thoracic deflection measurement capability, (5) skeletal anthropometry representative of a seated child, and (6) an abdomen that can directly measure belt loading.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-22-0002
Jason Forman, Francisco Lopez-Valdes, David Lessley, Matthew Kindig, Richard Kent, Stephen Ridella, Ola Bostrom
Rear seat adult occupant protection is receiving increased attention from the automotive safety community. Recent anthropomorphic test device (ATD) studies have suggested that it may be possible to improve kinematics and reduce injuries to rear seat occupants in frontal collisions by incorporating shoulder-belt force-limiting and pretensioning (FL+PT) technologies into rear seat 3-point belt restraints. This study seeks to further investigate the feasibility and potential kinematic benefits of a FL+PT rear seat, 3-point belt restraint system in a series of 48 kmh frontal impact sled tests (20 g, 80 ms sled acceleration pulse) performed with post mortem human surrogates (PMHS). Three PMHS were tested with a 3-point belt restraint with a progressive (two-stage) force limiting and pretensioning retractor in a sled buck representing the rear seat occupant environment of a 2004 mid-sized sedan.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-22-0001
Greg Shaw, Dan Parent, Sergey Purtsezov, David Lessley, Jeff Crandall, Richard Kent, Herve Guillemot, Stephen A. Ridella, Erik Takhounts, Peter Martin
This study evaluated the response of restrained post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in 40 km/h frontal sled tests. Eight male PMHS were restrained on a rigid planar seat by a custom 3-point shoulder and lap belt. A video motion tracking system measured three-dimensional trajectories of multiple skeletal sites on the torso allowing quantification of ribcage deformation. Anterior and superior displacement of the lower ribcage may have contributed to sternal fractures occurring early in the event, at displacement levels below those typically considered injurious, suggesting that fracture risk is not fully described by traditional definitions of chest deformation. The methodology presented here produced novel kinematic data that will be useful in developing biofidelic human models.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0818
Mohamed Kamel Salaani, Chris Schwarz, Gary J. Heydinger, Paul A. Grygier
The paper discusses the development of a model for the 2006 BMW 330i for the National Advanced Driving Simulator's (NADS) vehicle dynamics simulation, NADSdyna. The front and rear suspensions are independent strut and link type suspensions modeled using recursive rigid-body dynamics formulations. The suspension springs and shock absorbers are modeled as force elements. The paper includes parameters for front and rear semi-empirical tire models used with NADSdyna. Longitudinal and lateral tire force plots are also included. The NADSdyna model provides state-of-the-art high-fidelity handling dynamics for real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The realism of a particular model depends heavily on how the parameters are obtained from the actual physical system. Complex models do not guarantee high fidelity if the parameters used were not properly measured. Methodologies for determining the parameters are detailed in this paper.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1181
James Saunders, David L. Smith, Aida Barsan
The protection of a vehicle occupant in a frontal crash is a combination of vehicle front structural design and occupant restraint design. Once chosen and manufactured, these design features must interact with a wide variety of structural characteristics in potential crash partners. If robust, the restraint design will provide a high level of protection for a wide variety of crash conditions. This paper examines how robust a given restraint system is for occupant self-protection and how frontal design can improve the restraint performance of potential crash partners, thus improving their restraint robustness as well. To examine restraint robustness in self protection, the effect of various vehicle deceleration characteristics on occupant injury potential is investigated for a given restraint design.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0559
Mohamed Kamel Salaani, Gary J. Heydinger, Paul A. Grygier
Abstract There exists a fairly extensive set of tire force measurements performed on dry pavement. But in order to develop a low-coefficient of friction tire model, a set of tire force measurements made on wet pavement is required. Using formulations and parameters obtained on dry roads, and then reducing friction level to that of a wet road is not sufficient to model tire forces in a high fidelity simulation. This paper describes the process of more accurately modeling low coefficient tire forces on the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). It is believed that the tire model improvements will be useful in many types of NADS simulations, including ESC and other advanced vehicle technology studies. In order to produce results that would come from a road surface that would be sufficiently slippery, a set of tires were shaved to 4/32 inches and sent to a tire-testing lab for measurement.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1498
Mohamed Kamel Salaani, Gary J. Heydinger, Paul A. Grygier, W. Riley Garrott
In crashes between heavy trucks and light vehicles, most of the fatalities are the occupants of the light vehicle. A reduction in heavy truck stopping distance should lead to a reduction in the number of crashes, the severity of crashes, and consequently the numbers of fatalities and injuries. This study made use of the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). NADS is a full immersion driving simulator used to study driver behavior as well as driver-vehicle reactions and responses. The vehicle dynamics model of the existing heavy truck on NADS had been modified with the creation of two additional brake models. The first was a modified S-cam (larger drums and shoes) and the second was an air-actuated disc brake system. A sample of 108 CDL-licensed drivers was split evenly among the simulations using each of the three braking systems. The drivers were presented with four different emergency stopping situations.
1992-11-01
Technical Paper
922520
Lawrence W. Schneider, Mark P. Haffner, Rolf H. Eppinger, Michael J. Salloum, Michael S. Beebe, Stephen W. Rouhana, Albert I. King, Warren N. Hardy, Raymond F. Neathery
Injuries to the thorax and abdomen comprise a significant percentage of all occupant injuries in motor vehicle accidents. While the percentage of internal chest injuries is reduced for restrained front-seat occupants in frontal crashes, serious skeletal chest injuries and abdominal injuries can still result from interaction with steering wheels and restraint systems. This paper describes the design and performance of prototype components for the chest, abdomen, spine, and shoulders of the Hybrid III dummy that are under development to improve the capability of the Hybrid III frontal crash dummy with regard to restraint-system interaction and injury-sensing capability.
1994-11-01
Technical Paper
942206
Richard M. Morgan, Rolf H. Eppinger, Mark P. Haffner, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A. Pintar, Anthony Sances, Jeff R. Crandall, Walter D. Pilkey, Gregory S. Klopp, Dimitrios Kallieris, Erich Miltner, Rainer Mattem, Shashi M. Kuppa, Cheryl L. Sharpless
Sixty-three simulated frontal impacts using cadaveric specimens were performed to examine and quantify the performance of various contemporary automotive restraint systems. Test specimens were instrumented with accelerometers and chest bands to characterize their mechanical responses during the impact. The resulting thoracic injury severity was determined using detailed autopsy and was classified using the Abbreviated Injury Scale. The ability of various mechanical parameters and combinations of parameters to assess the observed injury severities was examined and resulted in the observation that belt restraint systems generally had higher injury rates than air bag restraint systems for the same level of mechanical responses. To provide better injury evaluations from observed mechanical parameters without prior knowledge of what restraint system was being used, a dichotomous process was developed.
1994-11-01
Technical Paper
942215
Faris A. Bandak, Rolf H. Eppinger
Finite element modelling has been used to study the evolution of strain in a model of the human brain under impulsive acceleration loadings. A cumulative damage measure, based on the calculation of the volume fraction of the brain that has experienced a specific level of stretch, is used as a possible predictor for deformation-related brain injury. The measure is based on the maximum principal strain calculated from an objective strain tensor that is obtained by integration of the rate of deformation gradient with appropriate accounting for large rotations. This measure is used here to evaluate the relative effects of rotational and translational accelerations, in both the sagittal and coronal planes, on the development of strain damage in the brain. A new technique for the computational treatment of the brain-dura interface is suggested and used to alleviate the difficulties in the explicit representation of the cerebrospinal fluid layer existing between the two solid materials.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950650
Nabih Bedewi, Cing-Dao Kan, Steve Summers, Carl Ragland
This paper describes the results of a study conducted to evaluate the performance and accuracy of a medium size sedan finite element model for off-set car-to-car impacts. This model was originally developed for front impact and does not include side structure compliance. Two tests conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are used for evaluation of the simulations. The overall results indicate that the simulations appear to be consistent with the crash test data. Problems associated with the use of node constraints, lack of side structure model fidelity, and the different integration time marching are identified and solutions for the problems are proposed.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950655
Glen C. Rains, Joseph N. Kanianthra
A comparative study between belted rollover occupants who did and did not receive head injuries from roof contact was conducted using the National Accident Sampling System (NASS) database. The main objective was to determine if headroom reduction increases the risk of head injury. Headroom was determined for 155 belted occupants involved in rollover crashes of vehicles which were then weighted to make them representative of national estimates. Results showed that headroom was reduced more in those crashes where the occupant had head injuries than in cases where there were no head injuries. It was concluded that the risk of head injury increased with reduced headroom. Furthermore, it was observed that when the initial headroom was higher, the incidence of head injury was reduced.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
951010
W. Riley Garrott, Mark A. Flick, Elizabeth N. Mazzae
This paper focuses on two types of electronics-based object detection systems for heavy truck applications: those sensing the presence of objects to the rear of the vehicle, and those sensing the presence of objects on the right side of the vehicle. The rearward sensing systems are intended to aid drivers when backing their vehicles, typically at very low “crawl” speeds. Six rear object detection systems that were commercially available at the time that this study was initiated were evaluated. The right side looking systems are intended primarily as supplements to side view mirror systems and as an aid for detecting the presence of adjacent vehicles when making lane changes or merging maneuvers. Four side systems, two commercially available systems and two prototypes, were evaluated.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950888
James R. Hackney, Charles J. Kahane
In the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), beginning with the model year 1994 vehicles, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) developed and adopted a simplified nonnumeric format for presenting the comparative frontal crashworthiness safety information to consumers. This paper presents the basis for the development of this “star rating” system. The injury probability functions which are used for the star rating system are also applied to the results of the recent NCAP real-world correlation studies and a review of these studies is given. The safety performance for restrained occupants as measured in NCAP is dependent on several parameters which include: the design of the restraint system, the maintenance of the integrity of the occupant space, and the energy management performance of the front structure.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950360
Catherine A. McCullough, William T. Hollowell, Peter Battisti
This paper describes the contents, development, and use of the NHTSA's Vehicle Parameter Database in accident data analysis and injury determination. The database also can be used as a source for vehicle information for computer model/simulation programs or in the development of crash avoidance measures. The analyses of damage sustained by vehicles in accidents is based on post-crash information and is somewhat limited since pre-crash measurements are not usually known or readily available. The ability to compare pre-crash and post-crash basic vehicle measurement characteristics provides greater insight into analyzing vehicle damage, degree of intrusion, level of deformation, and injury severity/source. The Vehicle Parameter Database consists of 101 key vehicle dimensions and specifications on more than 2,800 vehicles from 1980 to 1994.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
941052
James R. Hackney, Charles J. Kahane, Vincent R. Quarles
This report is a condensed version of the December 1993 New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) report to Congress and provides: an historical review and future goals for NCAP. the results of an 18-month study to assess consumer and media needs in understanding and promoting the use of NCAP data. This included consumer focus groups and media studies. These studies indicated that consumers and the media desire comparative safety information on vehicles, a simplified NCAP format to better understand and utilize the crash test results, and would like to see NCAP expanded to include other crash modes. studies of real-world crashes versus NCAP crash tests. These studies conclude that NCAP test conditions approximate real-world crash conditions covering a major segment of the frontal crash safety problem and that there is a significant correlation between NCAP results and real-world fatality risks for restrained drivers.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920358
Stuart G. Mentzer, Randa A. Radwan, William T. Hollowell
Abstract The SISAME methodology is a system for extracting one-dimensional lumped parameter vehicle crash models from non-oblique crash test data, and for simulation of such models. Model extraction is based on constrained least squares optimization of an overdetermined system of target equations for the model parameters. The SISAME computer program performs extraction and simulation with a number of features that allow user control of the computations and outputs. Additional computer programs perform data assessment/correction and filtering. Experience has shown that the SISAME methodology can efficiently produce predictively useful models that accurately capture the motions of the actual crash event. The essential formulation of SISAME and some sample applications are presented in this paper.
1995-11-01
Technical Paper
952711
Nopporn Khaewpong, Thuvan T. Nguyen, Francis D. Bents, Martin R. Eichelberger, Catherine S. Gotschall, Rene Morrissey
The paper reviews one hundred and three (103) cases of restrained children involved in motor vehicle crashes and admitted to the level I trauma center at Children's National Medical Center (CNMC). Thirty percent (30%) of these cases involved injuries with an Abbreviated InjuryScore (AIS) severity of 3 or greater. All cases are classified first by type of restraint system, i.e. infant seat, convertible seat, booster seat, lap belt, and lap and shoulder belt, and second, by type of injury sustained, i.e. head/face and neck, upper extremity, thorax, pelvic and abdominal, and lower extremity. The links between these classifications are examined to identify particular injury patterns associated with the use of individual restraint systems, e.g. the incidence of pelvic and abdominal injury associated with the use of both lap and lap and shoulder belts. For the severe injury cases the paper further examines the injury mechanisms for the most commonly observed patterns.
1995-11-01
Technical Paper
952718
Frank P. DiMasi, Rolf H. Eppinger, Faris A. Bandak
Computational simulations are conducted for several head impact scenarios using a three dimensional finite element model of the human brain in conjunction with accelerometer data taken from crash test data. Accelerometer data from a 3-2-2-2 nine accelerometer array, located in the test dummy headpart, is processed to extract both rotational and translational velocity components at the headpart center of gravity with respect to inertial coordinates. The resulting generalized six degree-of-freedom description of headpart kinematics includes effects of all head impacts with the interior structure, and is used to characterize the momentum field and inertial loads which would be experienced by soft brain tissue under impact conditions. These kinematic descriptions are then applied to a finite element model of the brain to replicate dynamic loading for actual crash test conditions, and responses pertinent to brain injury are analyzed.
1995-11-01
Technical Paper
952710
Stanley H. Backaitis, Maurice E. Hicks, Priya Prasad, Tony Laituri, Jeffrey Nadeau
Locations of key body segments of Hybrid III dummies used in FMVSS 208 compliance tests and NCAP tests were measured and subjected to statistical analysis. Mean clearance dimensions and their standard deviations for selected body segments of driver and passenger occupants with respect to selected vehicle surfaces were determined for several classes of vehicles. These occupant locations were then investigated for correlation with impact responses measured in crash tests and by using a three dimensional human-dummy mathematical model in comparable settings. Based on these data, the importance of some of the clearance dimensions between the dummy and the vehicle surfaces was determined. The study also compares observed Hybrid III dummy positions within selected vehicles with real world occupant positions reported in published literature.
1995-11-01
Technical Paper
952700
Dimitrios Kallieris, Andreas Rizzetti, Rainer Mattern, Richard Morgan, Rolf Eppinger, Lori Keenan
The number of passenger vehicles with combined 3-point belt/driver air bag restraint systems is steadily increasing. To investigate the effectiveness of this restraint combination, 48 kph frontal collisions were performed with human cadavers. Each cadaver's thorax was instrumented with a 12-accelerometer array and two chest bands. The results show, that by using a combined standard 3-point belt (6% elongation)/driver air bag, the thoracic injury pattern remained located under the shoulder belt. The same observation was found when belts with 16% elongation were used in combination with the driver air bag. Chest contours derived from the chest bands showed high local compression and deformation of the chest along the shoulder belt path, and suggest the mechanism for the thoracic injuries.
1995-11-01
Technical Paper
952730
Kathleen DeSantis Klinich, Michael S. Beebe, Stanley H. Backaitis
A proposed modification to the Hybrid III 50th percentile male dummy upper femur appears to reduce the chest response problems resulting from femur-pelvis interaction in test exposures more severe than Standard No. 208 testing. When compared to overall repeatability of tests, the modification did not change other dummy response measurements appreciably. The femur-pelvis interaction problem, referred to as “hip lock”, was thought to occur in certain vehicles when the femurs of a passenger side dummy impacting only an air bag bottomed out against the pelvis structure. If metal-to-metal contact occurred, excessive load could be transferred to the chest, leading to elevated chest responses. The most pertinent signs of hip lock occurring appear to be a large, sharply pointed z chest acceleration, and a distinct positive component of the lumbar spine z force following the main negative component.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930104
Steven W. Kirkpatrick, Bayard S. Holmes, William T. Hollowell, Hampton C. Gabler, Thomas J. Trella
A new numerical model of the side impact dummy (SID) was developed based on the DYNA3D finite element code. The model includes all of the material and structural details of SID that influence its performance in crash testing and can be run on an engineering work station in a reasonable time. This paper describes the development of the finite element model and compares model predictions of acceleration and displacements with measurements made in SID calibration experiments. Preliminary parameter studies with the model show the influence of material properties and design on the measurements made with the SID instrument.
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