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Viewing 1 to 30 of 43
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1895
George Karavalakis, Stamoulis Stournas, George Fontaras, Zissis Samaras, George Dedes, Evangelos Bakeas
This study examines the effects of neat soy-based biodiesel (B100) and its 50% v/v blend (B50) with low sulphur automotive diesel on vehicle PAH emissions. The measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) according to the European regulated technique. The vehicle was a Euro 2 compliant diesel passenger car, equipped with a 1.9 litre common-rail turbocharged direct injection engine and an oxidation catalyst. Emissions of PAHs, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs were measured over the urban phase (UDC) and the extra-urban phase (EUDC) of the type approval cycle (NEDC). In addition, for evaluating realistic driving performance the non-legislated Artemis driving cycles (Urban, Road and Motorway) were used. Overall, 12 PAHs, 4 nitro-PAHs, and 6 oxy-PAHs were determined. The results indicated that PAH emissions exhibited a reduction with biodiesel during all driving modes.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2690
George Karavalakis, Stamoulis Stournas, Dimitrios Ampatzoglou, Evangelos Bakeas, Apostolos Spanos
In this study, regulated, unregulated exhaust emissions and fuel consumption with ultra low sulphur diesel and soy-based biodiesel blends at proportions of 10 and 30% v/v have been investigated. A Euro 4 compliant SUV, equipped with a 2.2 litre common-rail diesel engine and an oxidation catalyst was tested on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) technique. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the non-legislated Artemis driving cycles which simulate urban, rural, and highway driving conditions in Europe. The regulated pollutants were characterized by determined NOx, PM, CO, and HC. CO2 was also quantified in the exhaust. Overall, 16 PAHs, 4 nitro-PAHs, 6 oxy-PAHs, 13 carbonyl compounds and particulate alkanes ranged from C13 to C35 were determined in the exhaust.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2775
Stamatios Spyridon Kalligeros, Fanourios Zannikos, Evripidis Lois, George Anastopoulos
Abstract Problems with the low-temperature operability performance of biodiesel in blends with petroleum diesel are infrequent, but continue to limit the use of biodiesel during winter months. A troubling aspect of this problem is that in some cases precipitates above the blend Cloud Point (CP) have been detected and have led to plugging of fuel filters and subsequent engine stalling, as well as plugging of fuel dispenser filters. Many researchers found that the saturated monoglyceride content was a main component of the material that was found on plugged fuel filters, as well as traces of Saturated DiGlycerides (SDG), were also present on the plugged fuel filters. This is the reason which forced the organization of standardization to suggest a procedure in order to predict the content of the Saturated MonoGlycerides (SMG) even with uncertainty which can vary from −50% to +50%. The model which was used will be the same as that which was introduced in the Annex C of EN 14214+A1:2013.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1155
Antonis Antonopoulos, Dimitrios Hountalas
Cylinder pressure measurements are common practice for internal combustion reciprocating engines during field or lab applications for the purpose of combustion analysis, condition monitoring etc. The most accurate method is to measure cylinder pressure using a crank angle encoder as a trigger source to guarantee cylinder pressure measurement at predefined crank angle events. This solution, even though favorable, presents a number of practical difficulties for field applications and increased cost, for this reason its use is practically restricted to lab applications. Therefore a commonly used approach for ad hoc measurements is to digitize samples at fixed time intervals and then convert time into crank angle assuming a constant rotational speed. But if engine rotational speed is not constant within the engine cycle this may result to incorrect cylinder pressure CA referencing.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
981021
C. D. Rakopoulos, D. T. Hountalas
A three-dimensional multi-zone combustion model is developed for the description of the combustion mechanism inside the engine cylinder of direct injection diesel engines. Various multi-zone models have been proposed in the past for the prediction of DI diesel engine performance and emissions. These models offer an alternative tool if one wants to avoid the use of other more complicated and sophisticated flow models that require high computational times. Most of them have the disadvantage that they focus mainly on emissions, failing to predict at the same time engine performance adequately. In almost all multi-zone models the resulting fuel jet after injection, which is divided into zones, is assumed to be symmetrical around its axis. In the present work a different approach is followed. The fuel jet is divided into zones in the three dimensions overcoming the need for the previous symmetry assumption.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970635
D. A. Kouremenos, C. D. Rakopoulos, D. T. Hountalas
In the past years various models have been proposed for the modelling of performance and pollutants emissions from DI diesel engines. These models range from complicated 3D detailed ones up to simple two zone phenomenological ones. The latter ones although simple offer solutions in engine study and are widely used due to their low computational cost and simplicity. In the present work a multi-zone model for direct injection diesel engines is presented together with its application on a direct injection diesel engine located at the authors laboratory. Multi-zone models usually fail to predict adequately both pollutants emissions and performance and thus focus mainly on pollutants emissions. Of course this is not acceptable since the formation of pollutants is strongly related to the combustion mechanism. In the present work an effort has been made to overcome this problem and predict both performance and emissions throughout the engine operating range.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970634
C. D. Rakopoulos, D. T. Hountalas, G. C. Mavropoulos, E. G. Giakoumis
A comprehensive transient analysis simulation model is used for the calculation of diesel engine performance under variable speed and load conditions. The analysis includes a detailed description of engine subsystems under transient conditions, thus accounting for the continuously changing character of transient operation, simulating among others the fuel injection, transient mechanical friction, heat losses to the walls and governor operation. The results of engine performance, at every time step during the transient event, are used as inputs for the formulation of thermal boundary conditions, which are needed for the calculation in a parallel way of the thermal transients propagating inside the engine structure.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970633
C. D. Rakopoulos, E. G. Giakoumis, D. T. Hountalas
A transient analysis simulation program is developed for studying the response of an indirect injection, naturally aspirated, diesel engine after a rapid increase in load when this is equipped with various types of indirect acting governors. Analytical expressions are presented for the better simulation of engine mechanical friction, inertia moments and heat loss to the walls under transient conditions, governor dynamics for both the sensing element and the servopiston, soot emissions and the fuel pump operation. Various types of governor sensing elements (i.e. mechanical, electrical, two-pulse) and feedbacks (i.e. unity and vanishing) for the servomechanism are studied. Explicit diagrams are given to show how each combination of governor type and technical parameters (i.e. mass and number of flyweights, geometrical dimensions, amplification factors) affects the speed response as well as the speed droop and the recovery period of the particular engine.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1383
E. G. Pariotis, D. T. Hountalas, C. D. Rakopoulos
In the present work a sensitivity analysis is conducted using a multi-zone phenomenological model developed in the past by the author's, to estimate the effect of model's constants on engine performance and emissions. The constants used for this analysis are those embedded in the semi-empirical relations of the model, regarding air entrainment rate, combustion rate, ignition delay and evaporation rate. The model is applied on a heavy duty supercharged DI diesel engine and the effect of each of these constants on measurable engine parameters is defined. From the sensitivity analysis the relation between model constants and engine output data is derived. These results are used to define a constants determination procedure. The target is to define a limited number of adjustable constants so that the procedure can be of practical use.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1673
R. G. Papagiannakis, P. N. Kotsiopoulos, D. T. Hountalas, E. Yfantis
During the last years a great effort has been made by many NATO nations to move towards the use of one military fuel for all the land-based military aircraft, vehicles and equipment employed on the military arena. This idea is known to as the Single Fuel Concept (SFC). The fuel selected for the idea of SFC is the JP-8 (F-34) military aviation fuel which is based upon the civil jet fuel F-35 (Jet A-1) with the inclusion of military additives possessing anti-icing and lubricating properties. An extended experimental investigation has been conducted in the laboratory of Thermodynamic and Propulsion Systems at the Hellenic Air Force Academy. This investigation was conducted with the collaboration of the respective laboratories of National Technical University of Athens and Hellenic Naval Academy as well.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0136
C. D. Rakopoulos, E. G. Giakoumis, A. M. Dimaratos
The modeling of transient turbocharged diesel engine operation appeared in the early seventies and continues to be in the focal point of research, due to the importance of transient response in the everyday operating conditions of engines. The majority of research has focused so far on issues concerning thermodynamic modeling, as these directly affect heat release predictions and consequently performance and pollutants emissions. On the other hand, issues concerning the dynamics of transient operation are often disregarded or over-simplified, possibly for the sake of speeding up program execution time. In the present work, an experimentally validated transient diesel engine simulation code is used to study and evaluate the importance of such dynamic issues. First of all, the development of various forces (piston, connecting rod, crank and main crankshaft bearings) is computed and illustrated in order to evaluate the importance of abrupt load increases on the bearings durability.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0120
D. T. Hountalas, G. C. Mavropoulos, T. C. Zannis
Despite the improvement in HD Diesel engine out emissions future emission legislation requires significant reduction of both NOx and particulate matter. To accomplish this task various solutions exist involving both internal and external measures. As widely recognized, it will be possibly required to employ both types of measures to meet future emission limits. Towards this direction, it is necessary to reduce NOx further using internal measures. Several solutions exist in that area, but the most feasible ones according to the present status of technical knowledge are EGR, water injection or fuel/water emulsions. These technologies aim to the reduction of both the gas temperature and oxygen concentration inside the combustion chamber that strongly affect NOx formation. However, there remain open points mainly concerning the effectiveness of water addition techniques and penalties related to bsfc and soot emissions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1405
Dimitrios T. Hountalas, Dimitrios A. Kouremenos, Scott B. Fiveland
Simulation models are widely used from research engineers to investigate the combustion mechanism of DI diesel engines. These models can be used, as tools to either comprehend information provided by experimental data or to perform predictions and assist the development process. As widely recognized a valuable source of information for engine performance and emissions studies is the cylinder pressure trace. It can provide after processing information concerning the combustion rate of fuel injected inside the combustion chamber. Often it is also used to calibrate simulation models or even to derive correlations to represent the combustion rate of fuel inside the combustion chamber. The present research team has during the development process of a simulation model for the description of DI diesel engine performance and emissions realized that there exists a serious problem.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-3033
D. M. Korres, E. Lois, D. Karonis
The present paper aims to discuss the quality characteristics of Jet Fuels used in the Greek market in comparison with fuels used in other countries and to evaluate jet fuels along with diesel and biodiesel on a diesel engine. To establish the quality characteristics for Jet Fuels of the Greek market, fuel samples were collected from the local refineries on a regular basis, thus monitoring the fuel quality fluctuation over time. JP8, along with diesel and biodiesel, were used alone and in mixtures on a single cylinder stationary diesel engine. Emissions and volumetric fuel consumption were measured under various loads.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1131
C. D. Rakopoulos, E. G. Giakoumis
A second-law analysis is performed in both chambers of an indirect injection turbocharged diesel engine and the simulation program developed is used to study the second-law performance of the engine at various operating conditions, steady state and transient. The simulation developed is based on the filling and emptying approach and provides detailed analysis of thermodynamic, dynamic and second-law differential equations on a degree crank angle basis. It incorporates a detailed mathematical simulation of the fuel pump and solves each equation separately for each one of the six cylinders of the engine in hand. The model is validated against experimental data at steady state and transient conditions, obtained at the authors' laboratory. The prechamber rate and cumulative availability terms and irreversibilities are computed and depicted against the main chamber ones during the 720 degrees crank angle of an engine cycle.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1125
E. G. Pariotis, D. T. Hountalas, C. D. Rakopoulos
The model has already been applied on an old technology, naturally aspirated HSDI Diesel engine and on a heavy-duty turbocharged DI one equipped with a high pressure PLN fuel injection system, and the results were satisfying as far as performance and pollutant emissions (Soot and NO) are concerned. Taking into account that the main scope of engine simulation models is to assist engineers and researchers to understand the complex mechanisms involved in diesel engine combustion and pollutants formation and that through the continues engine development, new techniques are implemented, it is obvious that engine simulation models must always be enhanced with new features in order to be kept up-to-date. In this study the model has been modified to take into account the effect of EGR, since the latter one is a measure that will be used more extensively in the future to control NO emissions from turbocharged HDDI Diesel engines.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0926
C. D. Rakopoulos, D. T. Hountalas, D. C. Rakopoulos, E. G. Giakoumis
A heat release analysis of experimental pressure diagrams, appropriate for indirect injection (divided chamber) diesel engines, is developed and used to obtain heat release rate profiles during the combustion process in each combustion chamber. Attention is paid to the correct processing of the data, due to the inherent complexity of the mass interchange between the two combustion chambers. The analysis concerns a turbocharged, indirect injection diesel engine, having a very small pre-chamber and a very narrow connecting passageway, operated at various load and speed conditions, located at the authors' laboratory. An extended experimental work, at steady-state conditions, is conducted on a specially developed test bed configuration of this engine, which is connected to a high-speed data acquisition and processing system.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0171
N.P. Komninos, D.T. Hountalas, D.A. Kouremenos
In the present work, a multi-zone model is presented for the simulation of HCCI engines. This model is an improvement of a previous one developed by the authors. The present model describes the combustion, heat and mass transfer processes for the closed part of the engine cycle, i.e. compression, combustion and expansion. The zones occupy geometrical positions within the engine cylinder and exchange heat and mass throughout the compression and expansion strokes, based on their spatial configuration. Heat exchange is considered between zones and to the cylinder wall. A phenomenological model has been developed to describe mass exchange between zones and the flow of a portion of the in-cylinder mixture in and out of the crevice region. The crevice flow is a new feature and is included in the present model since the crevice regions are considered to contribute to unburned HC emissions.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0225
C. D. Rakopoulos, C. N. Michos, E. G. Giakoumis
The transient operation of turbocharged diesel engines during turbocharger compressor surging is investigated through simulation. This form of compressor dynamic instability can generate large amplitude compressor mass flow and pressure rise oscillations, sometimes leading even to flow reversals, and may also induce severe torsional loading to the turbocharger shaft. A model predicting the dynamic behavior of the engine air-charging system when compressor surging occurs was developed in conjunction with a linearized quasi-steady diesel engine simulation code. This analysis possesses the advantage over the more detailed engine codes of basic simplicity, speed of calculation and no need of many engine and turbocharger components parameters given as input data. Emphasis is given to the correct modeling of the physics of the phenomena concerned. Transient operation runs, including critical cases for surging initiation, were applied for two similar six-cylinder diesel engines.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0562
N.P. Komninos, D.T. Hountalas, D.A. Kouremenos
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines have the potential of reducing NOx emissions as compared to conventional Diesel or SI engines. Soot emissions are also very low due to the premixed nature of combustion. However, the unburned hydrocarbon emissions are relatively high and the same holds for CO emissions. The formation of these pollutants, for a given fuel, is strongly affected by the temperature distribution as well as by the charge motion within the engine cylinder. The foregoing physical mechanisms determine the local ignition timing and burning rate of the charge affecting engine efficiency, performance and stability. Obviously the success of any model describing HCCI combustion depends on its ability to describe adequately both the chemistry of combustion and the physical phenomena, i.e. heat and mass transfer within the cylinder charge. In the present study a multi-zone model is developed to describe the heat and mass transfer mechanism within the cylinder.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0926
C. D. Rakopoulos, E. G. Giakoumis, D. T Hountalas, D. C. Rakopoulos
Thermodynamic, dynamic and design parameters have a significant and often conflicting impact on the transient response of a compression ignition engine. Knowing the contribution of each parameter on transient operation could direct the designer to the appropriate measures for better engine performance. To this aim an explicit simulation program developed is used to study the performance of a turbocharged diesel engine operating under transient load conditions. The simulation developed, based on the filling and emptying approach, provides various innovations as follows: Detailed analysis of thermodynamic and dynamic differential equations, on a degree crank angle basis, accounting for the continuously changing nature of transient operation, analysis of transient mechanical friction, and also a detailed mathematical simulation of the fuel pump. Each equation in the model is solved separately for every cylinder of the 6-cylinder diesel engine considered.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0838
T. C. Zannis, D. T. Hountalas, R. G. Papagiannakis, Y. A. Levendis
During recent years, the deterioration of greenhouse phenomenon, in conjunction with the continuous increase of worldwide fleet of vehicles and crude oil prices, raised heightened concerns over both the improvement of vehicle mileage and the reduction of pollutant emissions. Diesel engines have the highest fuel economy and thus, highest CO2 reduction potential among all other thermal propulsion engines due to their superior thermal efficiency. However, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel engines are comparatively higher than those emitted from modern gasoline engines. Therefore, reduction of diesel emitted pollutants and especially, PM and NOx without increase of specific fuel consumption or let alone improvement of diesel fuel economy is a difficult problem, which requires immediate and drastic actions to be taken.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1326
G. C. Mavropoulos, C. D. Rakopoulos, D. T. Hountalas
An experimental analysis is carried out to investigate several heat transfer characteristics during the engine cycle, in the combustion chamber and exhaust manifold walls of a direct injection (DI), air-cooled, diesel engine. For this purpose, a novel experimental installation has been developed, which separates the engine transient temperature signals into two groups, namely the long-and the short- term response ones, processing the respective signals in two independent data acquisition systems. Furthermore, a new pre-amplification unit for fast response thermocouples, appropriate heat flux sensors and an innovative, object-oriented, control code for fast data acquisition have been designed and applied. Experimentally obtained cylinder pressure diagrams together with semi-empirical equations for instantaneous heat transfer were used as basis for the calculation of overall heat transfer coefficient.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4043
G. Karavalakis, E. Tzirakis, F. Zannikos, S. Stournas, E. Bakeas, N. Arapaki, A. Spanos
The need of a more realistic and dynamic driving cycle which simulates real-world driving conditions in the largest city in the greater area of Balkans, led to the development of the Athens Driving Cycle (ADC). Emission and fuel consumption measurements were conducted over the ADC and compared with those of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) using a chassis dynamometer. A Euro II compliant diesel vehicle was used in this study, fuelled with a typical automotive diesel fuel and biodiesel blends at proportions of 5, 10, and 20 % respectively. The unregulated emissions were characterized by determining the soluble organic fraction (SOF) in the particulate matter, together with qualitative hydrocarbon analysis present in the SOF fraction, and of carbonyl compounds (aldehydes, ketones). Emissions of NOx, CO, THC, CO2, and PM10 were also measured over the two test cycles.
2008-10-06
Journal Article
2008-01-2503
Dimitrios Karonis, George Anastopoulos, Evripidis Lois, Stamoulis Stournas
This study examines the impact of ETBE and ethanol addition on the main properties of motor gasoline. European Union mandates the use of biofuels in all transport fuels, according to the 2003/30/EC Directive. The addition of ethanol, a known octane enhancing component, in small proportions significantly increases the vapor pressure of the final gasoline, exceeding the maximum specification limits. ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) is on the other hand an excellent but expensive octane enhancing component with beneficial impact on vapor pressure of the final gasoline. This paper examines the ability of ETBE to act as a stabilizer in gasoline - ethanol blends. Two gasoline samples with different chemical compositions and characteristics were prepared by blending basic refinery components. In each sample, ETBE was added in concentrations of 2, 4, and 6 % V/V respectively. In each of these ETBE - gasoline blends, ethanol was added in concentrations from 1 to 6 % V/V in 1% steps.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1122
G. C. Mavropoulos, C. D. Rakopoulos, D. T. Hountalas
In this paper, the results are presented from the analysis of the second stage of an experimental investigation with the aim to provide insight to the cyclic, instantaneous heat transfer phenomena occurring in both the cylinder head and exhaust manifold wall surfaces of a direct injection (DI), air-cooled diesel engine. Results from the first stage of the investigation concerning steady-state engine operation have already been presented by the authors in this series. In this second stage, the mechanism of cyclic heat transfer was investigated during engine transient events, viz. after a sudden change in engine speed and/or load, both for the combustion chamber and exhaust manifold surfaces. The modified experimental installation allowed both long- and short-term signal types to be recorded on a common time reference base during the transient event.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0681
V. T. Lamaris, D. T. Hountalas
A difficulty which exists when applying diagnostic techniques on large-scale diesel engines operating on the field, is that usually it is not possible to obtain measurement data at a wide engine operating range due to a number of constraints. In the present work is investigated the possibility to overcome this practical difficulty originating from the test procedure for engines operating on the field (i.e. marine or stationary applications). The main objective is to examine if a diagnosis procedure provides similar results when applied at various engine operating conditions. For this purpose an existing diagnostic technique, developed by the authors, is applied at different operating conditions on a large-scale two-stroke diesel engine used for power generation in a Greek island.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0931
C.D. Rakopoulos, C.N. Michos, E.G. Giakoumis
In this work, a quasi-dimensional, multi-zone combustion model is analytically presented, for the prediction of performance and nitric oxide (NO) emissions of a homogeneous charge spark ignition (SI) engine, fueled with biogas-H2 blends of variable composition. The combustion model is incorporated into a closed cycle simulation code, which is also fully described. Combustion is modeled on the basis of turbulent entrainment theory and flame stretch concepts. In this context, the entrainment speed, by which unburned gas enters the flame region, is simulated by the turbulent burning velocity of a flamelet model. A flame stretch submodel is also included, in order to assess the flame response on the combined effects of curvature, turbulent strain and nonunity Lewis number mixture. As far as the burned gas is concerned, this is treated using a multi-zone thermodynamic formulation, to account for the spatial distribution of temperature and NO concentration inside the burned volume.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1788
D. Karonis, G. Anastopoulos, F. Zannikos, S. Stournas, E. Lois
In this study, the transesterification process of 4 different vegetable oils (sunflower, rapeseed, olive oil and used frying oil) took place utilizing ethanol, in order to characterize the ethyl esters and their blends with diesel fuel obtained as fuels for internal combustion engines. All ethyl esters were synthesized using calcium ethoxide as a heterogeneous solid base catalyst. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil, the molar ratio of ethanol to oil, and the reaction temperature were studied on conversion of sunflower oil to optimize the reaction conditions in both stages. The rest of the vegetable oils were converted to ethyl esters under optimum reaction parameters. The optimal conditions for first stage transesterification were an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, catalyst amount (3.5%), and 80 °C temperature, whereas the maximum yield of ethyl esters reached 80.5%.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2320
George S. Dodos, Chrysovalanti E. Tsesmeli, Iraklis Zahos Siagos, Theodora Tyrovola, Dimitrios Karonis, Fanourios Zannikos
Abstract FAME is the most common renewable component of conventional automotive diesel. Despite the advantages, biodiesel is more susceptible to oxidative deterioration and due to its chemical composition as well as its higher affinity to water, is considered to be a favorable substrate for microorganisms. On the other hand, apart from biodiesel, alcohols are considered to be promising substitutes to conventional diesel fuel because they can offer higher oxygen concentration leading to better combustion characteristics and lower exhaust emissions. More specifically, n-butanol is a renewable alcohol demonstrating better blending capabilities and properties when it is added to diesel fuel, as its composition is closer to conventional fuel, when compared ethanol to for example. Taking into consideration the alleged disinfectant properties of alcohols, it would be interesting to examine also the microbial stability of blends containing n-butanol in various concentrations.
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