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Viewing 1 to 30 of 52
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1939
Mehdi Abarham, John Hoard, Dennis N. Assanis, Dan Styles, Eric W. Curtis, Nitia Ramesh, C. Scott Sluder, John M. E. Storey
EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0618
Zhenhong Lin, David Greene
To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1218
Paul Chambon, Shean Huff, Kevin Norman, K. Dean Edwards, John Thomas, Vitaly Prikhodko
Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.01 LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1585
Zhiming Gao, C. Stuart Daw, David E. Smith
We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines. Our simulations utilize previously published models of transient engine-out emissions and models of aftertreatment devices for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions were estimated for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles operating over single and multiple urban drive cycles. Comparisons between the gasoline and diesel vehicle fuel consumptions and emissions were used to identify potential advantages and technical barriers for diesel hybrids.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1578
Maruthi Devarakonda, Jong Lee, George Muntean, Josh Pihl, Stuart Daw
Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are the leading aftertreatment technology for diesel engines, but there are major challenges associated with meeting future NO x emission standards, especially under transient drive cycle conditions that include large swings in exhaust temperatures. Here we present a simplified, transient, one-dimensional integral model of NO x reduction by NH₃ on a commercial small-pore Cu-zeolite urea-SCR catalyst for which detailed kinetic parameters have not been published. The model was developed and validated using data acquired from bench reactor experiments on a monolith core, following a transient SCR reactor protocol. The protocol incorporates NH₃ storage, NH₃ oxidation, NO oxidation and three global SCR reactions under isothermal conditions, at three space velocities and at three NH₃/NO x ratios.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0879
Jan-Mou Li, David Smith
Abstract Driver is a key component in vehicle simulation. An ideal driver model simulates driving patterns a human driver may perform to negotiate road profiles. There are simulation packages having the capability to simulate driver behavior. However, it is rarely documented how they work with road profiles. This paper proposes a new truck driver model for vehicle simulation to imitate actual driving behavior in negotiating road grade and curvature. The proposed model is developed based upon Gipps' car-following model. Road grade and curvature were not considered in the original Gipps' model although it is based directly on driver behavior and expectancy for vehicles in a stream of traffic. New parameters are introduced to capture drivers' choice of desired speeds that they intend to use in order to negotiating road grade and curvature simultaneously. With the new parameters, the proposed model can emulate behaviors like uphill preparation for different truck drivers.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0818
Forrest Jehlik, Tim Laclair
Response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were applied to develop a predictive model of electric vehicle (EV) energy consumption over the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standardized drive cycles. The model is based on measurements from a synthetic composite drive cycle. The synthetic drive cycle is a minimized statistical composite of the standardized urban (UDDS), highway (HWFET), and US06 cycles. The composite synthetic drive cycle is 20 minutes in length thereby reducing testing time of the three standard EPA cycles by over 55%. Vehicle speed and acceleration were used as model inputs for a third order least squared regression model predicting vehicle battery power output as a function of the drive cycle. The approach reduced three cycles and 46 minutes of drive time to a single test of 20 minutes.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0362
Karthik V. Puduppakkam, Long Liang, Anthony Shelburn, Chitralkumar V. Naik, Ellen Meeks, Bruce Bunting
To accurately predict emissions as well as combustion phasing in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine, detailed chemistry needs to be used in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling. In this work, CFD simulations of an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) gasoline HCCI engine have been performed with full coupling to detailed chemistry. Engine experiments using an E30 gasoline surrogate blend were performed at ORNL, which included measurements of several trace species in the exhaust gas. CFD modeling using a detailed mechanism for the same fuel composition used in the experiments was also performed. Comparisons between data and model are made over a range of intake temperatures. The (experiment & model) surrogate blend consists of 33 wt % ethanol, 8.7 % n-heptane and 58.3 % iso-octane. The data and simulations involve timing sweeps using intake temperature to control combustion phasing at a constant fuel rate.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0882
Zhiming Gao, Kalyana Chakravarthy, Charles Daw, James Conklin
A transient, one-dimensional lean NOx trap (LNT) model is described and implemented for vehicle systems simulations. The model accounts for conservation of chemical species and thermal energy, and includes the effects of O₂ storage and NOx storage (in the form of nitrites and nitrates). Nitrites and nitrates are formed by diffusion of NO and NO₂, respectively, into sorbent particles, and reaction rates are controlled by chemical kinetics and solid-phase diffusion. The model also accounts for thermal aging and sulfation by means of empirical correlations, which have been derived from laboratory experiments. Example simulation results using the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) are presented.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2645
Bruce G. Bunting, Scott J. Eaton, Robert W. Crawford
The nine CRC fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE fuels) have been evaluated in a simple, premixed HCCI engine under varying conditions of fuel rate, air-fuel ratio, and intake temperature. Engine performance was found to vary mainly as a function of combustion phasing as affected by fuel cetane and engine control variables. The data was modeled using statistical techniques involving eigenvector representation of the fuel properties and engine control variables, to define engine response and allow optimization across the fuels for best fuel efficiency. In general, the independent manipulation of intake temperature and air-fuel ratio provided some opportunity for improving combustion efficiency of a specific fuel beyond the direct effect of targeting the optimum combustion phasing of the engine (near 5 CAD ATDC).
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2741
Jeffery A. Massey, James A. Drallmeier, Scott J. Eaton, Robert M. Wagner
Large cyclic variability along with increased combustion noise present in low temperature combustion (LTC) modes of internal combustion engines has driven the need for fast response, robust sensors for diagnostics and feedback control. Accelerometers have been shown as a possible technology for diagnostics and feedback control of advanced LTC operation in internal combustion engines. To make better use of this technology, an improved understanding is necessary of the effect of energy release from the combustion process on engine surface vibrations. This study explores the surface acceleration response for a single-cylinder engine operating with homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. Preliminary investigation of the engine surface accelerations is conducted using a finite element analysis of the engine cylinder jacket along with consideration of cylindrical modes of the engine cylinder.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2562
John Thomas
Abstract Vehicle manufacturers among others are putting great emphasis on improving fuel economy (FE) of light-duty vehicles in the U.S. market, with significant FE gains being realized in recent years. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data indicates that the aggregate FE of vehicles produced for the U.S. market has improved by over 20% from model year (MY) 2005 to 2013. This steep climb in FE includes changes in vehicle choice, improvements in engine and transmission technology, and reducing aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, and parasitic losses. The powertrain related improvements focus on optimizing in-use efficiency of the transmission and engine as a system, and may make use of what is termed downsizing and/or downspeeding. This study quantifies recent improvements in powertrain efficiency, viewed separately from other vehicle alterations and attributes (noting that most vehicle changes are not completely independent).
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1113
John Thomas, Ho-Ling Hwang, Brian West, Shean Huff
The fueleconomy.gov website provides information such as “window label” fuel economy for city, highway, and combined driving for all U.S.-legal light-duty vehicles from 1984 to present. The site is jointly maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and also offers a considerable amount of consumer information and advice pertaining to vehicle fuel economy and energy-related issues. Included with advice pertaining to driving styles and habits is information concerning the trend that as highway cruising speed is increased, fuel economy will degrade. An effort was undertaken to quantify this “conventional wisdom” through analysis of dynamometer testing results for 74 vehicles at steady-state speeds from 50 to 80 mph. Using this experimental data, several simple models were developed to predict individual vehicle fuel economy and its rate of change over the 50-80 mph speed range interval.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0344
Gilsu Choi, Zhuxian Xu, Ming Li, Shiv Gupta, Thomas Jahns, Fred Wang, Neil A. Duffie, Laura Marlino
This paper introduces a promising approach for developing an integrated traction motor drive based on the Integrated Modular Motor Drive (IMMD) concept. The IMMD concept strives to meet aggressive power density and performance targets by modularizing both the machine and power electronics and then integrating them into a single combined machine-plus-drive structure. Physical integration of the power electronics inside the machine makes it highly desirable to increase the power electronics operating temperature including higher power semiconductor junction temperatures and improved device packaging. Recent progress towards implementing the IMMD concept in an integrated traction motor drive is summarized in this paper. Several candidate permanent magnet (PM) machine configurations with different numbers of phases between 3 and 6 are analyzed to compare their performance characteristics and key application features.
2012-11-15
Journal Article
2012-01-2305
C. Scott Sluder, Brian H. West, Keith E. Knoll
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires the U.S. to use 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel per year by 2022. Domestic ethanol production has increased steadily in recent years, growing from less than 5 billion gallons per year (bgpy) in 2006 to over 13 bgpy in 2010. While there is interest in developing non-oxygenated renewable fuels for use in conventional vehicles as well as interest in expanding flex-fuel vehicle (FFV) production for increased E85 use, there remains concern that EISA compliance will require further use of oxygenated biofuels in conventional vehicles. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently granted partial approval to a waiver allowing the use of E15 in 2001 and newer light-duty vehicles.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0361
Tim J. LaClair
Accurately predicting the fuel savings that can be achieved with the implementation of various technologies developed for fuel efficiency can be very challenging, particularly when considering combinations of technologies. Differences in the usage of highway vehicles can strongly influence the benefits realized with any given technology, which makes generalizations about fuel savings inappropriate for different vehicle applications. A model has been developed to estimate the potential for reducing fuel consumption when advanced efficiency technologies, or combinations of these technologies, are employed on highway vehicles, particularly medium- and heavy-duty trucks. The approach is based on a tractive energy analysis applied to drive cycles representative of the vehicle usage, and the analysis specifically accounts for individual energy loss factors that characterize the technologies of interest.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980624
C. E. A. Finney, J. B. Green, C. S. Daw
We present techniques of symbolic time-series analysis which are useful for analyzing temporal patterns in dynamic measurements of engine combustion variables. We focus primarily on techniques that characterize predictability and the occurrence of repeating temporal patterns. These methods can be applied to standard, cycle-resolved engine combustion measurements, such as IMEP and heat release. The techniques are especially useful in cases with high levels of measurement and/or dynamic noise. We illustrate their application to experimental data from a production V8 engine and a laboratory single-cylinder engine.
1998-08-11
Technical Paper
982113
S. Viswanathan, A. S. Sabau, A. J. Duncan, Q. Han
The computer-aided-design and analysis of a robust casting process requires the optimization of both mold filling and solidification. A number of commercial casting codes are available for modeling the fluid flow during mold filling and the heat transfer during solidification. The next generation casting process models will build on present capabilities to allow the prediction of microporosity and other defects and microstructure. This paper will discuss the issues involved in the development of next generation casting process models and present results from a computer model for microporosity prediction that is based on first principles, and will take into account alloy composition, alloy microstructure, the initial hydrogen content of the liquid alloy, and the resistance to inter-dendritic fluid flow to feed shrinkage.
1998-08-11
Technical Paper
982112
G. M. Ludtka, W. H. Elliott, Tracy Pattok
The heat treatment of steel parts is an essential step in the manufacturing of high-performance components for a variety of commercial and military products. Distortion in the size and shape of parts resulting from the heat treatment process is a pervasive manufacturing problem that causes higher finishing costs, excessive scrap and rework, long delivery times, and negative environmental impact. To date, techniques that have been developed to reduce or eliminate heat treatment distortion are largely based on experience and have been limited to trial and error. This presentation describes the philosophy and results of an ongoing collaborative project to develop a methodology and computer simulation capability to predict ferrous alloy component response (distortion, residual stress, and microstructure) to industrial heat treatment processes for automotive, truck, bearing, and aerospace applications.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1336
Vlastimil Kunc, Lynn Klett, Zhongyan Qian, Frank Abdi, Brian Knouff
Three dimensional fabrics have seen increasing use lately as composite reinforcements. Advantages over prepreg or chopped fiber processes can include cost, handling, consistent quality, impact behavior, and resistance to delamination [1]. To gain acceptance in the transportation industry it is imperative that properties including dynamic and fatigue behavior be designable. A Progressive Failure Analysis (PFA) was developed jointly by Alpha Star Corp and NASA to predict fatigue life of composites and determine their damage mechanisms so that the life could be extended. The title of this software package is GENOA™, and it was used to focus on the three dimensional fabric called 3WEAVE™ made by 3TEX, Inc. It was discovered through fatigue testing that void content greatly affected fatigue life for the 3D E-glass fabric reinforcing a polyurethane modified vinyl ester resin called Dion 9800 from Reichhold. This is a common characteristic for most structural materials.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3562
Sujit Das, Anthony Mascarin
A systems-level modeling framework developed to estimate the life cycle cost of medium- and heavy-duty trucks is discussed in this paper. Costs are estimated at a resolution of five major subsystems and 30+ subsystems, each representing a specific manufacturing technology. Interrelationships among various subsystems affecting cost are accounted for. Results of a specific Class 8 truck are finally discussed to demonstrate the modeling framework's capability, including the analysis of cost-effectiveness of some of the competing alternative system design options being considered by the industry today.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3801
K. Dean Edwards, Robert M. Wagner, V. Kalyana Chakravarthy, C. Stuart Daw, Johney B. Green
Internal combustion engines are operated under conditions of high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce NOx emissions and promote enhanced combustion modes such as HCCI. However, high EGR under certain conditions also promotes nonlinear feedback between cycles, leading to the development of combustion instabilities and cyclic variability. We employ a two-zone phenomenological combustion model to simulate the onset of combustion instabilities under highly dilute conditions and to illustrate the impact of these instabilities on emissions and fuel efficiency. The two-zone in-cylinder combustion model is coupled to a WAVE engine-simulation code through a Simulink interface, allowing rapid simulation of several hundred successive engine cycles with many external engine parametric effects included.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1256
S. G. Arul, T. Pan, P.-C. Lin, J. Pan, Z. Feng, M. L. Santella
Microstructures and failure mechanisms of spot friction welds (SFW) in aluminum 5754 lap-shear specimens were investigated. In order to study the effect of tool geometry on the joint strength of spot friction welds, a concave tool and a flat tool were used. In order to understand the effect of tool penetration depth on the joint strength, spot friction welds were prepared with two different penetration depths for each tool. The results indicated that the concave tool produced slightly higher joint strength than the flat tool. The joint strength did not change for the two depths for the flat tool whereas the joint strength slightly increases as the penetration depth increases for the concave tool. The experimental results show that the failure mechanism is necking and shearing for the spot friction welds made by both tools. The failure was initiated and fractured through the upper sheet under the shoulder indentation near the crack tip.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0573
Sujit Das
The affordability of today's and future advanced technology vehicles (i.e., diesel, hybrid, and fuel cell) developed for improved fuel economy remains a concern with respect to final consumer acceptance. The automotive system cost model (ASCM) developed for the production cost estimates at a level of five major subsystems and 35+ components, has been used here to address the affordability issue of advanced technology vehicles. Scenarios encompassing five alternative powertrain and three body options for a mid-size vehicle under two different timeframes (i.e., 2002 and 2010) were considered to determine the cost-effectiveness of among the competing technology options within the same timeframe and between the two timeframes.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0293
K. Dean Edwards, Robert M. Wagner, Ronald L. Graves
Current political and environmental concerns are driving renewed efforts to develop techniques for improving the efficiency of internal combustion engines. A detailed thermodynamic analysis of an engine and its components from a 1st and 2nd Law perspective is necessary to characterize system losses and to identify efficiency opportunities. We have developed a method for performing this analysis using simulation results from commercially available engine-modeling software packages such as WAVE® from Ricardo, Inc., and GT-Power™ from Gamma Technologies, Inc. Results from the simulation are post-processed to compute thermodynamic properties such as internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, and availability (or exergy) which are required to perform energy and availability balances for the system. This analysis is performed for all major engine components (turbocharger, intercooler, EGR cooler, etc.) and for the engine as a whole as a function of crank angle over an entire engine cycle.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1378
Jessica L. Brakora, Youngchul Ra, Rolf D. Reitz, Joanna McFarlane, C. Stuart Daw
In the present study a reduced chemical reaction mechanism for biodiesel surrogate fuel was developed and validated for multi-dimensional engine combustion simulations. An existing detailed methyl butanoate mechanism that contained 264 species and 1219 reactions was chosen to represent the oxygenated portion of the fuel. The reduction process included flux analysis, ignition sensitivity analysis, and optimization of reaction rate constants under constant volume conditions. The current reduced mechanism consists of 41 species and 150 reactions and gives predictions in excellent agreement with those of the comprehensive mechanism. In order to validate the mechanism under biodiesel-fueled engine conditions, it was combined with another skeletal mechanism for n-heptane oxidation. This combined reaction mechanism can be used to adjust the energy content of the fuel, and account for diesel/biodiesel blend engine simulations.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1379
Youngchul Ra, Rolf D. Reitz, Joanna McFarlane, C. Stuart Daw
A computational study using multi-dimensional CFD modeling was performed to investigate the effects of physical properties on diesel engine combustion characteristics with bio-diesel fuels. Properties of typical bio-diesel fuels that were either calculated or measured are used in the study and the simulation results are compared with those of conventional diesel fuels. The sensitivity of the computational results to individual physical properties is also investigated, and the results provide information about the desirable characteristics of the blended fuels. The properties considered in the study include liquid density, vapor pressure, surface tension, liquid viscosity, liquid thermal conductivity, liquid specific heat, latent heat, vapor specific heat, vapor diffusion coefficient, vapor viscosity and vapor thermal conductivity. The results show significant effects of the fuel physical properties on ignition delay and burning rates at various engine operating conditions.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4059
Bruce G. Bunting, Robert W. Crawford, Les R. Wolf, Yi Xu
In order to meet common fuel specifications such as cetane number and volatility, a refinery must blend a number of refinery stocks derived from various process units in the refinery. Fuel chemistry can be significantly altered in meeting fuel specifications. Additionally, fuel specifications are seldom changed in isolation, and the drive to meet one specification may alter other specifications. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines depend on the kinetic behavior of a fuel to achieve reliable ignition and are expected to be more dependent on fuel specifications and chemistry than today's conventional engines. Regression analysis can help in determining the underlying relationships between fuel specifications, chemistry, and engine performance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used as an adjunct to regression analysis in this work, because of its ability to deal with co-linear variables and potential to uncover ‘hidden’ relationships between the variables.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4030
Kalyana Chakravarthy, Joanna McFarlane, Stuart Daw, Youngchul Ra, Rolf D. Reitz, Jelani Griffin
In this study we identify components of a typical biodiesel fuel and estimate both their individual and mixed thermo-physical and transport properties. We then use the estimated mixture properties in computational simulations to gauge the extent to which combustion is modified when biodiesel is substituted for conventional diesel fuel. Our simulation studies included both conventional diesel combustion (DI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). Preliminary results indicate that biodiesel ignition is significantly delayed due to slower liquid evaporation, with the effects being more pronounced for DI than PCCI. The lower vapor pressure and higher liquid heat capacity of biodiesel are two key contributors to this slower rate of evaporation. Other physical properties are more similar between the two fuels, and their impacts are not clearly evident in the present study.
2008-10-06
Journal Article
2008-01-2475
John Hoard, Mehdi Abarham, Dan Styles, Julia M. Giuliano, C. Scott Sluder, John M. E. Storey
The buildup of deposits in EGR coolers causes significant degradation in heat transfer performance, often on the order of 20-30%. Deposits also increase pressure drop across coolers and thus may degrade engine efficiency under some operating conditions. It is unlikely that EGR cooler deposits can be prevented from forming when soot and HC are present. The presence of cooled surfaces will cause thermophoretic soot deposition and condensation of HC and acids. While this can be affected by engine calibration, it probably cannot be eliminated as long as cooled EGR is required for emission control. It is generally felt that “dry fluffy” soot is less likely to cause major fouling than “heavy wet” soot. An oxidation catalyst in the EGR line can remove HC and has been shown to reduce fouling in some applications. The combination of an oxidation catalyst and a wall-flow filter largely eliminates fouling. Various EGR cooler designs affect details of deposit formation.
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