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Viewing 1 to 30 of 101
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2066
Mohamad S. Qatu, Javed Iqbal
The advantages of having higher stiffness to weight ratio and strength to weigh ratio that composite materials have resulted in an increased interest in them. In automotive engineering, the weight savings has positive impacts on other attributes like fuel economy and possible noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). The driveline of an automotive system can be a target for possible use of composite materials. The design of the driveshaft of an automotive system is primarily driven by its natural frequency. This paper presents an exact solution for the vibration of a composite driveshaft with intermediate joints. The joint is modeled as a frictionless internal hinge. The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used. Lumped masses are placed on each side of the joint to represent the joint mass. Equations of motion are developed using the appropriate boundary conditions and then solved exactly.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0993
Xu Chen, Lianxiang Yang, Xiaoming Chen, Constantin Chirac, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou
Abstract Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are increasingly used in automotive industry. A major issue for AHSS stamping is edge cracking. This failure mode is difficult to predict by conventional forming limit curve (FLC). The material edge stretchability is mainly evaluated using the hole expansion test. In this study, digital Image Correlation (DIC) is applied for strain measurement. DIC is a non-contact, full field, high accuracy and direct measurement technique that provides more detailed information for the evolution of strains on the sheet surface. Tests were conducted for five AHSS and nine cases. This paper will explain in detail the DIC technique and its results.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0825
Yi-Hsin Chen, Xu Chen, Nan Xu, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract The residual stresses found in components are mainly due to thermal, mechanical and metallurgical changes of material. The manufacturing processes such as fabrication, assembly, welding, rolling, heat treatment, shot peening etc. generate residual stresses in material. The influence of residual stress can be beneficial or detrimental depending on nature and distribution of the residual stress in material. In general, the compressive residual stress can increase the fatigue life of material because it provides greater resistance for crack initiation and propagation. A significant number of improvements for residual stress measurement techniques have occurred in last few decades. The most popular technique of residual stress measurement is based on the principle of strain gage rosette and hole drilling (ASTM E837-01, destructive).
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0824
Xin Xie, Yaqian Zheng, Xiaona Li, Bernard Sia, Ping Zhong, Guobiao Yang, Lianxiang Yang
Measuring deformation under dynamic loading is still a key problem in the automobile industry. The first spatial phase-shift shearography system for relative deformation measurement is reported. Traditional temporal phase-shift technique-based shearography systems are capable of measuring relative deformation by using a reference object. However, due to its low acquisition rate, the existing temporal phase-shift shearography system can be only used under static loading situations. This paper introduces a digital shearography system which utilizes the spatial phase-shift technique to obtain an extremely high acquisition rate. The newly developed spatial phase-shift shearography system uses a Michelson-Interferometer as the shearing device. A high power laser at 532nm wavelength is used as the light source. A one mega pixels high speed CCD camera is used to record the speckle pattern interference.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1018
Robert V. Petrach, David Schall, Qian Zou, Gary Barber, Randy Gu, Laila Guessous
Coatings have the potential to improve bearing tribological performance. However, every coating application process and material combination may create different residual stresses and coating microstructures, and their effect on bearing fatigue and wear performance is unclear. The aim of this work is to investigate coating induced residual stress effects on bearing failure indicators using a microstructural contact mechanics (MSCM) finite element (FE) model. The MSCM FE model consists of a two-dimensional FE model of a coated bearing surface under sliding contact where individual grains are represented by FE domains. Interactions between FE domains are represented using contact element pairs. Unique to this layered rolling contact FE model is the use of polycrystalline material models to represent realistic bearing and coating microstructural behavior. The MSCM FE model was compared to a second non-microstructural contact mechanics (non-MSCM) model.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0497
Jonah H. Lee, Qing Liu, Zissimos P. Mourelatos
The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of snow density on tire-snow interaction in the presence of uncertainty. The snow-depth dependent finite element analysis (FEA) and semi-analytical models we have developed recently can predict tire-snow interfacial forces at a given density under combined slip conditions. One drawback of the models is that they are only applicable for fresh, low-density snow due to the unavailability of a density-dependent snow model. In reality, the snow density on the ground can vary between that of fresh snow to heavily compacted snow that is similar to ice. Even for fresh snow on the ground, as a vehicle moves forward, the rear wheels experience higher snow densities than the front wheels. In addition, being a natural material, snow's physical properties vary significantly even for the same density.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0498
Y. P. Chang, Weidong Zhang
A nonlinear finite element passenger car radial-ply tire model was developed to investigate a tire's three-dimensional transmissibility in the X, Y, and Z directions. The reaction forces of the tire axle in longitudinal (X axis), lateral (Y axis), and vertical (Z axis) directions were recorded when the tire encountered a cleat, and then the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) algorithm was applied to extract tire's transient response information in the frequency domain. The result showed that this passenger car tire has clear peaks at 47-51 and 91-92 Hz longitudinal, 41-45 Hz lateral, and 80-83Hz vertical. An analytical rigid ring model was also formulated, based on the dynamic equations of the rigid ring tire model. The characteristic equations were obtained and solved for eigenvalues and eigenvectors, which represent tire's free vibration natural frequencies and mode shapes.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0425
Monica Majcher, Zissimos P. Mourelatos, Vasileios Geroulas, Igor Baseski, Amandeep Singh
Abstract Using the total probability theorem, we propose a method to calculate the failure rate of a linear vibratory system with random parameters excited by stationary Gaussian processes. The response of such a system is non-stationary because of the randomness of the input parameters. A space-filling design, such as optimal symmetric Latin hypercube sampling or maximin, is first used to sample the input parameter space. For each design point, the output process is stationary and Gaussian. We present two approaches to calculate the corresponding conditional probability of failure. A Kriging metamodel is then created between the input parameters and the output conditional probabilities allowing us to estimate the conditional probabilities for any set of input parameters. The total probability theorem is finally applied to calculate the time-dependent probability of failure and the failure rate of the dynamic system. The proposed method is demonstrated using a vibratory system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0594
Xin Xie, Changqing Du, Xiaona Li, Yi-Hsin Chen, Guobiao Yang, Yongjun Zhou, Dajun Zhou, Yaqian Zheng, Bernard Sia, Christina Phillips, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract This paper introduces an industrial application of digital image correlation technique on the measurement of aluminum edge stretching limit. In this study, notch-shape aluminum coupons with three different pre-strain conditions are tested. The edge stretching is proceeded by standard MTS machine. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used for the full field measurement of strain distribution in the thickness direction. Selected air brush is utilized to form a random distributed speckle pattern on the edge of sheet metal. A pair of special optical lens systems are used to observe the small measurement edge area. From the test results, it demonstrate that refer to the notched coupon thickness, pre-tension does not affect the fracture limit; refer to the virgin sheet thickness, the average edge stretch thinning limits show a consistent increasing trend as the pre-stretch strain increased.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0576
Jiaquan Chen, Yongfeng Jiang, Min Qin, Wenquan Hao, Yin-Ping Chang, Lingge Jin
This research proposes an automatic computer-aided design, analysis, and optimization process of a twist beam rear suspension system. The process combines CAD (Computer-Aided Design), CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering), and optimization technologies into an automation procedure, which includes: structural design, dynamic analysis, vibration analysis, durability analysis, and multidisciplinary optimization. The automation results shown the twist beam rear suspension weight reduced, the durability fatigue life increased, and the K&C (kinematics & compliance) characteristics are improved significantly.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0623
Jiaquan Chen, Min Qin, Yongfeng Jiang, Lingge Jin, Yin-Ping Chang
Abstract A twist beam rear suspension system is modeled, analyzed and optimized in this paper. An ADAMS model is established based on the REC (Rigid-Elastic Coupling) Theory, which is verified by FEM (Finite Element Method) approach, the effects of the geometric parameters on the twist beam suspension performance are investigated. In order to increase the calculation efficiency and improve the simulation accuracy, a neural network model and NSGA II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II) are adopted to conduct a multi-objective optimization on a twist beam rear suspension system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0606
Jiaquan Chen, Min Qin, Lingge Jin, Liu Tao, Yongfeng Jiang, Wei Wang, Yin-Ping Chang
Abstract An automotive vehicle should be designed to satisfy the wants of customers. The key is how to convert voices of customers into engineering languages. In other words, transfer the wants of customers into the right technical characteristics of a vehicle. A questionnaire of customer wants for a CUV (Crossover Utility Vehicle) is created and processed. Using QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and modified KANO model, the relative important degree is obtained from the original relative important degree of customer wants surveyed. Since some information gained is uncertain and the questionnaire sample is limited, a gray correlation analysis method is introduced, which calculates the competitive important degree of customer wants, then the final important degree of customer wants is gained by integrating the relative important degree and the competitive important degree.
2009-06-09
Technical Paper
2009-01-2302
Janet Brelin-Fornari, Karl Majeske, Terri Lynch-Caris
Application of cervical spine range of motion data and related anthropometric measures of the head and neck include physical therapy, product design, and computational modeling. This study utilized the Cervical Range of Motion device (CROM) to define the normal range of motion of the cervical spine for subjects five (5) through ten (10) years of age. And, the data was collected and analyzed with respect to anatomical measures such as head circumference, face height, neck length, and neck circumference. This study correlates these static anthropometric measures to the kinematic measurement of head flexion, extension, lateral extension, and rotation.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2444
Shaoyun Sun, Yin-ping Chang, Xinyu Wang, Qiang Fu, Kelong Lu, Zuofeng Pan, Bo Li, Heinz Friz
Abstract A challenge for the aerodynamic optimization of trucks is the limited availability of wind tunnels for testing full scale trucks. FAW wants to introduce a development process which is mainly based on CFD simulation in combination with some limited amount of wind tunnel testing. While maturity of CFD simulation for truck aerodynamics has been demonstrated in recent years, a complete validation is still required before committing to a particular process. A 70% scale model is built for testing in the Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel Center (SAWTC). Drag and surface pressures are measured for providing a good basis for comparison to the simulation results. The simulations are performed for the truck in the open road driving condition as well as in an initial digital model of the aerodynamic wind tunnel of SAWTC. A full size truck is also simulated in the open road driving condition to understand the scaling effect.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2445
Shaoyun Sun, Yin-ping Chang, Qiang Fu, Jing Zhao, Long Ma, Shijie Fan, Bo Li, Andrea Shestopalov, Paul Stewart, Heinz Friz
Abstract In the development of an FAW SUV, one of the goals is to achieve a state of the art drag level. In order to achieve such an aggressive target, feedback from aerodynamics has to be included in the early stage of the design decision process. The aerodynamic performance evaluation and improvement is mostly based on CFD simulation in combination with some wind tunnel testing for verification of the simulation results. As a first step in this process, a fully detailed simulation model is built. The styling surface is combined with engine room and underbody detailed geometry from a similar size existing vehicle. From a detailed analysis of the flow field potential areas for improvement are identified and five design parameters for modifying overall shape features of the upper body are derived. In a second step, a response surface method involving design of experiments and adaptive sampling techniques are applied for characterizing the effects of the design changes.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0606
Vijitashwa Pandey, Zissimos Mourelatos
The classical definition of reliability may not be readily applicable for repairable systems. Commonly used concepts such as the Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) and availability can be misleading because they only report limited information about the system functionality. In this paper, we discuss a set of metrics that can help with the design of repairable systems. Based on a set of desirable properties for these metrics, we select a minimal set of metrics (MSOM) which provides the most information about a system, with the smallest number of metrics. The metric of Minimum Failure Free Period (MFFP) with a given probability generalizes MTBF because the latter is simply the MFFP with a 0.5 probability. It also generalizes availability because coupled with repair times it provides a clearer picture of the length of the expected uninterrupted service. Two forms of MFFP are used: transient and steady state.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1374
Randy Gu, Lianxiang Yang, Leonid Lev, George Harmon, Nan Xu, Xin Xie
In today's light-weight vehicles, the strength of spot welds plays an important role in overall product integrity, reliability and customer satisfaction. Naturally, there is a need for a quick and reliable technique to inspect the quality of the welds. In the past, the primary quality control tests for detecting weld defects are the destructive chisel test and peel test [1]. The non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method currently used in industry is based on ultrasonic inspection [2, 3, 4]. The technique is not always successful in evaluating the nugget size, nor is it effective in detecting the so-called “cold” or “stick” welds. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a precise and reliable noncontact NDE method for spot welds. There have been numerous studies in predicting the weld nugget size by considering the spot-weld process [5, 6].
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1371
Gregory Fitzpatrick Hickman, Randy Gu, Yin-Ping Chang
Continuously variable transmission (CVT) offers many advantages to vehicle performance over traditional transmission technologies. A novel cam based CVT was proposed in US patent # 4,603,240, by J. Klovstad and J. Fortune [1], which has a cam input to drive an angle dependent, clutch actuated output shaft. Based on the patented CVT, a kinematic simulation, utilizing three dimensional CAD software was performed, creating a visualization and analysis model to ascertain system performance and feasibility. This article describes the mechanism created, limitation of the modeling software and the approach utilized to overcome these limitations. The resultant motion is then analyzed to ascertain the performance of the mechanism and determine the viability of the design concept. Key improvements to the system are proposed to the design, based on system performance through this analysis.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1370
Wenjing Wang, Randy Gu, Cen Li, Lianxiang Yang
Frames are important structures found in many transportation applications such as automotive bodies and train cars. They are also widely employed in buildings, bridges, and other load bearing designs. When a frame is carrying multiple loads, it can potentially risk a catastrophic buckling failure. The loads on the frame may be non-proportional in that one force stays constant while the other is increased until buckling occurs. In this study the buckling problem is formulated as a constrained eigenvalue problem (CEVP). As opposed to other CEVP in which the eigenvectors are forced to comply with a number of the constraints, the eigenvalues in the current CEVP are subject to some equality constraints. A numerical algorithm for solving the constrained eigenvalue problem is presented. The algorithm is a simple trapping scheme in which the computation starts with an initial guess and a window containing the potential target for the eigenvalue is identified.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1385
Dorin Drignei, Zissimos Mourelatos, Vijitashwa Pandey, Igor Baseski, Michael Kokkolaras, Amandeep Singh, David Lamb
Design optimization often relies on computational models, which are subjected to a validation process to ensure their accuracy. Because validation of computer models in the entire design space can be costly, we have previously proposed an approach where design optimization and model validation, are concurrently performed using a sequential approach with variable-size local domains. We used test data and statistical bootstrap methods to size each local domain where the prediction model is considered validated and where design optimization is performed. The method proceeds iteratively until the optimum design is obtained. This method however, requires test data to be available in each local domain along the optimization path. In this paper, we refine our methodology by using polynomial regression to predict the size and shape of a local domain at some steps along the optimization process without using test data.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1423
Xu Chen, Nan Xu, Xin Xie, Lorenzo Smith, Lianxiang Yang
A multi-sensor Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is employed to measure the deformation of metal specimens during tensile tests. The multi-sensor DIC system is capable of providing high quality contour and deformation data of a 3D object. Methodology and advantages of the multi-sensor DIC system is introduced. Tests have been done on steel and aluminum specimens to prove the performance of the system. With the help of the multi-sensor DIC system, we proposed our approaches to determine the forming limit based on shape change around the necking area instead of calculate the FLD based on the in-plane strains. With the employed system, all measurements are done post-deformation, no testing controlling mechanism, such as load force control or touching control, is required. The extracted data is analyzed and the result shows a possibility that we may be able to improve current technique for Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) measurement.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1428
Caleb P. Chovan, Betelhem Mengiste, Xu Chen, Lianxiang Yang, Laila Guessous
In this work, a multi-camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is applied to measure the material properties of aluminum (5754) specimens. Such tests are usually done using 2D (one-camera) or 3D (two-camera) DIC systems. A multi-camera DIC system includes three or more cameras and inherits all the advantages of a conventional 3D DIC system (with two cameras) such as, full-field measurement, high accuracy and high speed. In addition, this system further improves the measured results by including redundant data. In this work, we will show the potential of this system to measure a variety of material properties at one time.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0947
Vijitashwa Pandey, Zissimos Mourelatos
Our recent work has shown that representation of systems using a reliability block diagram can be used as a decision making tool. In decision making, we called these block diagrams decision topologies. In this paper, we generalize the results and show that decision topologies can be used to make many engineering decisions and can in fact replace decision analysis for most decisions. We also provide a meta-proof that the proposed method using decision topologies is entirely consistent with decision analysis at the limit. The main advantages of the method are that (1) it provides a visual representation of a decision situation, (2) it can easily model tradeoffs, (3) it can incorporate binary attributes, (4) it can model preferences with limited information, and (5) it can be used in a low-fidelity sense to quickly make a decision.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0943
Efstratios Nikolaidis, Mahdi Norouzi, Zissimos Mourelatos, Vijitashwa Pandey
Importance Sampling is a popular method for reliability assessment. Although it is significantly more efficient than standard Monte Carlo simulation if a suitable sampling distribution is used, in many design problems it is too expensive. The authors have previously proposed a method to manage the computational cost in standard Monte Carlo simulation that views design as a choice among alternatives with uncertain reliabilities. Information from simulation has value only if it helps the designer make a better choice among the alternatives. This paper extends their method to Importance Sampling. First, the designer estimates the prior probability density functions of the reliabilities of the alternative designs and calculates the expected utility of the choice of the best design. Subsequently, the designer estimates the likelihood function of the probability of failure by performing an initial simulation with Importance Sampling.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0337
Rami Abousleiman, Osamah Rawashdeh
With the increased market share of electric vehicles, the demand for energy-efficient routing algorithms specifically optimized for electric vehicles has increased. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on optimizing the shortest distance or the shortest time in finding a path from point A to point B. These traditional methods have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power limits, battery capacity limits, and vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an ant colony based, energy-efficient routing algorithm that is optimized and designed for electric vehicles. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
981059
Min Han, Robert N. K. Loh, Lin Wang, Anson Lee, Douglas Stander
An optimal idle speed control (ISC) system for an automotive engine is introduced in this paper. The system is based on a non-linear model including time delay. This model is linearized at the nominal operating point. The effect of the time delay on control is compensated by prediction. This methodology is applied to a Chrysler 2.0 liter 4-cylinder SOHC (Single Overhead Cam) engine. All of the unknown parameters of the model are identified by using the normal operating data from the test engine. Based on these identified parameters, an optimal controller was designed and implemented using a rapid prototyping system. Numerous experiments of the optimal controller were carried out at the Chrysler Technology Center in Auburn Hills, Michigan. The performance was compared to that of the existing controller. The results showed that the optimal controller has the capability to effectively control the engine idle speed under a variety of accessory loads and disturbances.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1253
Young Chiang, S. A. Nassar, G. C. Barber
Factorial analyses of stress concentrations at the bolt thread root based on finite element models are presented in this paper. A full bolted joint including a bolt, a nut, and fastened members were modeled using solid elements. Bolt and bolt threads were meshed in detail in 3-dimensional mode, with their interaction being only the direct load transfer between the bolt and nut. Statistical design of experiments was conducted to identify the factors and two-factor interactions, which may have impact on the stress concentration at the bolt thread root.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0962
Subroto Gunawan, Michael Kokkolaras, Panos Y. Papalambros, Zissimos P. Mourelatos
Existing methods for design optimization under uncertainty assume that a high level of information is available, typically in the form of data. In reality, however, insufficient data prevents correct inference of probability distributions, membership functions, or interval ranges. In this article we use an engine design example to show that optimal design decisions and reliability estimations depend strongly on uncertainty characterization. We contrast the reliability-based optimal designs to the ones obtained using worst-case optimization, and ask the question of how to obtain non-conservative designs with incomplete uncertainty information. We propose an answer to this question through the use of Bayesian statistics. We estimate the truck's engine reliability based only on available samples, and demonstrate that the accuracy of our estimates increases as more samples become available.
2006-03-01
Technical Paper
2006-01-1980
David Chen, Behrooz Shahidi, Ulrich Stuhec, Yuzhao Song, Y. P. Chang, Tim Palmer
Durability of automotive structures is a primary engineering consideration that is evaluated during a vehicle's design and development. In addition, it is a basic expectation of consumers, who demand ever-increasing levels of quality and dependability. Automakers have developed corporate requirements for vehicle system durability which must be met before a products is delivered to the customer. To provide early predictions of vehicle durability, prior to the construction and testing of prototypes, it is necessary to predict the forces generated in the vehicle structure due to road inputs. This paper describes an application of the “virtual proving ground” approach for vehicle durability load prediction for a vehicle on proving ground road surfaces. Correlation of the results of such a series of simulations will be described, and the modeling and simulation requirements to provide accurate simulations will be presented.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1619
Bradley W. Semp, Ayaz Pathan, Patrick E. Dessert
An important challenge facing automotive Original Equipment Manufacturer's (OEMs) is to bring a product to the consumer that meets the Voice Of the Customer (VOC) with high reliability. Although not an explicitly stated requirement, the desire for highly reliable products is an implicit want of most, if not all customers. The specific challenge to an OEM is to develop products with high reliability under shortened design cycles, cost reduction initiatives, and pressures to produce products with focus market appeal. This paper evaluates the current situation, use, and overall effectiveness of Failure Modes & Effects Analysis (FMEA) and its role in improving the reliability of automotive products. The need for a semi-formal or formal methodology for identifying product failure modes is developed.
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