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Viewing 1 to 30 of 34
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0791
Yuri Hovanski, John Carsley, Blair Carlson, Susan Hartfield-Wunsch, Siva Pilli
A comparison of welding techniques was performed to determine the most effective method for producing aluminum tailor-welded blanks for high volume automotive applications. Aluminum sheet was joined with an emphasis on post weld formability, surface quality and weld speed. Comparative results from several laser based welding techniques along with friction stir welding are presented. The results of this study demonstrate a quantitative comparison of weld methodologies in preparing tailor-welded aluminum stampings for high volume production in the automotive industry. Evaluation of nearly a dozen welding variations ultimately led to down selecting a single process based on post-weld quality and performance.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0812
Kyoo Sil Choi, Xiaohua Hu, Xin Sun, Mark Taylor, Emmanuel De Moor, John Speer, David Matlock
Abstract In this paper, a two-dimensional microstructure-based finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of material parameters of the constituent phases on the macroscopic tensile behavior of Q&P steel and to perform a computational material design approach for performance improvement. For this purpose, a model Q&P steel is first produced and various experiments are then performed to characterize the model steel. Actual microstructure-based model is generated based on the information from EBSD, SEM and nano-indentation test, and the material properties for the constituent phases in the model are determined based on the initial constituent properties from HEXRD test and the subsequent calibration of model predictions to tensile test results. The influence of various material parameters of the constituents on the macroscopic behavior is then investigated.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0543
E. Chu, Yu Xu, R. W. Davies, G. J. Grant
Two analytical tools for failure predictions in free-expansion tube hydroforming, namely “Process Window Diagram” (PWD) and forming limit curve (FLC), are discussed in this paper. The PWD represents the incipient failure conditions of buckling, wrinkling and bursting of free-expansion tube hydroforming processes in the plane of process parameters, e.g. internal pressure versus axial compression. The PWD is a useful tool for design engineers to quickly assess part producibility and process design for tube hydroforming. An attempt is also made to draw the differences between FLCs for sheet and tube so that the appropriate FLC could be used to estimate the bursting or fracture limits in free-expansion tube hydroforming processes.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0531
Xin Sun, Elizabeth Stephens, Moe Khaleel
This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pull-out and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. The critical fusion zone sizes to ensure nugget pull-out failure mode are developed for both DP800 and TRIP800 using the limit load based analytical model and the microhardness measurements of the weld cross sections. Static weld strength tests using cross-tension samples were performed on the joint populations with controlled fusion zone sizes. The resultant peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied using statistical data analysis tools. The results of this study show that the conventional weld size of can not produce nugget pull-out mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 materials.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0644
Kyoo Sil Choi, Dongsheng Li, Xin Sun, Mei Li, John Allison
In this paper, a microstructure-based three-dimensional (3D) finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of porosity in thin-walled high pressure die-cast (HPDC) magnesium alloys on their ductility. For this purpose, the cross-sections of AM60 casting samples are first examined using optical microscope and X-ray tomography to obtain the general information on the pore distribution features. The experimentally observed pore distribution features are then used to generate a series of synthetic microstructure-based 3D finite element models with different pore volume fractions and pore distribution features. Shear and ductile damage models are adopted in the finite element analyses to induce the fracture by element removal, leading to the prediction of ductility.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0019
Kyoo Sil Choi, Ayoub Soulami, Wenning Liu, Xin Sun, Moe Khaleel
In this paper, the microstructure-based finite element modeling method is used in investigating the loading path dependence of formability of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. For this purpose, the effects of different loading path on the forming limit diagrams (FLD) of TRIP steels are qualitatively examined using the representative volume element (RVE) of a commercial TRIP800 steel. First, the modeling method was introduced, where a combined isotropic/kinematic hardening rule is adopted for the constituent phases in order to correctly describe the cyclic deformation behaviors of TRIP steels during the forming process with combined loading paths which may include the unloading between the two consecutive loadings. Material parameters for the constituent phases remained the same as those in the authors' previous study [ 1 ] except for some adjustments for the martensite phase due to the introduction of the new combined hardening rule.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0042
Kyoo Sil Choi, Ayoub Soulami, Dongsheng Li, Xin Sun, Moe Khaleel, Le Xu, Frederic Barlat
A noticeable degree of inconsistent forming behaviors has been observed for the 1st generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in production, and they appear to be associated with the inherent microstructural-level inhomogeneities for various AHSS. This indicates that the basic material property requirements and screening methods currently used for the mild steels and high strength low alloys (HSLA) are no longer sufficient for qualifying today's AHSS. In order to establish more relevant material acceptance criteria for AHSS, the fundamental understandings on key mechanical properties and microstructural features influencing the local formability of AHSS need to be developed. For this purpose, in this study, DP980 was selected as model steels and eight different types of DP980 sheet steels were acquired from various steel suppliers.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1394
Alexandre Tartakovsky, Glenn Grant, Xin Sun, Moe Khaleel
Since its invention fifteen years ago, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has found commercial applications in marine, aerospace, rail, and now automotive industries. Development of the FSW process for each new application, however, has remained largely empirical. Few detailed numerical modeling techniques have been developed that can explain and predict important features of the process physics. This is particularly true in the areas of material flow, mixing mechanisms, and void prediction. In this paper we present a novel modeling approach to simulate FSW processes that may have significant advantages over current traditional finite element or finite difference based methods. The proposed model is based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0793
Xin Sun, Elizabeth Stephens, Moe Khaleel
This paper examines some key aspects of the manufacturing process that “ Transformation Induced Plasticity” (TRIP) steels would be exposed to, and systematically evaluate how the forming and thermal histories affect final strength and ductility of the material. We evaluate the effects of in-service temperature variations, such as under hood and hot/cold cyclic conditions, to determine whether these conditions influence final strength, ductility and energy absorption characteristics of several available TRIP steel grades. As part of the manufacturing thermal environment evaluations, stamping process thermal histories are included in the studies. As part of the in-service conditions, different pre-straining levels are included. Materials from four steel suppliers are examined. The thermal/straining history versus material property relationship is established over a full range of expected thermal histories and selected loading modes.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0419
Sung-Tae Hong, Darrell R. Herling
The effects of geometric parameters of open-cell aluminum foams on the performance of aluminum foam-phase change material (PCM) composites as heat sinks are investigated by experiments. Three types of open-cell aluminum 6061 foams with similar relative densities and different cell sizes are used. Paraffin is selected as the PCM due to its excellent thermal stability and ease of handling. The experimental results show that the performance of the heat sink is significantly affected by the surface area density of the aluminum foam. In general, as the surface area density of the foam increases, the performance of the heat sink is improved regardless of the current phase of the PCM.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1258
Glenn Grant, Rich Davies, Elizabeth Stephens, Scott Wazny, Leon Kaunitz, Doug Waldron
Automobile body and truck cab structures are composed primarily of stampings formed from monolithic and constant gage blanks. Cost and weight penalties can arise when strength or other requirements in one small area of the part leads to the use of a material or gage that is overmatched to the needs of the rest of the stamping. Tailor Welded Blanks (TWBs) are hybrid sheet products composed of either different materials or different thickness sheets that are joined together, then subjected to a stamping operation to create a formed assembly. The strategy is employed generally to save weight and material costs in the formed assembly by placing higher strength or thicker sections only where needed. The forming or stamping process requires the joint to be severely deformed along with the parent sheets. Aluminum TWBs for automotive applications are particularly problematic because of the low formability of aluminum weld metal.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1259
Elizabeth Stephens, Glenn Grant, Richard Davies, Scott Wazny, Leon Kaunitz, Brian Fulbright, Douglas Waldron
This paper presents the coupon performance data of friction stir welded tailor welded blanks (TWBs) joined to a monolithic aluminum sheet by self-piercing rivets (SPRs). Uniaxial tensile tests were performed to characterize the joint strength and the total energy absorption capability of the TWB/monolithic sheet joint assemblies. Cyclic fatigue tests were also conducted to characterize the fatigue behavior and failure mechanisms of the jointed assemblies. This study provides data for the automotive designer to determine whether friction stir welded aluminum TWB/monolithic sheet joints are within the target joint strengths for a particular application if it should be pierced during the assembly process.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0906
Xin Sun, Elizabeth Stephens, Rich Davies, Moe Khaleel, Donald J. Spinella
This paper examines the effects of failure modes on the static strength and total energy absorption of aluminum spot-welded samples using experimental, statistical, and analytical approaches. The main failure modes for aluminum spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Two populations of aluminum spot welds were studied. Within each population, coupon configurations of lap shear, cross tension and coach peel were considered. Thirty replicate static strength tests were performed for each coupon configuration. The resulted peak load and energy absorption level associated with each failure mode was studied using statistical models. Next, an analytical model was developed to determine the failure mode of an aluminum resistance spot weld based on stress analysis. It is found that weld size, sheet thickness, and level of weld porosity and defects are the main factors determining the cross tension failure mode for an aluminum spot weld.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1114
W.N. Liu, K.S. Choi, X. Sun, M.A. Khaleel, Yang Ren, N. Jia, Yangdong Wang
Microstructure level inhomogeneities between the harder martensite phase and the softer ferrite phase render the dual phase (DP) steels more complicated failure mechanisms and associated failure modes compared to the conventionally used low alloy homogenous steels. This paper examines the failure mode DP780 steel under different loading conditions using finite element analyses on the microstructure levels. Micro-mechanics analyses based on the actual microstructures of DP steel are performed. The two-dimensional microstructure of DP steel was recorded by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plastic work hardening properties of the ferrite phase was determined by the synchrotron-based high-energy X-ray diffraction technique. The work hardening properties of the martensite phase were calibrated and determined based on the uniaxial tensile test results. Under different loading conditions, different failure modes are predicted in the form of plastic strain localization.
2008-10-06
Technical Paper
2008-01-2379
Alan Welch, David Mumford, Sandeep Munshi, James Holbery, Brad Boyer, Matthew Younkins, Howard Jung
Development status and insight on a “research level” piezoelectric direct injection fuel injection system for prototype hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) is described. Practical experience accumulated from specialized material testing, bench testing and engine operation have helped steer research efforts on the fuel injection system. Recent results from a single cylinder engine are also presented, including demonstration of 45% peak brake thermal efficiency. Developing ICEs to utilize hydrogen can result in cost effective power plants that can potentially serve the needs of a long term hydrogen roadmap. Hydrogen direct injection provides many benefits including improved volumetric efficiency, robust combustion (avoidance of pre-ignition and backfire) and significant power density advantages relative to port-injected approaches with hydrogen ICEs.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0986
Sung-Tae Hong, Curt A Lavender, John R Boughton, Kurt M. Knop, Allan McGowan, David W Skilton
The effect of hydroforming on the mechanical properties and dynamic crush behaviors of tapered aluminum 6063-T4 tubes with octagonal cross section are investigated by experiments. First, the thickness profile of the hydroformed tube is measured by non-destructive examination technique using ultrasonic thickness gauge. The effect of hydroforming on the mechanical properties of the tube is investigated by quasi-static tensile tests of specimens prepared from different regions of the tube based on the thickness profile. The effect of hydroforming on the dynamic crush behaviors of the tube is investigated by axial crush tests under dynamic loads. Specimens and tubes are tested in two different heat treatment conditions: hydroformed-T4 (as-received) and T6. The results of the quasi-static tensile tests for the specimens in hydroformed-T4 condition show different amounts of work hardening depending on the regions, which the specimens are prepared from.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0979
Sung-Tae Hong, Jwo Pan, Tau Tyan, Priya Prasad
Macroscopic constitutive behaviors of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycombs under dynamic inclined loads with respect to the out-of-plane direction are investigated by experiments. The results of the dynamic crush tests indicate that as the impact velocity increases, the normal crush strength increases and the shear strength remains nearly the same for a fixed ratio of the normal to shear displacement rate. The experimental results suggest that the macroscopic yield surface of the honeycomb specimens as a function of the impact velocity under the given dynamic inclined loads is not governed by the isotropic hardening rule of the classical plasticity theory. As the impact velocity increases, the shape of the macroscopic yield surface changes, or more specifically, the curvature of the yield surface increases near the pure compression state.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0997
W. N. Liu, X. Sun, M. A. Khaleel, J. M. Qu
Due to mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of various layers in the PEN (positive/electrolyte/ negative) structures of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), thermal stresses and warpage on the PEN are unavoidable due to the temperature changes from the stress-free sintering temperature to room temperature during the PEN manufacturing process. In the meantime, additional mechanical stresses will also be created by mechanical flattening during the stack assembly process. In order to ensure the structural integrity of the cell and stack of SOFC, it is necessary to develop failure criteria for SOFC PEN structures based on the initial flaws occurred during cell sintering and stack assembly.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0800
A. Soulami, K. S. Choi, W. N. Liu, X. Sun, M. A. Khaleel
Recently, several studies conducted by automotive industry revealed the tremendous advantages of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is one of the typical representative of AHSS. This kind of materials exhibits high strength as well as high formability. Analyzing the crack behaviour in TRIP steels is a challenging task due to the microstructure level inhomogeneities between the different phases (ferrite, bainite, austenite, martensite) that constitute these materials. This paper aims at investigating the fracture resistance of TRIP steels. For this purpose, a micromechanical finite element model is developed based on the actual microstructure of a TRIP 800 steel. Uniaxial tensile tests on TRIP 800 sheet notched specimens were also conducted and tensile properties and R-curves (Resistance curves) were determined.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0469
K. S. Choi, A. Soulami, W. N. Liu, X. Sun, M. A. Khaleel
In this paper, various micromechanics models based on actual microstructures of DP steels are examined in order to determine the reasonable range of martensite volume fraction where the methodology described in this study can be applied. For this purpose, various micromechanics-based finite element models are first created based on the actual microstructures of DP steels with different martensite volume fractions. These models are, then, used to investigate the influence of ductility of the constituent ferrite and martensite phases and also the influence of voids in the ferrite phase on the overall ductility of DP steels.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0419
Whitney Poling, Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Anil Sachdev, Xiaohua Hu, Arun Devaraj, Fadi Abu-Farha
Abstract The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0290
Kyoo Sil Choi, Erin Barker, Guang Cheng, Xin Sun, Joy Forsmark, Mei Li
Abstract In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) microstructure-based finite element modeling method (i.e., extrinsic modeling method) is developed, which can be used in examining the effects of porosity on the ductility/fracture of Mg castings. For this purpose, AM60 Mg tensile samples were generated under high-pressure die-casting in a specially-designed mold. Before the tensile test, the samples were CT-scanned to obtain the pore distributions within the samples. 3D microstructure-based finite element models were then developed based on the obtained actual pore distributions of the gauge area. The input properties for the matrix material were determined by fitting the simulation result to the experimental result of a selected sample, and then used for all the other samples’ simulation. The results show that the ductility and fracture locations predicted from simulations agree well with the experimental results.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0372
Guang Cheng, Kyoo Sil Choi, Xiaohua Hu, Xin Sun
Abstract For multiphase advanced high strength steels (AHSS), the constituent phase properties play a crucial role in determining the overall mechanical behaviors. Therefore, it is important to accurately measure/estimate the constituent phase properties in the research of AHSS. In this study, a new nanoindentation-based inverse method that we developed was adopted in estimating the phase properties of a low alloy Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) steel. A microstructure-based Finite Element (FE) model was also generated based on the Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of the Q&P steel. The phase properties estimated from nanoindentation were first compared with those estimated from in-situ High Energy X-Ray Diffraction (HEXRD) test and, then, employed in the generated FE model to examine whether they can be appropriately used as the input properties for the model.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0226
Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Ushnish Basu, Anirban Basudhar, Imtiaz Gandikota, Nielen Stander, Taejoon Park, Farhang Pourboghrat, Kyoo Sil Choi, Xin Sun, Jun Hu, Fadi Abu-Farha, Sharvan Kumar
Abstract This paper presents development of a multi-scale material model for a 980 MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning heat treatment (QP980), based on integrated computational materials engineering principles (ICME Model). The model combines micro-scale material properties defined by the crystal plasticity theory with the macro-scale mechanical properties, such as flow curves under different loading paths. For an initial microstructure the flow curves of each of the constituent phases (ferrite, austenite, martensite) are computed based on the crystal plasticity theory and the crystal orientation distribution function. Phase properties are then used as an input to a state variable model that computes macro-scale flow curves while accounting for hardening caused by austenite transformation into martensite under different straining paths.
2000-10-03
Technical Paper
2000-01-2675
Rich Davies, Glenn Grant, Darrell Herling, Mark Smith, Bob Evert, Steve Nykerk, Jeff Shoup
The transportation industry is finding an ever-increasing number of applications for products manufactured using the tubular hydroforming process. Most of the current hydroforming applications use steel tubes. However, with the mounting regulatory pressure to reduce vehicle emissions, aluminum alloys appear attractive as an alternative material to reduce vehicle weight. The introduction of aluminum alloys to tubular hydroforming requires knowledge of their forming limits. The current work investigates the forming limits of AA6061 in both the T4 and T6 tempers under laboratory conditions. These experimental results are compared to theoretical forming limit diagrams calculated via the M-K method. Free hydroforming results and forming limit diagrams are also compared to components produced under commercial hydroforming conditions.
2000-10-03
Technical Paper
2000-01-2664
Rich Davies, Glenn Grant, Mark Smith, Eddie Oliver
Tailor welded blanks are finding increasing application in automotive structures as a powerful method to reduce weight through material minimization. As consumer demand and regulatory pressure direct the automotive industry toward improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions, aluminum alloys are also becoming an attractive automotive structural material with their potential ability to reduce vehicle weight. The combination of aluminum and tailor welded blanks thus appears attractive as a method to further minimize vehicle weight. Two major concerns regarding the application of aluminum tailor welded blanks are the formability and durability of the weld materials. The current work experimentally and numerically investigates aluminum tailor welded blanks ductility, and experimentally investigates their fatigue resistance.
2000-10-03
Technical Paper
2000-01-2723
X. Sun, M. A. Khaleel, R. W. Davies, S.T. Gulati
An axisymmetric finite element model is generated to simulate the windshield glass damage propagation subjected to impact loading of a flying object. The windshield glass consists of two glass outer layers laminated by a thin poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) layer. The constitutive behavior of the glass layers is simulated using brittle damage mechanics model with linear damage evolution. The PVB layer is modeled with linear viscoelastic solid. The model is used to predict and examine through-thickness damage evolution patterns on different glass surfaces and cracking patterns for different windshield designs such as variations in thickness and curvatures.
2000-10-03
Technical Paper
2000-01-2721
S. T. Gulati, J. D. Helfinstine, T. A. Roe, M. A. Khaleel, R. W. Davies, K. K. Koram, V. Henry
This paper presents the strength data for conventional automotive windshields in both the new and used conditions. More specifically, the biaxial strength of outer surface of curved and symmetrically laminated windshield, measured in biaxial flexure, is reported. The relative contributions of inplane membrane stress, which can be significant for new windshields, and bending stress are quantified with the aid of strain gauge rosettes mounted on both the outer and inner surfaces of windshield. The strength distribution for new and used windshields, based on Weibull distribution function, is found to be multimodal indicating more than one family of surface flaws. Depending on handling damage during manufacturing, assembly and installation processes, the low strength region of new windshields can approach that of used windshields with 50,000+ road miles!
2000-10-03
Technical Paper
2000-01-2719
M. A. Khaleel, K. I. Johnson, J. E. Deibler, R. W. Davies, K. Morman, K. K. Koram, V. Henry
A finite element model of a lightweight vehicle body-in-white has been developed to study the contribution of a lightweight vehicle's glazing system to its overall structural rigidity. This paper examines the effect of the glazing thickness and glazing molding stiffness on the glazing system contribution to a lightweight vehicle's torsional rigidity. The individual stiffness contributions of the front and back glazing were determined, as well as the weight of the glazing as a function of its thickness. In the first set of analyses detailed in this paper, the torsional and bending loadcase was investigated by comparing the baseline model to a no-glass model. It was shown that the glazing system contributes significantly to the overall structural rigidity of the auto-body. The difference was mainly in the torsional rigidity which was 12.4% more rigid than the no-glass model. The bending rigidity was only increased by 0.5% in the glazing model.
2002-03-04
Technical Paper
2002-01-0785
Ba Nghiep Nguyen, Kenneth I. Johnson, Richard W. Davies, Mohammad A. Khaleel
A computation tool for hydroforming prediction using an inverse approach (IA) has been developed. This approach is based on the method proposed by Guo et al. [1], however it has been extended to tube hydroforming problems in which the initial shape is not flat but is a round tube subject to internal pressure and axial feeds [2]. Although the inverse method tool is a stand-alone code, it has been linked to the Marc code for meshing purposes and visualization of results. In this paper, a finite element analysis of an extruded AA 6061-T4 tube submitted to free hydroforming conditions is carried out using the IA code. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by an incremental approach. However, the computational time in the inverse procedure is much less than that in the incremental method.
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