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Viewing 1 to 30 of 180
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2146
Massimo Rundo
Scope of this work is the analysis of the energy consumed by lubricating gear pumps for automotive applications during a driving cycle. This paper presents the lumped parameter simulation model of gerotor lubricating pumps and the comparison between numerical outcomes and experimental results. The model evaluates the power required to drive the pump and the cumulative energy consumed in the driving cycle. The influence of temperature variations on leakage flows, viscous friction torque and lubricating circuit permeability is taken into account. The simulation model has been validated by means of a test rig for hydraulic pumps able to reproduce the typical speed, temperature and load profiles during a NEDC driving cycle. Experimental tests, performed on a crankshaft mounted pump for diesel engines, have confirmed a good matching with the simulation model predictions in terms of instantaneous quantities and overall energy consumption.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2265
Mario Marzano, Patrizio Nuccio
As in the standard American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedure which is used to evaluate the fuel Octane Number (ON), some signal properties are considered, while others are neglected, it happens that different pressure signals of the sensor, obtained from different fuels and operating conditions, can lead to the same Knock Intensity index (KI) value, even though the knock behavior is not the same. Therefore the aim of this work was to analyze the standard signal processing chain of the Cooperative Fuel Research engine (CFR) (from the pressure sensor to the knock-meter display) and its effects on the value of the KI, for different fuels and operating conditions.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0417
Cristiana Delprete, Fabio Pregno, Carlo Rosso
In the powertrain technology, designers must be careful on oil pan design in order to obtain the best noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) performance. This is a great issue for the automotive design because they affect the passengers' comfort. In order to reduce vibration and radiated noise in powertrain assembly, oil pan is one of the most critical components. The high stiffness of the oil pan permits to move up the natural modes of the component and, as a consequence, reduce the sound emission of the component itself. In addition, the optimized shape of the component allows the increase of natural frequency values of the engine assembly. The aim of this study is the development of a methodology to increase the oil pan stiffness starting from a sketch of the component and adding material where it is needed. The methodology is tested on a series of different models: they have the same geometry but different materials.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0498
Cristiana Delprete, Carlo Rosso, Andrea Vercelli
Thermo-structural analysis of components is usually carried out by means of two FE models, one that solves the thermal problem and one that, using the results of the thermal model, computes strains and stresses. The interaction between the two models is based on the superposition principle, but it means that the mutual effects and the non-linearities between the two physical problems are neglected. In this paper a multiphysics approach based on the Cell Method is proposed and it is applied to a time dependent thermo-mechanical case study represented by an exhaust manifold simulacrum: the coupled thermal and mechanical problems are solved in an unique run, giving the opportunity to take into account mutual effects. Comparing the results with the traditional FE analysis the advantages in terms of accuracy and computational time achieved through the proposed methodology are highlighted.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-1109
Andrea Emilio Catania, Stefano d'Ambrosio, Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa
In diesel engines the optimization of engine-out emissions, combustion noise and fuel consumption requires the experimental investigation of the effects of different injection strategies as well as of a large number of engine operating variables, such as scheduling of pilot and after pulses, rail pressure, EGR rate and swirl level. Due to the high number of testing conditions involved full factorial approaches are not viable, whereas Design of Experiment techniques have demonstrated to be a valid methodology. However, the results obtained with such techniques require a subsequent critical analysis, so as to investigate the cause and effect relationships between the set of engine operating variables and the combustion process characteristics that affect pollutant formation, noise of combustion and engine efficiency.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1552
Federico Millo, Davide Vezza, Theodoros Vlachos, Debora Fino, Nunzio Russo, Andrea De Filippo
The aim of this work is to analyze particle number and size distribution from a small displacement Euro 5 common rail automotive diesel engine, equipped with a close coupled aftertreatment system, featuring a DOC and a DPF integrated in a single canning. In particular the effects of different combustion processes on PM characteristics were investigated, by comparing measurements made both under normal operating condition and under DPF regeneration mode. Exhaust gas was sampled at engine outlet, at DOC outlet and at DPF outlet, in order to fully characterize PM emissions through the whole exhaust line. After a two stage dilution system, sampled gas was analyzed by means of a TSI 3080 SMPS, in the range from 6 to 240 nm. Particle number and size distribution were evaluated at part load operating conditions, representative of urban driving.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0659
Mauro Velardocchia, Enzo Rondinelli
The paper focuses on the advantages of the diesel electric traction applied to military vehicles. In recent years electric cars developed mainly to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and cut down the emissions. The reduction of fuel consumption, important for civil vehicles above all to reduce emissions and to lower costs, is important also for the military in order to increase vehicle autonomy. In addition, the interest for hybrid electric military vehicles is linked with vehicle packaging flexibility, on board power generation and stealth potential related to their abilities of silent movement. Among many possible layouts the optimum is considered to be hub mounted drive motors in each wheel [ 1 ]. This study shows the development of a demonstrator of an hybrid electric 4×4 military vehicle. It was carried out for a future extension of the technology to a 8×8 armoured vehicle.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0097
Elvio Bonisoli, Stefano Tornincasa, Sandro Moos, Francesco Di Monaco, Maurizio Repetto, Fabio Freschi
This paper presents a multi-physic modeling of an electromechanical energy scavenging device able to supply energy inside car tires for wireless sensors. A permanent magnet, connected to the inner liner of a tire, is accelerated along a guide by the tire deformation during car motion; by interacting with coils it generates a power which is conditioned by a proper electronic interfaced to an external load. The original approach implemented in this kind of device is the nonlinear dynamic properties designed and controlled: adaptive resonance in function of car velocity is optimized for increasing its global efficiency. The energy conversion process takes into account the simulation of different phenomena such as: non linear dynamic and adaptive resonant behavior of the seismic mass, electromagnetic and magneto-static coupling between moving mass and coils, transfer of the generated power to an external load by means of a nonlinear circuit interface.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0633
Andrea De Filippo, Claudio Ciaravino, Federico Millo, Davide Vezza, Debora Fino, Nunzio Russo, Theodoros Vlachos
Experimental work was carried out on a small displacement Euro 5 automotive diesel engine alternatively fuelled with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and with two blends (30% vol.) of ULSD and of two different fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) obtained from both rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and jatropha methyl ester (JME) in order to evaluate the effects of different fuel compositions on particle number (PN) emissions. Particulate matter (PM) emissions for each fuel were characterized in terms of number and mass size distributions by means of two stage dilutions system coupled with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Measurements were performed at three different sampling points along the exhaust system: at engine-out, downstream of the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF). Thus, it was possible to evaluate both the effects of combustion and after-treatment efficiencies on each of the tested fuels.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0498
Carlo Rosso, Elvio Bonisoli, Cristiana Delprete
Usually, both an experimental modal analysis or a numerical modal analysis performed on reduced model present the problem of master nodes selection. A methodology based on the experience is normally used or computationally heavy criterion can be applied. In that paper, the Modal-Geometrical Selection Criterion (MoGeSeC) is applied to a crankshaft, both for an EMA (experimental modal analysis) and for a reduction procedure. Then the results are compared with other literature criteria. As far as the EMA is concerned, the nodes suggested by MoGeSeC and other criteria are used for identification of the component. The connection conditions between components are origin of uncertainty but in that case the comparison is done for each methodology in the same conditions. In that way MoGeSeC proves to be a very quick and accurate method because the nodes it selects depicts very well the dynamic behavior of the components.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0780
F. Millo, A. Perazzo, E. Pautasso
Different optimization strategies for the optimization of the calibration of a turbocharged GDI engine through numerical simulation were analyzed, aiming to evaluate the opportunities offered by direct optimization techniques. A one-dimensional fluid dynamic engine model was used to predict engine performance, taking into account knock and exhaust temperature constraints. Air fuel ratio, spark advance, boost pressure and cam phasing were optimized by means of different optimization strategies, including direct search as well as numerical methods. Both full load (with maximum bmep targets) and part load (with minimum bsfc targets) were considered.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0818
F. Millo, M. Badami, C.V. Ferraro, G. Lavarino, L. Rolando
Different hybrid powertrains for a European mid-size passenger car were evaluated in this paper through numerical simulation. Different degrees of hybridizations, from micro to mild hybrids, and different architectures and power sources management strategies were taken into account, in order to obtain a preliminary assessment of the potentialities of different hybrid systems for the European passenger car market. Both diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines were considered: a 1.6 dm₃ Common Rail turbocharged diesel, and a 1.4 dm₃ spark ignition turbocharged engine, equipped with an innovative Variable Valve Actuation system. Diesel hybrid powertrains, although being subject to NOx emissions constraints that could jeopardize their benefits, offered substantial advantages in comparison with gasoline hybrid powertrains. Potentialities for fuel consumption reductions up to 25% over the NEDC were highlighted, approaching the 2020 EU 95 g/km CO₂ target.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1162
Mauro Velardocchia, Michiel Unger, Alessandro Vigliani, Nicola Leone, Kajetan Kietlinski, Enrico Galvagno
The paper presents a simulation methodology created to support an integrated safety system development process which was tested for the side impact collision load case. The methodology is based on the coupled and complementary use of two software packages: PreScan and Madymo. PreScan was utilized for designing two traffic scenarios and the sensing and control systems for the side collision recognition, while Madymo was utilized for assessing the effects of pre-crash deployment of thorax airbag. The collision conditions from the scenarios were used as input to define a Madymo side collision model of the host vehicle and to investigate and optimize several airbag deployment parameters: pre-crash deployment time, airbag permeability, vent hole size and vent hole opening time.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2760
Eduardo Del Pozo de Dios, Juan Alba, Massimiliano avalle, Óscar cisneros, Alessandro scattina, Aritz esnaola
With electric vehicles becoming more and more popular, the classic “general purpose” vehicle concept is changing to a “dedicated vehicle” concept. Light trucks for goods delivery in cities are one of the examples. The European vehicle category L7e fits perfectly in the low power, low weight vehicle requirements for an electric light truck for goods delivery. However, the safety requirements of this vehicle category are very low and their occupants are highly exposed to injuries in the event of a collision. The European Commission co-funded project OPTIBODY (Optimized Structural components and add-ons to improve passive safety in new Electric Light Trucks and Vans) is developing a new structural concept based on a chassis, a cabin a several add-ons. The add-ons will provide improved protection in case of frontal, side and rear impact.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0160
Maurizio Andreata, Federico Millo, Fabio Mallamo, Davide Mercuri, Chiara Pozzi
Three different ceramic substrate materials (Silicon Carbide, Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate) for a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) for a European passenger car diesel engine have been experimentally investigated in this work. The filters were soot loaded under real world operating conditions on the road and then regenerated in two different ways that simulate the urban driving conditions, which are the most severe for DPF regeneration, since the low exhaust flow has a limited capability to absorb the heat generated by the soot combustion. The tests showed higher temperature peaks, at the same soot loading, for Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate compared to the Silicon Carbide, thus leading to a lower soot mass limit, which in turn required for these components a higher regeneration frequency with draw backs in terms of fuel consumption and lube oil dilution.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0455
Ligia Munteanu, Dan Dumitriu, Veturia Chiroiu, Pier Paolo Delsanto
In mathematical and mechanical modeling terms, automotive seating is characterized by boundary conditions at the nonlinear contact interfaces. These contact interfaces are subjected to vibro-impacts (slaps) and frictional slips. The slaps occur in contact interfaces at high amplitude vibrations, being characterized by very short duration, rapid dissipation of energy and large accelerations and decelerations. By considering friction in contact interface modeling, the simulation of the interaction between the driver and the vehicle seat becomes more realistic. Vibro-impacts and frictional slips can be simultaneously developed in a contact surface. The boundary conditions identification for a seat and a wide range of drivers' body types is performed using the concept of interference distance or penetration. The interference distance is introduced as an optimization problem. It is shown that the optimization problem provides robust solutions to minimum distance and interference problems.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0613
F. Millo, F. Mallamo, R. Digiovanni, A. Dominici, T. Morel, M. Okarmus
Numerical simulation can be effectively used to reduce the experimental tests which are nowadays required for the analysis and calibration of engine control and diagnostic systems. In particular in this paper the use of a one-dimensional fluid-dynamic engine model of an 8 cylinders high-performance s.i. engine coupled with a vehicle and driveline model to simulate the effects of misfire events on the engine angular speed is described. Furthermore, the effect of cycle-to-cycle combustion variability was also evaluated, in order to take into account variations in the combustion process that can substantially increase the engine speed fluctuations under normal operating conditions, thus hindering the misfire detection. Finally, a comparison with experimental data obtained on a chassis dynamometer was carried out. After this accuracy assessment, the numerical simulation could be used to analyze different techniques for misfire detection, thus reducing the required experimental tests.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0694
A. G. Konstandopoulos, D. Zarvalis, E. Papaioannou, N. D. Vlachos, G. Boretto, M. F. Pidria, P. Faraldi, O. Piacenza, P. Prenninger, T. Cartus, H. Schreier, W. Brandstätter, C. Wassermayr, G. Lepperhof, V. Scholz, B. Luers, J. Schnitzler, M. Claussen, A. Wollmann, M. Maly, G. Tsotridis, B. M. Vaglieco, S. S. Merola, D. Webster, D. Bergeal, C. Görsmann, H. Obernosterer, D. Fino, N. Russo, G. Saracco, V. Specchia, N. Moral, A. D'Anna, A. D'Alessio, R. Zahoransky, E. Laile, S. Schmidt, M. Ranalli
The DEXA Cluster consisted of three closely interlinked projects. In 2003 the DEXA Cluster concluded by demonstrating the successful development of critical technologies for Diesel exhaust particulate after-treatment, without adverse effects on NOx emissions and maintaining the fuel economy advantages of the Diesel engine well beyond the EURO IV (2000) emission standards horizon. In the present paper the most important results of the DEXA Cluster projects in the demonstration of advanced particulate control technologies, the development of a simulation toolkit for the design of diesel exhaust after-treatment systems and the development of novel particulate characterization methodologies, are presented. The motivation for the DEXA Cluster research was to increase the market competitiveness of diesel engine powertrains for passenger cars worldwide, and to accelerate the adoption of particulate control technology.
2004-11-16
Technical Paper
2004-01-3304
Eduardo Romann Martini, Andrea Tonoli, Nicola Amati, Andrea Guala
In this study is analyzed the behavior of the viscoelastic materials used in DDS (double damping system) that transfer the torque from crankshaft to auxiliaries parts of the engine and the mathematic model it was done to validate the behavior of this materials. The comparative data, from the synthetic and natural rubber, it was done to analyze the behavior of these different materials, since as, their stiffness and damping characteristics.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1601
S. Mancò, N. Nervegna, M. Rundo, G. Armenio
The paper presents geometric, kinematic and fluid-dynamic modelling of variable displacement vane pumps for low pressure applications in internal combustion engines lubrication. All these fundamental aspects are integrated in a simulation environment and form the core of a design tool leading to the assessment of performance, critical issues, related influences and possible solutions in a well grounded engineering support to decision.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1602
S. Mancò, N. Nervegna, M. Rundo, G. Armenio
Scope of this work is to analyse potentials in terms of efficiency of two pump units belonging to two families: the first intervening on the maximum volume generated by variable volume chambers (e.g. a vane pump where eccentricity is varied), the second that changes the quantity of fluid being sucked or delivered (e.g. a gear pump with variable timing). In more detail the comparison will be established between a vane pump where displacement is varied through eccentricity and an internal gear pump of Gerotor type where flow rate is controlled through a rotating sector that alters the effective geometry of kidney ports. A detailed simulation of the two solutions brings to evidence the advantages of the first approach with respect to the second as confirmed by experimental investigations.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1096
Daniela Anna Misul, Mirko Baratta, Hamed Kheshtinejad
Abstract Sustainable mobility has become a major issue for internal combustion engines and has led to increasing research efforts in the field of alternative fuels, such as bio-fuel, CNG and hydrogen addition, as well as into engine design and control optimization. To that end, a thorough control of the air-to-fuel ratio appears to be mandatory in SI engine in order to meet the even more stringent thresholds set by the current regulations. The accuracy of the air/fuel mixture highly depends on the injection system dynamic behavior and to its coupling to the engine fluid-dynamic. Thus, a sound investigation into the mixing process can only be achieved provided that a proper analysis of the injection rail and of the injectors is carried out. The present paper carries out a numerical investigation into the fluid dynamic behavior of a commercial CNG injection system by means of a 0D-1D code.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1070
Federico Millo, Luciano Rolando, Enrico Pautasso, Emanuele Servetto
Abstract In this paper a novel approach to mimic through numerical simulation Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV) of the combustion process of Spark Ignition (SI) engines is described. The proposed methodology allows to reproduce the variability in combustion which is responsible for knock occurrence and thus to replicate the stochastic behavior of this abnormal combustion phenomenon. On the basis of the analysis of a comprehensive database of experimental data collected on a typical European downsized and turbocharged SI engine, the proposed approach was demonstrated to be capable to replicate in the simulation process the same percentage of knocking cycles experimentally measured in light-knock conditions, after a proper calibration of the Kinetics-Fit (KF), a new phenomenological knock model which was recently developed by Gamma Technologies.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0057
Federico Millo, Sabino Luisi, Andrea Stroppiana, Fabio Borean
Two different modifications of the baseline cylinder head configuration have been designed and experimentally tested on a MultiAir turbocharged gasoline engine, in order to address the issue of the poor in-cylinder turbulence levels which are typical of the Early-Intake-Valve-Closing (EIVC) strategies which are adopted in Variable Valve Actuation systems at part load to reduce pumping losses. The first layout promotes turbulence by increasing the tumble motion at low valve lifts, while the second one allows the addition of a swirl vortex to the main tumble structure. The aim for both designs was to achieve a proper flame propagation speed at both part and full load. The experimental activity was initially focused on the part load analysis under high dilution of the mixture with internal EGR, which can allow significant further reductions in terms of pumping losses but, on the other hand, tends to adversely affect combustion stability and to increase cycle-to-cycle variations.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0044
Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Ezio Mancaruso, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
An innovative quasi-dimensional multizone combustion model for the spray formation, combustion and emission formation analysis in DI diesel engines was assessed and applied to an optical single cylinder engine. The model, which has been recently presented by the authors, integrates a predictive non stationary 1D spray model developed by the Sandia National Laboratory, with a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model. The 1D spray model is capable of predicting the equivalence ratio of the fuel during the mixing process, as well as the spray penetration. The multizone approach is based on the application of the mass and energy conservation laws to several homogeneous zones identified in the combustion chamber. A specific submodel is also implemented to simulate the dilution of the burned gases. Soot formation is modeled by an expression which derives from Kitamura et al.'s results, in which an explicit dependence on the local equivalence ratio is considered.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0081
Federico Millo, Rocco Fuso, Luciano Rolando, Jianning Zhao, Andrea Benedetto, Filippo Cappadona, Paolo Seglie
Nowadays the increasing demand for sustainable mobility has fostered the introduction of innovative propulsion systems also in the public transport sector in order to achieve a significant reduction of pollutant emissions in highly congested urban areas. Within this context this paper describes the development of the HYBUS, an environmental friendly hybrid bus for on-road urban transportation, which was jointly carried out by Pininfarina and Politecnico di Torino in the framework of the AMPERE project. The first prototype of the bus was built by integrating an innovative hybrid propulsion system featuring a plug-in series architecture into the chassis of an old IVECO 490 TURBOCITY. The bus is 12 meters long and has a capacity of up to 116 passengers in the original layout. The project relied on a modular approach where the powertrain could be easily customized for size and power depending on the specific application.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1071
Carlo Rosso, Cristiana Delprete, Elvio Bonisoli, Stefano Tornincasa
In the present paper, starting from a first attempt design of engine components, a CAD/CAE integrated approach for designing engine is proposed. As first step, some typological quantities are setting in order to define the designed engine, for example the number of cylinders, displacements, thermodynamic cycle and geometrical constraints. Using literature approach and tailored design methodologies, the developed software provides the geometric parameters of the main engine components: crankshaft, piston, wrist pin, connecting rod, bedplate, engine block, cylinder head, bearings, valvetrain. Form the geometrical parameters, the developed software, using 3D CAD parametric models, defines a first functional model of each component and of their mutual interactions. Then a numerical analysis can be evaluated and it provides important feedback result for design targets. In the paper the particular case of a crank mechanism model is presented.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1142
Federico Millo, Marco Gianoglio Bernardi, Diego Delneri
In this work different internal and external EGR strategies, combined with extreme Miller cycles, were analyzed by means of a one-dimensional CFD simulation code for a Wärtsilä 6-cylinder, 4-strokes, medium-speed marine diesel engine, to evaluate their potential in order to reach the IMO Tier 3 NOx emissions target. By means of extreme Miller cycles, with Early Intake Valve Closures (up to 100 crank angle degrees before BDC), a shorter compression stroke and lower charge temperatures inside the cylinder can be achieved and thanks to the cooler combustion process, the NOx-specific emissions can be effectively reduced. EIVC strategies can also be combined with reductions of the scavenging period (valve overlap) to increase the amount of exhaust gases in the combustion chamber. However, the remarkably high boost pressure levels needed for such extreme Miller cycles, require mandatorily the use of two-stage turbocharging systems.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1297
Robert Cooley, Davide Vezza, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Giorgio Rizzoni
When developing a new engine control strategy, some of the important issues are cost, resource minimization, and quality improvement. This paper outlines how a model based approach was used to develop an engine control strategy for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). The outlined approach allowed the development team to minimize the required number of experiments and to complete much of the control development and calibration before implementing the control strategy in the vehicle. It will be shown how models of different fidelity, from map-based models, to mean value models, to 1-D gas dynamics models were generated and used to develop the engine control system. The application of real time capable models for Hardware-in-the-Loop testing will also be shown.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1349
Paolo Peraudo, Oliviero Vigna Suria, Marco Aietti, Enrico Testa, Paolo Maggiore
A fuel-cell-based system's performance is mainly identified in the overall efficiency, strongly depending on the amount of power losses due to auxiliary devices to supply. In such a situation, everything that causes either a decrease of the available power output or an increment of auxiliary losses would determine a sensible overall efficiency reduction.
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