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Viewing 1 to 30 of 111
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1410
Andrea Catania, Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Alessandro Catanese, Gerhard Landsmann
A new predictive zero-dimensional low-throughput combustion model has been applied to both PCCI (Premixed Charge Compression Ignition) and conventional diesel engines to simulate HRR (Heat Release Rate) and in-cylinder pressure traces on the basis of the injection rate. The model enables one to estimate the injection rate profile by means of the injection parameters that are available from the engine ECU (Electronic Control Unit), i.e., SOI (Start Of main Injection), ET (Energizing Time), DT (Dwell Time) and injected fuel quantities, taking the injector NOD (Nozzle Opening Delay) and NCD (Nozzle Closure Delay) into account. An accumulated fuel mass approach has been applied to estimate Qch (released chemical energy), from which the main combustion parameters that are of interest for combustion control in IC engines, such as, SOC (Start Of Combustion), MFB50 (50% of Mass Fraction Burned) have been derived.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0633
Andrea De Filippo, Claudio Ciaravino, Federico Millo, Davide Vezza, Debora Fino, Nunzio Russo, Theodoros Vlachos
Experimental work was carried out on a small displacement Euro 5 automotive diesel engine alternatively fuelled with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and with two blends (30% vol.) of ULSD and of two different fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) obtained from both rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and jatropha methyl ester (JME) in order to evaluate the effects of different fuel compositions on particle number (PN) emissions. Particulate matter (PM) emissions for each fuel were characterized in terms of number and mass size distributions by means of two stage dilutions system coupled with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Measurements were performed at three different sampling points along the exhaust system: at engine-out, downstream of the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF). Thus, it was possible to evaluate both the effects of combustion and after-treatment efficiencies on each of the tested fuels.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1297
Robert Cooley, Davide Vezza, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Giorgio Rizzoni
When developing a new engine control strategy, some of the important issues are cost, resource minimization, and quality improvement. This paper outlines how a model based approach was used to develop an engine control strategy for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). The outlined approach allowed the development team to minimize the required number of experiments and to complete much of the control development and calibration before implementing the control strategy in the vehicle. It will be shown how models of different fidelity, from map-based models, to mean value models, to 1-D gas dynamics models were generated and used to develop the engine control system. The application of real time capable models for Hardware-in-the-Loop testing will also be shown.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1142
Federico Millo, Marco Gianoglio Bernardi, Diego Delneri
In this work different internal and external EGR strategies, combined with extreme Miller cycles, were analyzed by means of a one-dimensional CFD simulation code for a Wärtsilä 6-cylinder, 4-strokes, medium-speed marine diesel engine, to evaluate their potential in order to reach the IMO Tier 3 NOx emissions target. By means of extreme Miller cycles, with Early Intake Valve Closures (up to 100 crank angle degrees before BDC), a shorter compression stroke and lower charge temperatures inside the cylinder can be achieved and thanks to the cooler combustion process, the NOx-specific emissions can be effectively reduced. EIVC strategies can also be combined with reductions of the scavenging period (valve overlap) to increase the amount of exhaust gases in the combustion chamber. However, the remarkably high boost pressure levels needed for such extreme Miller cycles, require mandatorily the use of two-stage turbocharging systems.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1071
Carlo Rosso, Cristiana Delprete, Elvio Bonisoli, Stefano Tornincasa
In the present paper, starting from a first attempt design of engine components, a CAD/CAE integrated approach for designing engine is proposed. As first step, some typological quantities are setting in order to define the designed engine, for example the number of cylinders, displacements, thermodynamic cycle and geometrical constraints. Using literature approach and tailored design methodologies, the developed software provides the geometric parameters of the main engine components: crankshaft, piston, wrist pin, connecting rod, bedplate, engine block, cylinder head, bearings, valvetrain. Form the geometrical parameters, the developed software, using 3D CAD parametric models, defines a first functional model of each component and of their mutual interactions. Then a numerical analysis can be evaluated and it provides important feedback result for design targets. In the paper the particular case of a crank mechanism model is presented.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1096
Daniela Anna Misul, Mirko Baratta, Hamed Kheshtinejad
Abstract Sustainable mobility has become a major issue for internal combustion engines and has led to increasing research efforts in the field of alternative fuels, such as bio-fuel, CNG and hydrogen addition, as well as into engine design and control optimization. To that end, a thorough control of the air-to-fuel ratio appears to be mandatory in SI engine in order to meet the even more stringent thresholds set by the current regulations. The accuracy of the air/fuel mixture highly depends on the injection system dynamic behavior and to its coupling to the engine fluid-dynamic. Thus, a sound investigation into the mixing process can only be achieved provided that a proper analysis of the injection rail and of the injectors is carried out. The present paper carries out a numerical investigation into the fluid dynamic behavior of a commercial CNG injection system by means of a 0D-1D code.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1070
Federico Millo, Luciano Rolando, Enrico Pautasso, Emanuele Servetto
Abstract In this paper a novel approach to mimic through numerical simulation Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV) of the combustion process of Spark Ignition (SI) engines is described. The proposed methodology allows to reproduce the variability in combustion which is responsible for knock occurrence and thus to replicate the stochastic behavior of this abnormal combustion phenomenon. On the basis of the analysis of a comprehensive database of experimental data collected on a typical European downsized and turbocharged SI engine, the proposed approach was demonstrated to be capable to replicate in the simulation process the same percentage of knocking cycles experimentally measured in light-knock conditions, after a proper calibration of the Kinetics-Fit (KF), a new phenomenological knock model which was recently developed by Gamma Technologies.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0044
Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Ezio Mancaruso, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
An innovative quasi-dimensional multizone combustion model for the spray formation, combustion and emission formation analysis in DI diesel engines was assessed and applied to an optical single cylinder engine. The model, which has been recently presented by the authors, integrates a predictive non stationary 1D spray model developed by the Sandia National Laboratory, with a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model. The 1D spray model is capable of predicting the equivalence ratio of the fuel during the mixing process, as well as the spray penetration. The multizone approach is based on the application of the mass and energy conservation laws to several homogeneous zones identified in the combustion chamber. A specific submodel is also implemented to simulate the dilution of the burned gases. Soot formation is modeled by an expression which derives from Kitamura et al.'s results, in which an explicit dependence on the local equivalence ratio is considered.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0012
Mirko Baratta, Roberto Finesso, Hamed Kheshtinejad, Daniela Misul, Ezio Spessa, Yixin Yang, Massimo Arcidiacono
An innovative 0D predictive combustion model for the simulation of the HRR (heat release rate) in DI diesel engines was assessed and implemented in a 1D fluid-dynamic commercial code for the simulation of a Fiat heavy duty diesel engine equipped with a Variable Geometry Turbocharger system, in the frame of the CORE (CO2 reduction for long distance transport) Collaborative Project of the European Community, VII FP. The 0D combustion approach starts from the calculation of the injection rate profile on the basis of the injected fuel quantities and on the injection parameters, such as the start of injection and the energizing time, taking the injector opening and closure delays into account. The injection rate profile in turn allows the released chemical energy to be estimated. The approach assumes that HRR is proportional to the energy associated with the accumulated fuel mass in the combustion chamber.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0057
Federico Millo, Sabino Luisi, Andrea Stroppiana, Fabio Borean
Two different modifications of the baseline cylinder head configuration have been designed and experimentally tested on a MultiAir turbocharged gasoline engine, in order to address the issue of the poor in-cylinder turbulence levels which are typical of the Early-Intake-Valve-Closing (EIVC) strategies which are adopted in Variable Valve Actuation systems at part load to reduce pumping losses. The first layout promotes turbulence by increasing the tumble motion at low valve lifts, while the second one allows the addition of a swirl vortex to the main tumble structure. The aim for both designs was to achieve a proper flame propagation speed at both part and full load. The experimental activity was initially focused on the part load analysis under high dilution of the mixture with internal EGR, which can allow significant further reductions in terms of pumping losses but, on the other hand, tends to adversely affect combustion stability and to increase cycle-to-cycle variations.
2005-09-11
Technical Paper
2005-24-082
M. Baratta, A. E. Catania, E. Spessa, A. Vassallo
The necessity for further reductions of in-cylinder pollutant formation and the opportunity to minimize engine development and testing times highlight the need of engine thermodynamic cycle simulation tools that are able to accurately predict the effects of fuel, design and operating variables on engine performance. In order to set up reliable codes for indicated cycle simulation in SI engines, an accurate prediction of heat release is required, which, in turn, involves the evaluation of in-cylinder turbulence generation and flame-turbulence interaction. This is generally pursued by the application of a combustion fractal model coupled with semi-empirical correlations of available geometrical and thermodynamical mass-averaged quantities. However, the currently available correlations generally show an unsatisfactory capability to predict the effects of flame-turbulence interaction on burning speed under the overall flame propagation interval.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1304
P.C. Bakker, J.E. De Abreu Goes, L.M.T. Somers, B.H. Johansson
The concept of Partially Premixed Combustion is known for reduced hazardous emissions and improved efficiency. Since a low-reactive fuel is required to extend the ignition delay at elevated loads, controllability and stability issues occur at the low-load end. In this investigation seven fuel blends are used, all having a Research Octane Number of around 70 and a distinct composition or boiling range. Four of them could be regarded as ‘viable refinery fuels’ since they are based on current refinery feedstocks. The latter three are based on primary reference fuels, being PRF70 and blends with ethanol and toluene respectively. Previous experiments revealed significant ignition differences, which asked for further understanding with an extended set of measurements. Experiments are conducted on a heavy duty diesel engine modified for single cylinder operation. In this investigation, emphasis is put on idling (600 rpm) and low load conditions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0879
Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Yixin Yang, Vincenzo Alfieri, Giuseppe Conte
Abstract The paper has the aim of assessing and applying control-oriented models capable of predicting HRR (Heat Release Rate) and MFB50 in DI diesel engines. To accomplish this, an existing combustion model, previously developed by the authors and based on the accumulated fuel mass approach, has been modified to enhance its physical background, and then calibrated and validated on a GM 1.6 L Euro 6 DI diesel engine. It has been verified that the accumulated fuel mass approach is capable of accurately simulating medium-low load operating conditions characterized by a dominant premixed combustion phase, while it resulted to be less accurate at higher loads. In the latter case, the prediction of the heat release has been enhanced by including an additional term, proportional to the fuel injection rate, in the model. The already existing and the enhanced combustion models have been calibrated on the basis of experimental tests carried out on a dynamic test bench at GMPT-E.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0760
Sabino Luisi, Vittorio Doria, Andrea Stroppiana, Federico Millo, Mohsen Mirzaeian
Abstract The application of Miller cycle through Late Intake Valve Closure (LIVC) or Early Intake Valve Closure (EIVC) for knock mitigation at high load on a turbocharged downsized spark ignition engine was experimentally investigated. By reducing the effective compression ratio due to a shorter compression stroke and hence achieving lower charge temperatures inside the cylinder, significant mitigation of knock tendency could be obtained. As a consequence, the spark advance retard could be substantially decreased and the enrichment of the mixture could significantly be reduced, thus obtaining impressive efficiency improvements. In this research, both EIVC and LIVC strategies have been examined aiming to achieve possible improvements for knock mitigation and after some preliminary investigations confirmed LIVC being more effective than EIVC for this goal, the latter was discarded and the research activities were focused on LIVC only.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0780
F. Millo, A. Perazzo, E. Pautasso
Different optimization strategies for the optimization of the calibration of a turbocharged GDI engine through numerical simulation were analyzed, aiming to evaluate the opportunities offered by direct optimization techniques. A one-dimensional fluid dynamic engine model was used to predict engine performance, taking into account knock and exhaust temperature constraints. Air fuel ratio, spark advance, boost pressure and cam phasing were optimized by means of different optimization strategies, including direct search as well as numerical methods. Both full load (with maximum bmep targets) and part load (with minimum bsfc targets) were considered.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0818
F. Millo, M. Badami, C.V. Ferraro, G. Lavarino, L. Rolando
Different hybrid powertrains for a European mid-size passenger car were evaluated in this paper through numerical simulation. Different degrees of hybridizations, from micro to mild hybrids, and different architectures and power sources management strategies were taken into account, in order to obtain a preliminary assessment of the potentialities of different hybrid systems for the European passenger car market. Both diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines were considered: a 1.6 dm₃ Common Rail turbocharged diesel, and a 1.4 dm₃ spark ignition turbocharged engine, equipped with an innovative Variable Valve Actuation system. Diesel hybrid powertrains, although being subject to NOx emissions constraints that could jeopardize their benefits, offered substantial advantages in comparison with gasoline hybrid powertrains. Potentialities for fuel consumption reductions up to 25% over the NEDC were highlighted, approaching the 2020 EU 95 g/km CO₂ target.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0498
Cristiana Delprete, Carlo Rosso, Andrea Vercelli
Thermo-structural analysis of components is usually carried out by means of two FE models, one that solves the thermal problem and one that, using the results of the thermal model, computes strains and stresses. The interaction between the two models is based on the superposition principle, but it means that the mutual effects and the non-linearities between the two physical problems are neglected. In this paper a multiphysics approach based on the Cell Method is proposed and it is applied to a time dependent thermo-mechanical case study represented by an exhaust manifold simulacrum: the coupled thermal and mechanical problems are solved in an unique run, giving the opportunity to take into account mutual effects. Comparing the results with the traditional FE analysis the advantages in terms of accuracy and computational time achieved through the proposed methodology are highlighted.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0659
Mauro Velardocchia, Enzo Rondinelli
The paper focuses on the advantages of the diesel electric traction applied to military vehicles. In recent years electric cars developed mainly to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and cut down the emissions. The reduction of fuel consumption, important for civil vehicles above all to reduce emissions and to lower costs, is important also for the military in order to increase vehicle autonomy. In addition, the interest for hybrid electric military vehicles is linked with vehicle packaging flexibility, on board power generation and stealth potential related to their abilities of silent movement. Among many possible layouts the optimum is considered to be hub mounted drive motors in each wheel [ 1 ]. This study shows the development of a demonstrator of an hybrid electric 4×4 military vehicle. It was carried out for a future extension of the technology to a 8×8 armoured vehicle.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-1109
Andrea Emilio Catania, Stefano d'Ambrosio, Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa
In diesel engines the optimization of engine-out emissions, combustion noise and fuel consumption requires the experimental investigation of the effects of different injection strategies as well as of a large number of engine operating variables, such as scheduling of pilot and after pulses, rail pressure, EGR rate and swirl level. Due to the high number of testing conditions involved full factorial approaches are not viable, whereas Design of Experiment techniques have demonstrated to be a valid methodology. However, the results obtained with such techniques require a subsequent critical analysis, so as to investigate the cause and effect relationships between the set of engine operating variables and the combustion process characteristics that affect pollutant formation, noise of combustion and engine efficiency.
2014-05-05
Journal Article
2014-01-9046
Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa
Feed-forward low-throughput models have been developed to predict MFB50 and to control SOI in order to achieve a specific MFB50 target for diesel engines. The models have been assessed on a GMPT-E Euro 5 diesel engine, installed at the dynamic test bench at ICEAL-PT (Internal Combustion Engine Advanced Laboratory at the Politecnico di Torino) and applied to both steady state and transient engine operating conditions. MFB50 indicates the crank angle at which 50% of the fuel mass fraction has burned, and is currently used extensively in control algorithms to optimize combustion phasing in diesel engines in real-time. MFB50 is generally used in closed-loop combustion control applications, where it is calculated by the engine control unit, cycle-by-cycle and cylinder by-cylinder, on the basis of the measured in-cylinder pressure trace, and is adjusted in order to reduce the fuel consumption, combustion noise and engine-out emissions.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0128
Stefano D'Ambrosio, Alessandro Ferrari, Ezio Spessa, Lorenzo Magro, Alberto Vassallo
The integration of the exhaust manifold in the engine cylinder head has received considerable attention in recent years for automotive gasoline engines, due to the proven benefits in: engine weight diminution, cost saving, reduced power enrichment, quicker engine and aftertreatment warm-up, improved packaging and simplification of the turbocharger installation. This design practice is still largely unknown in diesel engines because of the greater difficulties, caused by the more complex cylinder head layout, and the expected lower benefits, due to the absence of high-load enrichment. However, the need for improved engine thermomanagement and a quicker catalytic converter warm-up in efficient Euro 6 diesel engines is posing new challenges that an integrated exhaust manifold architecture could effectively address. A recently developed General Motors 1.6L Euro 6 diesel engine has been modified so that the intake and exhaust manifolds are integrated in the cylinder head.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0160
Maurizio Andreata, Federico Millo, Fabio Mallamo, Davide Mercuri, Chiara Pozzi
Three different ceramic substrate materials (Silicon Carbide, Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate) for a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) for a European passenger car diesel engine have been experimentally investigated in this work. The filters were soot loaded under real world operating conditions on the road and then regenerated in two different ways that simulate the urban driving conditions, which are the most severe for DPF regeneration, since the low exhaust flow has a limited capability to absorb the heat generated by the soot combustion. The tests showed higher temperature peaks, at the same soot loading, for Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate compared to the Silicon Carbide, thus leading to a lower soot mass limit, which in turn required for these components a higher regeneration frequency with draw backs in terms of fuel consumption and lube oil dilution.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0866
Mirko Baratta, Stefano D'Ambrosio, Daniela Anna Misul
An experimental investigation was performed on a turbocharged spark-ignition 4-cylinder production engine fuelled with natural gas and with two blends of natural gas and hydrogen (15% and 25% in volume of H₂). The engine was purposely designed to give optimal performance when running on CNG. The first part of the experimental campaign was carried out at MBT timing under stoichiometric conditions: load sweeps at constant engine speed and speed sweeps at constant load were performed. Afterwards, spark advance sweeps and relative air/fuel ratio sweeps were acquired at constant engine speed and load. The three fuels were compared in terms of performance (fuel conversion efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, brake specific energy consumption and indicated mean effective pressure) and brake specific emissions (THC, NOx, CO).
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1679
Federico Millo, Fabio Mallamo, Theodoros Vlachos, Claudio Ciaravino, Lucio Postrioti, Giacomo Buitoni
The effects of using blended renewable diesel fuel (30% vol.), obtained from Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), in a Euro 5 small displacement passenger car diesel engine have been evaluated in this paper. The hydraulic behavior of the common rail injection system was verified in terms of injected volume and injection rate with both RME and HVO blends fuelling in comparison with commercial diesel. Further, the spray obtained with RME B30 was analyzed and compared with diesel in terms of global shape and penetration, to investigate the potential differences in the air-fuel mixing process. Then, the impact of a biofuel blend usage on engine performance at full load was first analyzed, adopting the same reference calibration for all the tested fuels.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1115
Federico Millo, Giacomo Di Lorenzo, Emanuele Servetto, Andrea Capra, Massimo Pettiti
The aim of this work is the assessment of the predictive capabilities of fast running models, obtained through an appropriate reduction and simplification process from detailed 1D fluid-dynamic models, for a turbocharged s.i. engine under highly transient operating conditions. Simulations results have been compared with experimental data for different types of models, ranging from fully detailed 1D fluid-dynamic models to map-based models, quantifying the degradation of the model accuracy and the reduction in the computational time for different kinds of driving cycles, from moderately transient such as the NEDC to highly dynamic such as the US06.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2265
Mario Marzano, Patrizio Nuccio
As in the standard American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedure which is used to evaluate the fuel Octane Number (ON), some signal properties are considered, while others are neglected, it happens that different pressure signals of the sensor, obtained from different fuels and operating conditions, can lead to the same Knock Intensity index (KI) value, even though the knock behavior is not the same. Therefore the aim of this work was to analyze the standard signal processing chain of the Cooperative Fuel Research engine (CFR) (from the pressure sensor to the knock-meter display) and its effects on the value of the KI, for different fuels and operating conditions.
2010-05-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-1503
A. Arpaia, A. E. Catania, A. Ferrari, E. Spessa
A numerical model for simulating a Common Rail Piezo Indirect Acting fuel injection-system under steady state as well as transient operating conditions was developed using a commercial code. A 1D flow model of the main hydraulic system components, including the rail, the rail to injector connecting pipe and the injector, was applied in order to predict the influence of the injector layout and of each part of the hydraulic circuit on the injection system performance. The numerical code was validated through the comparison of the numerical results with experimental data obtained on a high performance test bench of the Moehwald-Bosch MEP2000/ CA4000 type. The developed injection-system mathematical model was applied to the analysis of transient flows in the hydraulic circuit paying specific attention to the fluid dynamics internal to the injector.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2146
Massimo Rundo
Scope of this work is the analysis of the energy consumed by lubricating gear pumps for automotive applications during a driving cycle. This paper presents the lumped parameter simulation model of gerotor lubricating pumps and the comparison between numerical outcomes and experimental results. The model evaluates the power required to drive the pump and the cumulative energy consumed in the driving cycle. The influence of temperature variations on leakage flows, viscous friction torque and lubricating circuit permeability is taken into account. The simulation model has been validated by means of a test rig for hydraulic pumps able to reproduce the typical speed, temperature and load profiles during a NEDC driving cycle. Experimental tests, performed on a crankshaft mounted pump for diesel engines, have confirmed a good matching with the simulation model predictions in terms of instantaneous quantities and overall energy consumption.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0317
Roberto Finesso, Daniela Misul, Ezio Spessa
The present work has the aim of developing a semi-empirical correlation to estimate the NO₂/NOx ratio as a function of significant engine operating variables in a modern EURO VI diesel engine. The experimental data used in the present study were acquired at the dynamic test bench of ICEAL-PT (Internal Combustion Engine Advanced Laboratory at the Politecnico di Torino), in the frame of a research activity on the optimization of a General Motors Euro VI prototype 1.6-liter diesel engine equipped with a single-stage variable geometry turbine and a solenoid Common Rail system. The experimental tests were conducted over the whole engine map. A preliminary analysis was carried out to evaluate the uncertainty of the experimental acquired data and the NO₂/NOx ratio.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0373
Federico Millo, Davide Vezza
Currently, two consolidated aftertreatment technologies are available for the reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines: Urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) systems and LNT (Lean NOx Trap) systems. Urea SCR technology, which has been widely used for many years at stationary sources, is becoming nowadays an attractive alternative also for light-duty diesel applications. However, SCR systems are much more effective in NOx reduction efficiency at high load operating conditions than light load condition, characterized by lower exhaust gas temperatures.
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