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Viewing 1 to 30 of 163
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2349
Naseem A. Daher, Monika Ivantysynova
Modern on-road vehicles have been making steady strides when it comes to employing technological advances featuring active safety systems. However, off-highway machines are lagging in this area and are in dire need for modernization. One chassis system that has been receiving much attention in the automotive field is the steering system, where several electric and electrohydraulic steering architectures have been implemented and steer-by-wire technologies are under current research and development activities. On the other hand, off-highway articulated steering vehicles have not adequately evolved to meet the needs of Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) as well as their end customers. Present-day hydrostatic steering systems are plagued with poor energy efficiency due to valve throttling losses and are considered passive systems relative to safety, adjustability, and comfort.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2348
Yajun Liu, Wei Wang, Zhiyong Wang, Wei Wei, John Lumkes
Current gasoline-gas vapor recovery system is incomplete, for it cannot adjust the vapor-liquid ratio automatically due to the change of working temperature. To solve this problem, this paper intends to design a new system and optimize its parameters. In this research, variables control method is used for tests while linear regression is used for data processing. This new system moves proportion valve away and adds a DSP control module, a frequency conversion device, and a temperature sensor. With this research, it is clearly reviewed that the vapor-liquid ratio should remains 1.0 from 0 °C to 20 °C as its working temperature, be changed into 1.1 from 20 °C to 25 °C, be changed into 1.2 from 25 °C to 30 °C, and be changed into 1.3 when the working temperature is above 30 °C.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2344
Daniel Skelton, Shaoping Xiong, John Lumkes, Farid Breidi
This paper introduces a high performance actuation mechanism to enable new systems and improve the performance and efficiency of existing systems. The concept described is based on coupling energy storage mechanisms with translational movement to increase the speed and controllability of linear actuators. Initial development is a high speed linear actuator for hydraulic proportional valves, and the concept can be extended into other applications. With high speed proportional valves, the performance of existing cam phasing systems can be improved or the actuation mechanisms can be applied directly to IC engine valve actuation. Other applications include active suspension control valves, transmission control valves, industrial and commercial vehicle fluid power systems, and fuel injection systems. The stored actuation energy (such as a rotating mass) is intermittently coupled and decoupled to produce linear or rotary motion in the primary actuator.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0911
Y. Ichikawa, H. Satou, H. Baba, J. Bayyouk, J. I. Park, D. E. Adams
Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH) is one of the key factors in selecting and designing Automotive A/C systems. This paper will deal with the analysis of pressure pulsation in the suction manifold of a multi-cylinder compressor. Numerical simulation methods have been developed to model and simulate the compression cycle, valve dynamics and mass flow rate into the compressor cylinder. The model was also enhanced to include pressure fluctuations due to the interactions between multiple cylinders in the suction manifold. The analytical results from the simulation program compared favorably with the experimental results. The validation and confirmation of the simulation model was successfully accomplished thus yielding a very valuable tool that could be used during the design stage.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2467
Dawn R. Whitaker, John W. Lane, James E. Alleman, Rebecca Riaño
Solids thermophilic aerobic reactor (STAR) processing of biodegradable solid waste residuals uses high temperature conditions to reduce waste volume, inactivate pathogens, and render products that may enter the recycle system by providing plant substrate, fish food, and mushroom growth medium. The STAR process recovers and enables the reuse of nutrients, water, and carbon. During the time of this study, STAR was operated at a 3% solids loading rate, with an 11-day retention time at a temperature range of 50-55°C. This document presents the following details: a the evolution to date of the STAR reactor b review of reactor operation and analytical methods c a synopsis of the performance results and related discussion, and d a synopsis of future goals relative to this project's associated research roadmap.
2011-09-13
Journal Article
2011-01-2272
Wolfgang Schweiger, Werner Schoefmann, Andrea Vacca
This paper presents a simulation model for the analysis of internal gear ring pumps. The model follows a multi domain simulation approach comprising sub-models for parametric geometry generation, fluid dynamic simulation, numerical calculation of characteristic geometry data and CAD/FEM integration. The sub-models are interacting in different domains and relevant design and simulation parameters are accessible in a central, easy to handle graphical user interface. The potentials of the described tool are represented by simulation results for both steady state and transient pump operating conditions and by their correlation with measured data. Although the presented approach is suitable to all applications of gear ring pumps, a particular focus is given to hydraulic actuation systems used in automotive drivetrain applications.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2006
Andrea Vacca, Giovanni Campanella
This paper describes the numerical modeling of the hydraulic circuit of a self-moving boom lift. Boom lifts consist of several hydraulic actuators, each of them performs a specific movement. Hydraulic systems for lifting applications must ensure consistent performance no matter what the load and how many users are in operation at the same time. Common solutions comprise a fixed or a variable displacement pump with load-sensing control strategy. Instead, the hydraulic circuit studied in this paper includes a fixed displacement pump and an innovative (patented) proportional valve assembly. Each proportional valve (one for each user) permits a flow regulation for all typical load conditions and movement simultaneously. The study of the hydraulic system required a detailed modeling of some components such as: the overcenter valves, for the control of the assistive loads; the proportional valve, which keeps a constant flow independently of pressure drop across itself.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0996
Kannan N. Premnath, Michael McCracken, John Abraham
This paper reviews some applications of lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM) to compute multiphase flows. The method is based on the solution of a kinetic equation which describes the evolution of the distribution of the population of particles whose collective behavior reproduces fluid behavior. The distribution is modified by particle streaming and collisions on a lattice. Modeling of physics at a mesoscopic level enables LBM to naturally incorporate physical properties needed to compute complex flows. In multiphase flows, the surface tension and phase segregation are incorporated by considering intermolecular attraction forces. Furthermore, the solution of the kinetic equations representing linear advection and collision, in which non-linearity is lumped locally, makes it parallelizable with relative ease. In this paper, a brief review of the lattice Boltzmann method relevant to engine sprays will be presented.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2538
Zorana Naunovic, Dennis A. Lyn, Ernest R. Blatchley
The effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is governed by the UV dose to which microorganisms are exposed. In treatment operations, all UV disinfection systems deliver a distribution of UV doses. The ability to accurately estimate the dose distribution delivered by an operating UV system is a critical aspect of its design. Moreover, the availability of tools to accurately predict the dose distribution for an existing UV system makes it possible to develop reliable, quantitative predictions of process performance in these systems. The dose distribution can be estimated by employing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and UV radiation intensity field modeling. UV dose-distribution data is then coupled with UV dose-response behavior for target microorganisms to yield an estimate of process performance.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2516
Kelly L. Pennell, Ernest R. Blatchley
As part of the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training for Advanced Life Support (NSCORT-ALS) at Purdue University, a complementary disinfection process, which uses ultraviolet (UV) radiation as the primary disinfectant and iodine as the secondary, residual disinfectant, is being developed. UV radiation was selected as the primary disinfectant because it is effective at inactivating a broad spectrum of microorganisms and has minimal potential for the formation of disinfection byproducts. Iodine, which is effective at inactivating many microorganisms and is less likely to react and form disinfection byproducts than other halogens, was selected as the residual disinfectant because it has the potential for dual use as an on-line UV monitor, as well as a disinfectant.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2513
Sybil Sharvelle, M. Katherine Banks, Erin Maloney
Complete reuse of graywater will be essential during long duration human space missions. The highest loaded and most important component to remove from graywater is surfactant, the active ingredient in soaps and detergents. When considering a biological treatment system for processing of graywater, surfactant biodegradability becomes a very important consideration. Surfactants should be chosen that are degraded at a fast rate and yield inconsequential degradation byproducts. Experiments conducted for this research examined the biodegradation of the surfactants in Pert Plus for Kids, disodium cocoamphodiacetate (DSCADA) and sodium laureth-3 sulfate (SLES), using respirometry. Rates of CO2 production, or ultimate degradation, are reported. DSCADA was found to be toxic to bacteria when present at 270 ppm whereas no toxicity was observed during experiments with SLES.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1596
David F. Pick, Dong-Yuan Debbie Wang, Robert W. Proctor, Dipak Patel
The flat ratio schedule that maximizes the performance advantages of a CVT may also be a source of consumer resistance. A previous investigation of consumer perception did obtain maximum engine power and pickup ratings using the flat-ratio schedule, but some data were missing due to traffic conditions on public roads. This paper is a report of an experiment conducted at the Dearborn Proving Ground to confirm the flat-ratio-schedule advantage for engine power and pickup ratings, and to investigate further the effects of varying Dead Pedal. Driver ratings of engine power and pickup replicated the earlier findings, and an overall advantage of low Dead Pedal was found for ratings of engine power and pickup and for transmission smoothness.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1517
Raymond Sutjiono, Prateek Tayal, Keqin Zhou, Peter Meckl
The latest US emission regulations require dramatic reductions in Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions from vehicular diesel engines. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is the current technology that achieves NOx reductions of up to 90%. It is typically mounted downstream of the existing after-treatment system, i.e., after the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). Accurate prediction of input NO₂:NO ratio is useful for control of SCR urea injection to reduce NOx output and NH₃ slippage downstream of the SCR catalyst. Most oxidation of NO to NO₂ occurs in the DOC since its main function is to oxidize emission constituents. The DOC thus determines the NO₂:NO ratio as feedgas to the SCR catalyst. The prediction of NO₂:NO ratio varies as the catalyst in the DOC ages or deteriorates due to poisoning. Thus, the DOC prediction model has to take into account the correlation of DOC conversion effectiveness and the aging of the catalyst.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0795
Sayan Biswas, Li Qiao
Abstract An experiment has been developed to investigate the ignition characteristics of ultra-lean premixed H2/air mixtures by a supersonic hot jet. The hot jet is generated by combustion of a stoichiometric mixture in a small prechamber. The apparatus adopted a dual-chamber design in which a small-volume (1% of the main chamber by volume) prechamber was installed within a large-volume main chamber. A small orifice (nozzle) connects the two chambers. Spark initiated combustion inside the prechamber causes a pressure rise and pushes the gases though the nozzle, resulting in a hot jet that would ignite the lean mixture in the main chamber. Simultaneous high-speed Schlieren photography and OH* Chemiluminescence were applied to visualize the jet penetration and the ignition processes inside the main chamber. Hot Wire Pyrometry (HWP) was used to measure temperature distribution of the transient hot jet.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2854
Timothy Opperwall, Andrea Vacca
Abstract This work contributes to the overall goal of identifying and reducing noise sources and propagation in hydraulic systems. This is a general problem and a primary design concern for all fluid power applications. The need for new methods for identification of noise sources and transmission is evident in order to direct future modeling and experimental efforts aimed at reducing noise emissions of current fluid power machines. In this paper, this goal is accomplished through the formulation of noise functions used to identify contributions and transfer paths from different components of the system. An experimental method for noise transfer path analysis was developed and tested on a simple hydraulic system composed of a reference external gear pump, attached lines, and loading valve. Pressure oscillations in the working fluid are measured at the outlet of the pump. Surface vibrations are measured at multiple locations on the pump and connected system.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8116
Mrudula Uday Orpe, Monika Ivantysynova
Abstract Mobile Earth Moving Machinery like Skid-steer loaders have tight turning radius in limited spaces due to a short wheelbase which prevents the use of suspensions in these vehicles. The absence of a suspension system exposes the vehicle to ground vibrations of high magnitude and low frequency. Vibrations reduce operator comfort, productivity and life of components. Along with vibrations, the machine productivity is also hampered by material spillage which is caused by the tilting of the bucket due to the extension of the boom. The first part of the paper focuses on vibration damping. The chassis’ vibrations are reduced by the use of an active suspension element which is the hydraulic boom cylinder which is equivalent to a spring-damper. With this objective, a linear model for the skid steer loader is developed and a state feedback control law is implemented.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8112
Jorge Leon, Jose M. Garcia, Mario J. Acero, Andres Gonzalez, Geng Niu, Mahesh Krishnamurthy
Abstract In order to improve efficiency and increase the operation of electric vehicles, assistive energy regeneration systems can be used. A hydraulic energy recovery system is modeled to be used as a regenerative system for supplementing energy storage for a pure electric articulated passenger bus. In this study a pump/motor machine is modeled to transform kinetic energy into hydraulic energy during braking, to move the hydraulic fluid from the low pressure reservoir to the hydraulic accumulator. The simulation of the proposed system was used to estimate battery savings. It was found that on average, approximately 39% of the battery charge can be saved when using a real bus driving cycle.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8121
Riccardo Bianchi, Addison Alexander, Andrea Vacca
Abstract Typically, earthmoving machines do not have wheel suspensions. This lack of components often causes uncomfortable driving, and in some cases reduces machine productivity and safety. Several solutions to this problem have been proposed in the last decades, and particularly successful is the passive solution based on the introduction of accumulators in the hydraulic circuit connecting the machine boom. The extra capacitance effect created by the accumulator causes a magnification of the boom oscillations, in such a way that these oscillations counter-react the machine oscillation caused by the driving on uneven ground. This principle of counter-reacting machine oscillations through the boom motion can be achieved also with electro-hydraulic solutions, properly actuating the flow supply to the boom actuators on the basis of a feedback sensors and a proper control strategy.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3910
David E. Gevers, Margaret M. Ratcliff, James A. Hatch
There has always been, from the very first UAV, a need for providing cost-effective methods of deploying unmanned aircraft systems at high altitudes. Missions for UAVs at high altitudes are used to conduct atmospheric research, perform global mapping missions, collect remote sensing data, and establish long range communications networks. The team of Gevers Aircraft, Technology Management Group, and Purdue University have designed an innovative balloon launched UAV for these near space applications. A UAV (Payload Return Vehicle) with a nested morphing wing was designed in order to meet the challenges of high altitude flight, and long range and endurance without the need for descent rate control with rockets or a feathering mode.
2009-10-06
Technical Paper
2009-01-2846
Michael A. Holland, Keith Harmeyer, John H. Lumkes
A low-cost hydrostatic absorption dynamometer has been developed for small to medium sized engines. The dynamometer was designed and built by students to support student projects and educational activities. The availability of such a dynamometer permits engine break-in cycles, performance testing, and laboratory instruction in the areas of engines, fuels, sensors, and data acquisition. The dynamometer, capable of loading engines up to 60kW at 155Nm and 3600rpm, incorporates a two-section gear pump and an electronically operated proportional pressure control valve to develop and control the load. A bypass valve permits the use of only one pump section, allowing increased fidelity of load control at lower torque levels. Torque is measured directly on the drive shaft with a strain gage. Torque and speed signals are transmitted by an inductively-powered collar mounted to the dynamometer drive shaft. Pressure transducers at the pump inlet and pump outlet allow secondary load measurement.
2009-10-06
Technical Paper
2009-01-2847
John Andruch, John H Lumkes
This paper presents hydraulic topographies using a network of valves to achieve better energy efficiency, reliability, and performance. The Topography with Integrated Energy Recovery (TIER) system allows the valves and actuators to reconfigure so that flow from assistive loads on actuators can be used to move actuators with resistive loads. Many variations are possible, including using multiple valves with either a single pump/motor or with multiple pump/motors. When multiple pump/motors are used, units of different displacements can be chosen such that units are controlled to minimize time operating at low displacement, thus increasing overall system efficiency. Other variations include configurations allowing open loop or closed loop pump/motors to be used, the use of fixed displacement pump/motors, or the ability to store energy in an accumulator. This paper gives a system level overview and summarizes the hydraulic systems using the TIER approach.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-22-0008
Jiangyue Zhang, Frank A. Pintar, Narayan Yoganandan, Thomas A. Gennarelli, Steven F. Son
This study was conducted to quantify intracranial biomechanical responses and external blast overpressures using physical head model to understand the biomechanics of blast traumatic brain injury and to provide experimental data for computer simulation of blast-induced brain trauma. Ellipsoidal-shaped physical head models, made from 3-mm polycarbonate shell filled with Sylgard 527 silicon gel, were used. Six blast tests were conducted in frontal, side, and 45° oblique orientations. External blast overpressures and internal pressures were quantified with ballistic pressure sensors. Blast overpressures, ranging from 129.5 kPa to 769.3 kPa, were generated using a rigid cannon and 1.3 to 3.0 grams of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) plastic sheet explosive (explosive yield of 13.24 kJ and TNT equivalent mass of 2.87 grams for 3 grams of material).
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2546
Barrett S. Caldwell
The Indiana Space Grant Consortium is one of 52 members of the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program (“Space Grant”), which was initiated by NASA in 1988. Space Grant is designed to be a source of NASA-related information, awards, and programs to enhance education, outreach, and workforce development for the United States. Based on the land grant model of public university education, Space Grant seeks to spread the vision of NASA to increase science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) awareness; NASA-related education; workforce development; outreach and research activities. This paper describes the evolution of these activities in Indiana.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0806
Tiffany DiPetta, David Koester, Douglas E. Adams, Joseph Gothamy, Paul Decker, David Lamb, David Gorsich
Operation & support costs for military weapon systems accounted for approximately 3/5th of the $500B Department of Defense budget in 2006. In an effort to ensure readiness and decrease these costs for ground vehicle fleets, health monitoring technologies are being developed for Condition-Based Maintenance of individual vehicles within a fleet. Dynamics-based health monitoring is used in this work because vibrations are a passive source of response data, which are global functions of the mechanical loading and properties of the vehicle. A common way of detecting faults in mechanical equipment, such as the suspension and chassis of a ground vehicle, is to compare measured operational vibrations to a reference (or healthy) signature to detect anomalies.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2722
Richard Klop, Monika Ivantysynova
The objective of this work is to demonstrate the influence of line length concerning noise source generation using a coupled pump-motor-line model predicting superimposed pulsations of a hydrostatic transmission. This transmission model predicts superimposed flow pulsations throughout the connecting lines as well as oscillating forces dependant on system pressure variances; such oscillations are the primary sources of noise in hydrostatic transmissions which are known as FBN and SBN (Fluid Borne Noise and Structure Borne Noise), respectively. This study is a part of novel research where the prediction of superimposed noise sources considering interrelating dynamics of the pump/motor and connecting lines is accomplished and can potentially be used to develop noise source reduction strategies. An investigation considering the influence of line length demonstrates the potential to further reduce noise source generation in hydrostatic transmissions.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0166
Sue Bai, Aaron Sengstacken, Daniel DeLaurentis
The need for greater capacity in automotive transportation (in the midst of constrained resources) and the convergence of key technologies from multiple domains may eventually produce the emergence of a “swarm” concept of operations. The swarm, a collection of vehicles traveling at high speeds and in close proximity, will require management techniques to ensure safe, efficient, and reliable vehicle interactions. We propose a shared-autonomy approach in which the strengths of both human drivers and machines are employed in concert for this management. A fuzzy logic-based control implementation is combined with a genetic algorithm to select the shared-autonomy architecture and sensor capabilities that optimize swarm operations.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0333
Patrick Cunningham, Peter Meckl, Chintan Shah
The firing frequency components of the dynamic diesel particulate filter pressure signals carry significant information about the particulate load. Specifically, the normalized magnitude and relative phase of the firing frequency components exhibit clear dependence on the particulate load in a filter. Further, the test-to-test variation and back-to-back repeatability in this work was better for the dynamic pressure signal features than for the mean value pressure drop. This work provides a promising extension or alternative to the mean value pressure drop correlation to particulate load through Darcy's Law. The results may be particularly useful for filter monitoring and control.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1140
Patrick Cunningham, Peter Meckl
A fast time-scale 1-D dynamic diesel particulate filter model capable of resolving the pressure pulsations due to individual cylinder firing events is presented. The purpose of this model is to investigate changes in the firing frequency component of the pulsating exhaust flow at different particulate loadings. Experimental validation data and simulation results clearly show that the magnitude and phase of the firing frequency components are directly correlated to the mass of particulate stored in a diesel particulate filter. This dynamic pressure signal information may prove particularly useful for monitoring particulate load during vehicle operation.
2006-11-13
Technical Paper
2006-32-0041
Marko Cater, Nathan W. Bolander, Farshid Sadeghi
An experimental apparatus and a numerical model have been designed and developed to examine the lubrication condition and frictional losses at the piston and cylinder interface. The experimental apparatus utilizes components from a single cylinder, ten horsepower engine in a novel suspended liner arrangement. The test rig has been specifically designed to reduce the number of operating variables while utilizing actual components and geometry. A mixed lubrication model for the complete ring-pack and piston skirt was developed to correlate with experimental measurements and provide further insight into the sources of frictional losses. The results demonstrate the effects of speed and viscosity on the overall friction losses at the piston and cylinder liner interface. Comparisons between the experimental and analytical results show good agreement.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0783
Peter J. Schubert, Lev Vitkin, David Braun
Audio playbacks are mechanisms which read data from a storage medium and produce commands and signals which an audio system turns into music. Playbacks are constantly changed to meet market demands, requiring that the control software be updated quickly and efficiently. This paper reviews a 12 month project using the MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow environment for model-based development, system simulation, autocode generation, and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) verification for playbacks which read music CDs or MP3 disks. Our team began with a “clean slate” approach to playback architecture, and demonstrated working units running production-ready code. This modular, layered architecture enables rapid development and verification of new playback mechanisms, thereby reducing the time needed to evaluate playback mechanisms and integrate into a complete infotainment system.
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