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Viewing 1 to 30 of 61
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2467
Dawn R. Whitaker, John W. Lane, James E. Alleman, Rebecca Riaño
Solids thermophilic aerobic reactor (STAR) processing of biodegradable solid waste residuals uses high temperature conditions to reduce waste volume, inactivate pathogens, and render products that may enter the recycle system by providing plant substrate, fish food, and mushroom growth medium. The STAR process recovers and enables the reuse of nutrients, water, and carbon. During the time of this study, STAR was operated at a 3% solids loading rate, with an 11-day retention time at a temperature range of 50-55°C. This document presents the following details: a the evolution to date of the STAR reactor b review of reactor operation and analytical methods c a synopsis of the performance results and related discussion, and d a synopsis of future goals relative to this project's associated research roadmap.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2538
Zorana Naunovic, Dennis A. Lyn, Ernest R. Blatchley
The effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is governed by the UV dose to which microorganisms are exposed. In treatment operations, all UV disinfection systems deliver a distribution of UV doses. The ability to accurately estimate the dose distribution delivered by an operating UV system is a critical aspect of its design. Moreover, the availability of tools to accurately predict the dose distribution for an existing UV system makes it possible to develop reliable, quantitative predictions of process performance in these systems. The dose distribution can be estimated by employing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and UV radiation intensity field modeling. UV dose-distribution data is then coupled with UV dose-response behavior for target microorganisms to yield an estimate of process performance.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2516
Kelly L. Pennell, Ernest R. Blatchley
As part of the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training for Advanced Life Support (NSCORT-ALS) at Purdue University, a complementary disinfection process, which uses ultraviolet (UV) radiation as the primary disinfectant and iodine as the secondary, residual disinfectant, is being developed. UV radiation was selected as the primary disinfectant because it is effective at inactivating a broad spectrum of microorganisms and has minimal potential for the formation of disinfection byproducts. Iodine, which is effective at inactivating many microorganisms and is less likely to react and form disinfection byproducts than other halogens, was selected as the residual disinfectant because it has the potential for dual use as an on-line UV monitor, as well as a disinfectant.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2513
Sybil Sharvelle, M. Katherine Banks, Erin Maloney
Complete reuse of graywater will be essential during long duration human space missions. The highest loaded and most important component to remove from graywater is surfactant, the active ingredient in soaps and detergents. When considering a biological treatment system for processing of graywater, surfactant biodegradability becomes a very important consideration. Surfactants should be chosen that are degraded at a fast rate and yield inconsequential degradation byproducts. Experiments conducted for this research examined the biodegradation of the surfactants in Pert Plus for Kids, disodium cocoamphodiacetate (DSCADA) and sodium laureth-3 sulfate (SLES), using respirometry. Rates of CO2 production, or ultimate degradation, are reported. DSCADA was found to be toxic to bacteria when present at 270 ppm whereas no toxicity was observed during experiments with SLES.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2030
Gioia D. Massa, Mercedes E. Mick, Cary A. Mitchell
Strawberry is a life-support-system candidate crop species that is long-lived, asexually propagated, and can bear large quantities of fruit high in sugar and antioxidant content. Strawberries of four day-neutral cultivars (‘Tribute’, ‘Tristar’, ‘Seascape’, and ‘Fern’) and one ever-bearing cultivar (‘Cavendish’) were grown under greenhouse conditions or varying temperature regimes in three growth chambers. Flowers in growth chambers were hand pollinated three-times weekly with stored pollen, and ripe berries were harvested, counted, weighed, and tested organolepticly. In the greenhouse, two different pollination treatments were compared, while another group of plants was left unpollinated, receiving only occasional mechanical stimulation from normal greenhouse airflow, berry harvest, and plant maintenance. A second group was pollinated with a vibrating wand, and a third group was hand pollinated with stored pollen.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2028
James F. Russell, Gioia D. Massa, Cary A. Mitchell
When high-intensity discharge (HID) electric lamps are used for plant growth, system inefficiencies occur due to an inability to effectively target light to all photosynthetic tissues of a growing crop stand, especially when it is closed with respect to light penetration. To maintain acceptable crop productivity, light levels typically are increased thus increasing heat loads on the plants. Evapotranspiration (ET) or transparent thermal barrier systems are subsequently required to maintain thermal balance, and power-intensive condensers are used to recover the evaporated water for reuse in closed systems. By accurately targeting light to plant tissues, electric lamps can be operated at lower power settings and produce less heat. With lower power and heat loads, less energy is used for plant growth, and possibly less water is evapotranspired. By combining these effects, a considerable energy savings is possible.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2256
Eric McLamore, Zhen Huang, Sybil Sharvelle, Kathy Banks
Three replicate aerobic-heterotrophic biotrickling filters were designed to promote the simultaneous biodegradation of graywater and a waste gas containing NH3, H2S and CO2. Upon visual observation of discolored solids, it was originally hypothesized that gas-phase CO2 concentrations were excessive, causing regions of anoxic zones to form within the biotrickling filters. Observed discolored (black) biofilm of this nature is typically assumed to be either lysed bacterial cells or anaerobic regions, implying alteration of operational conditions. Solid (biofilm) samples were collected in the presence and absence of gas-phase wastestream(s) to determine if the gas-phase contaminants were contributing to the solid-phase discoloration. Two sets of experiments (shaker flask and solids characterization) were conduced to determine the nature of the discolored solids. Results indicated that the discolored solids were neither anaerobic bacteria nor lysed cells.
1999-04-20
Technical Paper
1999-01-1595
D. Lopp, C. Armentrout, G. Eiff
This paper explores the need for human factors and error management within the context of the general and corporate aviation environments. It discusses strategies currently employed in other segments of the aviation industry and how they might be utilized in the corporate and general aviation arenas. It also relates research findings and program successes experienced within the airline industry and makes recommendations as to how a consortial effort by industry organizations might be utilized to employ these strategies in corporate and general aviation operations.
1999-04-20
Technical Paper
1999-01-1594
Gary Eiff, Jim White
This paper explores the current status of error management strategies and human factors efforts within regional airlines. It briefly addresses the potential needs of the environment from a perspective of the market’s accident and incident history as well as anecdotal reports received from members of the regional airline community. It also raises questions concerning the applicability of human factors and error management strategies developed in other segments of aviation to the problems faced within regional airline environments.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2362
Selen Aydogan, Seza Orcun, Gary Blau, Joseph F. Pekny, George Applequist, Yuehwern Yih, George Chiu, Bin Yao
In this paper, an aggregate system level modeling and analysis framework is proposed to facilitate the integration and design of advanced life support systems (ALSS). As in process design, the goal is to choose values for the degrees of freedom that achieve the best overall ALSS behavior without violating any system constraints. At the most fundamental level, this effort will identify the constraints and degrees of freedom associated with each subsystem and provide estimates of the system behavior and interactions involved in ALSS. This work is intended to be a starting point for developing insights into ALSS from a systems engineering point of view. At this level, simple aggregate static input/output mapping subsystem models from existing data and the NASA ALS BVAD document are used to debug the model and demonstrate feasibility.
1985-04-01
Technical Paper
850869
Daniel J. Lesieutre, John P. Sullivan
A vortex lattice method for the aerodynamic analysis of counter-rotation propellers was developed. This model along with an unsteady Sears analysis for correcting the quasi-steady loadings that are obtained from the vortex lattice model were used to predict the performance of counter-rotation propeller systems. The method developed shows good correlation with experimental results. The investigation into the unsteady loadings on each of the propellers indicates that significant variations in loading occur due to the unsteady flow and due to the propeller blade passage. These variations were found to be as high as 17 percent of the mean value. The parametric studies that were performed indicate that reducing the rear propeller's diameter or rotational speed results in a loss of efficiency.
2008-06-30
Article
Purdue University engineers have been using an on-site wind tunnel to conduct experiments aimed at yielding critical data for the design of the X-51A test vehicle.
2008-06-30
Article
Purdue University engineers are conducting experiments using a hydrogen facility that became operational in 2007 to help NASA create designs to improve the cooling efficiency and performance of the J-2X rocket engine, which will be used for future missions to Mars and the moon.
2011-09-22
Article
A national team of experts will explore the promise of three-dimensional nanomaterials with the help of a recently awarded U.S. Department of Defense Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative grant totaling more than $7 million over five years.
2010-01-27
Article
Purdue University’s Department of Aviation Technology has purchased 16 2010 SR20 model aircraft from Cirrus Aircraft. The 600 students currently enrolled in the Purdue program will use the new Cirrus fleet daily to obtain hands-on flying experience, earn a private pilot certificate, instrument rating, and ultimately a commercial type rating.
2009-03-15
Article
Researchers with various backgrounds of expertise are teaming to develop a new type of gelled fuel designed to improve the safety, performance, and range of rockets for space and military applications. Gelled fuels also could be used in thrusters to position satellites and on NASA space missions.
2016-01-03
Article
Purdue University has developed a new system that allows a 3D printer to produce functioning products with enclosed electronic and motorized components and customized devices such as a computer mouse molded to a user's hand.
2016-04-24
Article
Rolls-Royce will designate Purdue as a University Technology Partnership, which will initially encompass two research centers in the areas of advanced thermal management systems and advanced compressor systems.
2016-05-31
Article
Carbon fibers derived from a sustainable source, a type of wild mushroom, and modified with nanoparticles have been shown to outperform conventional graphite electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3187
James Russell, Michael E. Lasinski, Selen Aydogan, Joseph F. Pekny, Cary Mitchell
In long-duration, closed human habitats in space that include crop growth, one challenge that is faced while designing a candidate waste processor is the composition of solid-waste loads, which include human waste, packaging and food-processing materials, crop spoilage, and plant residues. In this work, a new modeling tool is developed to characterize crop residues and food wastes based on diet in order to support the design of solid-waste technologies for closed systems. The model predicts amounts of crop residues and food wastes due to food processing, crop harvests, and edible spoilage. To support the design of solid-waste technologies, the generation of crop residues and food wastes was characterized for a 600-day mission to Mars using integrated menu, crop, and waste models. The three sources of plant residues and food waste are identified to be food processors, crop harvests, and edible spoilage.
2012-09-10
Journal Article
2012-01-1868
J B Mann, C J Saldana, Y Guo, H Yeung, W D Compton, S Chandrasekar
Deep-hole drilling is among the most critical precision machining processes for production of high-performance discrete components. The effects of drilling with superimposed, controlled low-frequency modulation - Modulation-Assisted Machining (MAM) - on the surface textures created in deep-hole drilling (ie, gun-drilling) are discussed. In MAM, the oscillation of the drill tool creates unique surface textures by altering the burnishing action typical in conventional drilling. The effects of modulation frequency and amplitude are investigated using a modulation device for single-flute gun-drilling on a computer-controlled lathe. The experimental results for the gun-drilling of titanium alloy with modulation are compared and contrasted with conventional gun-drilling. The chip morphology and surface textures are characterized over a range of modulation conditions, and a model for predicting the surface texture is presented. Implications for production gun-drilling are discussed.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2525
Ilan Weiss, Kirby D. Hayes, Lisa J. Mauer, Michele H. Perchonok
Wheat is a candidate crop for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) system, and cereal grains and their products will be included on long-term space missions beyond low earth orbit. While the exact supply scenario has yet to be determined, some type of post-processing of these grains must occur if they are shipped as bulk ingredients or grown on site for use in foods. Understanding the requirements for processing grains in space is essential for incorporating the process into the ALS food system. The ESM metric developed by NASA describes and compares individual system impact on a closed system in terms of a single parameter, mass. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of grain mill type on the ESM of producing yeast and flat breads. Hard red spring wheat berries were ground using a Brabender Quadrumat Jr. or the Kitchen-Aid grain mill attachment (both are proposed post-harvest technologies for the ALS system) to produce white and whole wheat flour, respectively.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2526
Jake Gandolph, Mohamad El-Abiad, Lisa J. Mauer, Michele H. Perchonok
One of the challenges NASA faces today is developing an Advanced Life Support (ALS) system that will enable long duration space missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO). This ALS system must include a food processing subsystem capable of producing a variety of nutritious, acceptable, and safe edible ingredients and food products from pre-packaged and re-supply foods as well as salad crops grown on the transit vehicle or other crops grown on planetary surfaces. However, designing, building, developing, and maintaining such a subsystem is bound to many constraints and restrictions. The limited power supply, storage locations, variety of crops, crew time, need to minimize waste, and other ESM parameters influence the selection of processing equipment and techniques.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2115
Sunghun Jung, Taesup Lee, Tamzidul Mina, Kartik B. Ariyur
We developed a wireless, contact free power transfer mechanism that is safer and robust to imperfect alignment on landing at the base station and that avoid trips back to the launch sites for recharging off power lines. A magnetic field is created using inductor coils on both the transmitting and receiving sides. We use small induction coils around the UAV to increase efficiency and decrease interference. By locating several of these small inductive coils around our quad-rotor UAV, faster recharging is accomplished in comparison to the use of just one coil. In addition, more coils permit larger voltages for more efficient power transfers. On the base station, several folding robotic arms will be used to realign the receiver coils over the transmitter coils. After adequate recharging as measured by battery voltages or power consumption at the base station, the UAV sends a signal to the base station to open the dome to fly away.
2017-08-27
Article
A new type of micropropulsion system for miniature satellites, or CubeSats, uses tiny nozzles that release precise bursts of water vapor to maneuver the spacecraft.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-1982
Michelle Bash, Steven Pekarek, Jon Zumberge
Abstract The cost and complexity of aircraft power systems limit the number of integrated system evaluations that can be performed in hardware. As a result, evaluations are often performed using emulators to mimic components or subsystems. As an example, aircraft generation systems are often tested using an emulator that consists of a bank of resistors that are switched to represent the power draw of one or more actuators. In this research, consideration is given to modern wide bandwidth emulators (WBEs) that use power electronics and digital controls to obtain wide bandwidth control of power, current, or voltage. Specifically, this paper first looks at how well a WBE can emulate the impedance of a load when coupled to a real-time model. Capturing the impedance of loads and sources is important for accurately assessing the small-signal stability of a system.
2008-11-11
Journal Article
2008-01-2867
Mark Gries, Oleg Wasynczuk, Barbara Selby, Peter T. Lamm
Due to the instabilities that may occur in power systems with regulated loads such as those used in military aircraft, ships, and terrestrial vehicles, many analysis techniques and design methodologies have been developed to ensure stable operation for expected operating conditions. However, many of these techniques are difficult to apply to complex systems and do not guarantee large-displacement stability following major disturbances such as faults, regenerative operation, large pulsed loads, and/or the loss of generating capacity. In this paper, a design paradigm is set forth guaranteeing large-displacement stability of a power system containing a significant penetration of regulated (constant-power) loads for any value of load power up to and including the steady-state rating of the source. Initial investigations are performed using an idealized model of a dc-source to determine the minimum requirements that ensure large-displacement stability.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2982
Dawn R. Whitaker, Kevin L. Staton, James E. Alleman, John W. Lane
The application of biological treatment to solid waste is very promising to facilitate recycling of water, carbon, and nutrients and to reduce the resupply needs of long-term crewed space missions. Degradation of biodegradable solid wastes generated during such a mission is under investigation as part of the NASA Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) at Purdue University. Processing in the solids thermophilic aerobic reactor (STAR) involves the use of high temperature micro-aerobic slurry conditions to degrade solid wastes, enabling the recycling of water, carbon, and nutrients for further downstream uses. Related research presently underway includes technical development and optimization of STAR operations as well as a complementary evaluation of post-STAR processing for gas-stream purification, water recovery by condensate purification, and residuals utilization for both mushroom growth media and nutritional support for fish growth.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2983
Yan-Fu Kuo, Dawn R. Whitaker, George T.-C. Chiu, James E. Alleman
This paper presents a system-level design and initial equivalent systems mass (ESM) analysis for a solid-phase thermophilic aerobic reactor (STAR) system prototype that is designed for a Mars surface mission. STAR is a biological solid waste treatment system that reduces solid waste, neutralizes pathogens, and produces a stabilized product amenable to nutrient reuse and water recovery in a closed life support system. The STAR system is designed for long-duration space missions or long-term remote planetary operations. A system-level design analysis for sizing a STAR process and the subsequent ESM based sensitivity analysis based on a 600-day Mars surface mission with a 6-person crew will be presented. Preliminary ESM sensitivity analysis identified that improving system energy conservation efficiency should be the focus of future research once the fundamental STAR process development has matured.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-3111
Sang-hun Lee, Albert J. Heber, M. Katherine Banks
Most of the gaseous contaminants generated inside ALS (Advanced Life Support) cabins can be degraded to some degree by microbial degradation in a biofilter. The entry of biofiltration techniques into ALS will most likely involve integration with existing physico-chemical methods. However, in this study, cabin air quality treated by only biofiltration was predicted using the one-box and biofiltration models. Based on BVAD (Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) and SMAC (Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations), ammonia and carbon monoxide will be the critical compounds for biofilter design and control. Experimentation is needed to identify the pertinent microbial parameters and removal efficiency of carbon monoxide and to validate the results of this preliminary investigation.
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