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Technical Paper
Y. C. Shin, S. A. Coker, S. J. Oh, S. Hu
This paper presents in-process monitoring and control based on a novel ultrasonic sensing technique. The developed ultrasonic system provides non-contact measurement of surface roughness, which is applicable to wet machining environments. The utility and robustness of the technique are demonstrated through applications to different processes and materials. In-process surface roughness monitoring capability of the system is also shown along with its potential to monitor flank wear conditions. The result of in-process surface roughness control implementation based on the developed technique shows the control scheme is able to maintain consistent surface roughness values regardless of the tool wear state.
Technical Paper
Sybil Sharvelle, M. Katherine Banks, Albert J. Heber
An important function of life support systems developed for a long duration human mission to Mars is the ability to recycle water and air. The Bio-Regenerative Environmental Air Treatment for Health (BREATHe) is part of a multicomponent life support system and will simultaneously treat wastewater and air. The BREATHe system will consist of packed bed biofilm reactors. Model waste streams will be used for experiments conducted during the design phase of the BREATHe system. This paper summarizes expected characteristics of water and air waste steams that would be generated by a crew of six during a human mission to Mars. In addition to waste air and water generation rates, the chemical composition of each waste stream is defined. Specifically, chemical constituents expected to be present in hygiene wastewater, dishwater, laundry water, atmospheric condensate, and cabin air are presented.
Technical Paper
Jay C. Rozzi, Richard W. Kaszeta, Timothy S. Fisher
The new devices and missions to achieve the aims of NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) are creating increasingly demanding thermal environments and applications. In particular, the low conductance of metal-to-metal interfaces used in the thermal switches lengthen the cool-down phase and resource usage for spacecraft instruments. During this work, we developed and tested a vacuum-compatible, durable, heat-conduction interface that employs carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays directly anchored on the mating metal surfaces via microwave plasma-enhanced, chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). We demonstrated that CNT-based thermal interface materials have the potential to exceed the performance of currently available options for thermal switches and other applications.
Technical Paper
Kai Liu, ZongYing Xu, Duane Detwiler, Andres Tovar
Abstract This work proposes a new method to design crashworthiness structures that made of functionally graded cellular (porous) material. The proposed method consists of three stages: The first stage is to generate a conceptual design using a topology optimization algorithm so that a variable density is distributed within the structure minimizing its compliance. The second stage is to cluster the variable density using a machine-learning algorithm to reduce the dimension of the design space. The third stage is to maximize structural crashworthiness indicators (e.g., internal energy absorption) and minimize mass using a metamodel-based multi-objective genetic algorithm. The final structure is synthesized by optimally selecting cellular material phases from a predefined material library. In this work, the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds are derived for the two-phase cellular material, and the structure performances are compared to the optimized structures derived by our proposed framework.
Technical Paper
Jeff M. Schmidt, James E. Alleman
Resource recovery, including that of urine water extraction, is one of the most crucial aspects of long-term life support in interplanetary space travel. This paper will consequently examine an innovative approach to processing raw, undiluted urine based on low-temperature freezing. This strategy is uniquely different from NASA's current emphasis on either ‘integrated’ (co-treatment of mixed urine, grey, and condensate waters) or ‘high-temperature’ (i.e., VCD [vapor compression distillation] or VPCAR [vapor phase catalytic ammonia removal]) processing strategies, whereby this liquid freeze-thaw (LiFT) procedure would avoid both chemical and microbial cross-contamination concerns while at the same time securing highly desirable reductions in likely ESM levels.
Technical Paper
Congna Li, Albert J. Heber, Hong Huang, Jiqin Ni, Sang-hun Lee, M. Katherine Banks
Bioregenerative systems for removal of gaseous contaminants are desired for long-term space missions to reduce the equivalent system mass of the air cleaning system. This paper describes an innovative design of a new biofiltration test lab for investigating the capability of biofiltration process for removal of ersatz multi-component gaseous streams representative of spacecraft contaminants released during long-term space travel. The lab setup allows a total of 24 bioreactors to receive identical inlet waste streams at stable contaminant concentrations via use of permeations ovens, needle valves, precision orifices, etc. A unique set of hardware including a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, and a data acquisition and control system using LabVIEW™ software allows automatic, continuous, and real-time gas monitoring and data collection for the 24 bioreactors. This lab setup allows powerful factorial experimental design.
Technical Paper
Sybil A. Sharvelle, M. K. Banks, Eric McLamore, Yong Sang Kim, Stephen Clark
The Bioregenerative Air Treatment for Health system has been proposed for Advanced Life Support (ALS) planetary base applications. The system will be operated as a biotrickling filter to simultaneously treat graywater and waste gas. Preliminary experiments have focused on carbon removal from a graywater simulant. Six bench scale biotrickling filter reactors were constructed and monitored continuously. After a reactor startup phase of 40 days, the average total organic carbon (TOC) removal for reactors packed with Tri-packs® packing material was 62%. A second set of experiments was designed to evaluate TOC removal using different packing materials (Bee-cell and Biobale). It was hypothesized that the alternative packing materials would reduce the effects of channeling in the reactors, thus improving TOC removal. However, TOC removal did not significantly improve during the second set of experiments.
Technical Paper
Troy Bouman, Andrew Barnard, Joshua Alexander
Abstract Compared to moving coil loudspeakers, carbon nanotube (CNT) loudspeakers are extremely lightweight and are capable of creating sound over a broad frequency range (1 Hz to 100 kHz). The thermoacoustic effect that allows for this non-vibrating sound source is naturally inefficient and nonlinear. Signal processing techniques are one option that may help counteract these concerns. Previous studies have evaluated a hybrid efficiency metric, the ratio of the sound pressure level at a single point to the input electrical power. True efficiency is the ratio of output acoustic power to the input electrical power. True efficiency data are presented for two new drive signal processing techniques borrowed from the hearing aid industry. Spectral envelope decimation of an AC signal operates in the frequency domain (FCAC) and dynamic linear frequency compression of an AC signal operates in the time domain (TCAC). Each type of processing affects the true efficiency differently.
Journal Article
Ayhan Ince
Abstract Driveline and suspension notched components of off-road ground vehicles often experience multiaxial fatigue failures along notch locations. Large nominal load histories may induce local elasto-plastic stress and strain responses at the critical notch locations. Fatigue life prediction of such notched components requires detailed knowledge of local stresses and strains at notch regions. The notched components that are often subject to multiaxial loadings in services, experience complex stress and strain responses. Fatigue life assessment of the components utilizing non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) require unfeasibly inefficient computation times and large data. The lack of more efficient and effective methods of elasto-plastic stress-strain calculation may lead to the overdesign or earlier failures of the components or costly experiments and inefficient non-linear FEA.
Technical Paper
Nicholas N. Kim, Seungkyu Lee, J Stuart Bolton, Sean Hollands, Taewook Yoo
Abstract Because of the increasing concern with vehicle weight, there is an interest in lightweight materials that can serve several functions at once. Here we consider the vibration damping performance provided by an “acoustical” material (i.e., a fibrous layer that would normally be used for airborne noise control). It has been previously established that the vibration of panel structures creates a non-propagating nearfield in the region close to the panel. In that region, there is an oscillatory, incompressible fluid flow parallel to the panel whose strength decays exponentially with distance from the panel. When a fibrous medium is placed close to the panel in the region where the oscillatory nearfield is significant, energy is dissipated by the viscous interaction of the flow and the fibers, and hence the panel vibration is damped. The degree of panel damping is then proportional to the energy removed from the nearfield by the viscous interaction with the fibrous medium.
Technical Paper
Nathan J. Parsons, Harry G. Gibson, Nohoon Ki
A parametric simulation model of a steel-tracked feller buncher was developed1. This model can be used to predict the lift capacity, side tipping angles, grade-ability, and joint forces during a cutting cycle. The feller buncher is defined parametrically, allowing the user to quickly analyze different machine configurations simply by changing the value of a variable. Several simulations were performed to illustrate the application of the model.
Technical Paper
Jason N. Scheuring, Alten F. Grandt
The objective of this project is to quantify structural degradation due to corrosion through a fracture mechanics based approach. The metric parameters employed are Equivalent Initial Flaw Size and general material loss. Another objective is to correlate a measurable property to the amount of structural durability damage from corrosion, ideally through current NDE technology, with eddy-current as the primary choice. The approach is comprised by the following areas: corroding aluminum alloys, evaluation of the corrosion through techniques such as surface roughness and eddy current, cyclic testing, calculation of corrosion metric, and, correlation between corrosion metric and physically measurable properties.
Technical Paper
A. F. Grandt, H. L. Wang
This paper describes research to analyze widespread fatigue damage in lap joints. The particular objective is to determine when large numbers of small cracks could degrade the joint strength to an unacceptable level. A deterministic model is described to compute fatigue crack growth and residual strength of riveted panels that contain multiple cracks. Fatigue crack growth tests conducted to evaluate the predictive model are summarized, and indicate good agreement between experimental and numerical results. Monte Carlo simulations are then performed to determine the influence of statistical variability on various analysis parameters.
Technical Paper
S. Karthik, C. W. Chung, K. Ramani, M. M. Tomovic
Today, there are several hundreds of manufacturing processes available to the designer to choose from, and the number is constantly increasing. The ability to choose a manufacturing process for a particular user need set in the early stage of the design process is necessary. In metalcasting alone, there are over forty different processes with different capabilities. A designer can benefit from knowing the manufacturing process alternatives available to him. Inaccurate process selection can lead to financial losses and market share erosion. This paper discusses a methodology for selection of a metalcasting process based on a number of user specified attributes or requirements. A model of user requirements was developed and these requirements were matched with the capabilities of each metalcasting process. The metalcasting process which best meets these needs is suggested.
Technical Paper
Junhong Park, Thomas Siegmund, Luc G. Mongeau
The sound barrier performance of elastomeric vehicle weather seals was investigated. Experiments were performed for one bulb seal specimen following a reverberation room method. The seal wall vibration was measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer. The acoustic pressure near the seal surface was measured simultaneously, allowing the sound intensities on both side of the seal, and the sound transmission loss to be evaluated. The vibration response of the bulb seal and its sound transmission loss were then computed using the finite element method. Model predictions for the same seal geometry were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data within the frequency range of interest, comprised between 500 Hz and 4000 Hz.
Technical Paper
Ronald W. Gerdes, Jonathan H. Alexander, Bryce K. Gardner, Heng-Yi Lai, J. Stuart Bolton
The damping effect that is observed when a fibrous acoustical treatment is applied to a thin metal panel typical of automotive structures has been modeled by using three independent techniques. In the first two methods the fibrous treatment was modeled by using the limp frame formulation proposed by Bolton et al., while the third method makes use of a general poro-elastic model based on the Biot theory. All three methods have been found to provide consistent predictions that are in excellent agreement with one another. An examination of the numerical results shows that the structural damping effect results primarily from the suppression of the nearfield acoustical motion within the fibrous treatment, that motion being closely coupled with the vibration of the base panel. The observed damping effect is similar in magnitude to that provided by constrained layer dampers having the same mass per unit area as the fibrous layer.
Technical Paper
Mileta M. Tomovic
Design optimization for functionality, and manufacturability was virtually impossible in the past. However, recent standardization of file storing formats resulted in seamless data transfer from one software package to another; thus, allowing integration of all facets of product design optimization. This paper describes a metalcasting design optimization process. It focuses on the design of cast parts according to functional requirements while optimizing shape with respect to structural integrity, while ascertaining that the part can be manufactured (cast) without defects.
A national team of experts will explore the promise of three-dimensional nanomaterials with the help of a recently awarded U.S. Department of Defense Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative grant totaling more than $7 million over five years.
Carbon fibers derived from a sustainable source, a type of wild mushroom, and modified with nanoparticles have been shown to outperform conventional graphite electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.
Potential exists for more efficient re-use of rare earth elements, Purdue professor asserts. Regardless of choice, original component design should be engineered for dismantling to enhance end-of-life recovery, he tells Automotive Aftermarket Industry Week forum in Las Vegas.
Viewing 1 to 20 of 20


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