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2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2489
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, N. S. Farafonov, V. A. Soloukhin, S. Ju. Romanov, P. O. Andrejchuk, N. N., Protasov, Ju. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper deals with the performance data of the service module Zvezda integrated water supply system of the International Space Station (ISS) as of March 31, 2004. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. It is shown that water recovery from humidity condensate has been especially important when water delivery by Space Shuttles was terminated. The SRV-K contribution in potable water supply for crew needs was up to 76%. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown. Water recovery future prospects are discussed.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2191
L. S. Bobe, A. A. Kochetkov, V. A. Soloukhin, P. O. Andreichuk, N. N. Protasov, Ju. E. Sinyak
The paper summarizes the experience gained on the ISS water management system during the missions of ISS-1 through ISS-16 (since November 2 2000, through December 31, 2007). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on a board the ISS and the need to supplement the station's water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine, water from a carbon dioxide reduction system and hygiene water is shown.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2806
L. S. Bobe, N. M. Samsonov, V. A. Soloukhin, N. S. Farafonov, V. M. Novikov, P. O. Andreichuk, N. N. Protasov, S. Ju. Romanov, Ju. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-10 (since November 2 2000, through November 30, 2004). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station’s water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is emphasized. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2269
L. S. Bobe, N. M. Samsonov, V. A. Soloukhin, P. O. Andreichuk, N. N. Protasov, Ju. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-11 (since November 2 2000, through October 10, 2005). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station’s water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is shown. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951604
N. M. Samsonov, V. M. Novikov, L. S. Bobe, V. M. Gordeev, G. Kh. Abramov, N. S. Farafonov, Ju. I. Grigoriev, N. N. Protasov, Ju. E. Sinjak
The paper analyzes and summarizes experience in developing and flight operation of the system for potable water recovery from humidity condensate. The system schematic and its hardware are reviewed. The system performance data on Salut and Mir space stations are presented. Succession to the development of a similar system for the International Space Station (ISS) service module is shown.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961408
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, V. M. Novikov, N. S. Farafonov, G. Kh. Abramov, B. Ja. Pinsky, E. I. Grigorov, E. N. Zaitsev, N. N. Protasov, V. V. Komolov, A. I. Grigoriev, Ju E. Sinjak
The paper reviews an integrated system for space station water supply based on a combination of water recovery systems and a water resupply system. The water balance data and system performance data in long-duration operation on the Mir space station are presented. A water supply concept for the Russian's segment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is substantiated.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961409
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, V. M. Novikov, B. Ja. Pinsky, N. V. Rykhlov, V. A. Soloukhin, N. S. Farafonov, N. N. Protasov, V. V. Komolov, V. B. Filonenko, V. G. Rifert, V. V. Rakov
The paper deals with possible performance enhancement of the system for water reclamation from urine based on a principle of atmospheric distillation. It is shown by way of example using the system operating on Mir that the introduction of heat energy recuperation, an increase in heat-and-mass transfer efficiency on evaporation and the optimization of the air flowrate in the distillation cycle allow a rise in the capacity of the distillation assembly and a reduction in specific energy. The system outfitted with a rotary evaporator/separator and a thermoelectric heat pump is reviewed. The design and experimental data verify the feasibility and benefits of the system updating.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961549
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, N. S. Farafonov, V. M. Novikov, A.I. Grigoriev, Ju. E. Sinjak, E. I. Grigorov, E. N. Zaitsev
A concept of LSS building for planetary stations is suggested on the basis of experience in the development, research and testing of physical/chemical regenerative LSS for long-duration ground-based bio-technical complexes of habitat support and for orbiting space stations. A gradual transition from integrated physical/chemical regenerative LSS to hybrid integrated physical/chemical and bio-technical LSS and finally to integrated bio-technical regenerative LSS, is suggested. It is shown that at all phases of integrated LSS development, the systems based on physical/chemical processes will be critical for correlating the interfaces between the biological components that process the products obtained in the bio-components, and enabling the vitality of integrated LSS under emergency situations. The interface of integrated LSS with base power supply system is outlined.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2393
S.Ju. Romanov, F.V. Rjabkin, O.V. Kirjushin
The represented paper is devoted to development of a recharge system of onboard spacesuit tanks for the International Space Station (ISS). The recharge system of onboard spacesuit tanks is planned to install on the Universal Docking Module (UDM) of ISS Russian Segment. A description of system as well as directions of further works concerning its modification are discussed.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2253
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, V. M. Novikov, N. S. Farafonov, V. B. Astafiev, B. Ja. Pinsky, V. V. Rakov, V. A. Soloukhin, V. B. Filonenko, Ju. S. Kibizov, N. N. Protasov
The paper deals with description and results of long-term operation of separation and heat-and-mass transfer hardware incorporated in Mir's water recovery systems. Static separators outfitted with hydrophilic capillary/ porous elements, a rotary separator, a through-flow condenser/static separator combination, a membrane evaporator as well as separation and distillation schematics are reviewed. Operational and life performance data are discussed and recommendations for hardware use on ISS are made.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2622
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, V. M. Novikov, N. S. Farafonov, V.A. Soloukhin, S. Ju. Romanov, P. O. Andrejchuk, N. N. Protasov, N. A. Koledov, A. A. Telegin, Ju. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper deals with the performance data of the service module Zvezda water supply and urine collection systems of the International Space Station (ISS) as of December 31, 2002. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown.
2001-07-09
Technical Paper
2001-01-2355
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, V. M. Novikov, N. S. Farafonov, V. A. Soloukhin, S. Ju. Romanov, P. O. Andrejchuk, N. N. Protasov, N. A. Koledov, Ju. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper deals with the construction and performance data of the service module Zvezda water supply system of the International Space Station (ISS). The performance data at an initial phase of manned station functioning are provided. The data on humidity condensate and recovered water composition are reviewed. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The effective cooperation of international partners on part of water supply for the crew is shown.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961472
Harold E. Cole, Samuel Manuel, David R. Rather, Sandra E. Ward, Kathy Jones, Jay Perry, Arkady Gouzenberg, Valentina Savina, Konstantine Mikos
Eight SUMMA passivated sampling canisters were shipped to the Russian Space Station Mir in February of 1995 to assess ambient trace contaminant concentrations. Prior to flight, the canisters were injected with isotope labeled surrogates and internal standards to measure potential negative impacts on measurement accuracy caused by the trip environmental conditions of launch and return. Three duplicate canister samples were collected in parallel with Russian sorbent samples to acquire data for comparative purposes. A total of 32 target and 13 non-target volatile compounds were detected in each of the samples analyzed. The concentrations of the compounds remained relatively consistent for the three sampling events, and all of the concentrations of detected contaminants were well below both US and Russian Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMAC). Five different fluorocarbons were consistently detected at relatively high concentrations.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2485
L. S. Bobe, A. A. Kochetkov, V. A. Soloukhin, M. Ju. Tomashpolskiy, P. O. Andreichuk, N. N. Protasov, Ju. E. Sinyak
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-17 (since November 2, 2000, through October 23, 2008). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station's water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is emphasized. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3174
L. S. Bobe, N. M. Samsonov, P. O. Andreychuk, N. N. Protasov, Yu. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper summarizes the six years' experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-14 (since November 2, 2000 through October 31, 2006). The water supply sources, consumption structure and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery during space missions and the prospects of regenerative water supply of an interplanetary space station are discussed. The aim of this paper is to summarize the water supply experience and to provide recommendations for a perspective water supply integrated system based on water recovery.
1999-07-12
Technical Paper
1999-01-2034
L. S. Bobe, V. M. Novikov, M. S. Amiragov, R. A. Gurovskaya, Y. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov, N. N. Protasov, V. V. Komolov
The paper reviews the results obtained with a Sievers-820 total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer during ground tests of the Mir water recovery system (WRS). Calibration analysis results for water solution samples of individual compounds, typical of spacecraft atmospheric humidity condensate, and their mixtures are provided. Comparison of the test results to the calculated data and laboratory analyses performed by other methods are made. Analyzer readings are in good agreement with the chemical analyses of initial condensate and recovered water. The analyzer shows promise as an instrument for ground and future onboard spacecraft testing.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2517
N.M. Samsonov, L.S. Bobe, V.M. Novikov, N.S. Farafonov, M.S. Amiragov, B.Ja. Pinsky, Ju. I. Grigoriev, S.Ju. Romanov, N.N. Protasov, Ju.E. Sinyak, V.M. Baranov
The paper discusses the 13.5 year flight operation experience of the orbiting space station Mir's water supply system (WSS) comprising a regenerative system and a water storage system. The basic water recovery system operational data are analyzed. It is shown that stage-by-stage introduction of additional recovery systems and updated units during its operation allows the system performance to be improved considerably and its functions to be expanded. Data on the quantity and quality of the water processed are presented including the economic efficiency of water recovery aboard the OSS. The experience in international cooperation of water management is described. It is shown that an updated water supply system of the Russian segment of the International Space Station fully accounts for the experience gained in development and operation of Mir's WSS.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2358
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, L. I. Gavrilov, V. P. Korolev, V. M. Novikov, N. S. Farafonov, V. A. Soloukhin, S. Ju. Romanov, P. O. Andrejchuk, N. N. Protasov, A. M. Rjabkin, A. A. Telegin, Ju. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper deals with the construction and performance data of the service module Zvezda water and oxygen supply systems of the International Space Station (ISS). The performance data at the first 14 months of manned station functioning are provided. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The system of oxygen generation “Electron-VM” and its functioning results are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown.
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951543
E. I. Grigorov, Y. I. Grigoriev, E. N. Zaitsev, A. S. Guzenberg, V. N. Kubasov, G. A. Lyubimov, N. V. Pavlova, A. M. Riabkin, A. N. Slyshchenkov, G. K. Toscheieva
The report is based on the activities conducted at S.P.Korolev RSC Energia supporting to the Mir space station. Mir has been flying since February 1986, with more than 8,5 years being in the manned mode of operation. The report addresses the gas composition requirements of the Gas Composition Support Aids (GCSA), operational data on the atmospheric composition and information about individual gas composition support aids.
1997-07-14
Technical Paper
972559
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, V. M. Novikov, N. S. Farafonov, B. Ja. Pinsky, G. Kh. Abramov, S. V. Berezkin, E. I. Grigorov, E. N. Zaitsev, N. N. Protasov, V. V. Komolov, A. I. Grigoriev, Ju.E. Sinjak, V. V. Rakov, V. G. Rifert
At the initial phase of the construction of the international space station (ISS) water supply will be provided by the systems located in the Russian segment. The paper reviews the systems for water recovery from humidity condensate and urine to be incorporated in the Russian segment of the ISS. The similar systems have been successfully operated on the Mir space station. The updates aim at enhancing system cost-effectiveness and reliability. The system for water recovery from humidity condensate (WRS-C) features an added assembly for the removal of organic contaminants to be catalytically oxidized in an air/liquid flow at ambient temperature and pressure. The system for water reclamation from urine (WRS-U) incorporates a new distillation subsystem based on vacuum distillation with a multistage rotary distiller and a vapor compression or thermoelectric heat pump. The updating of the WRS-C system will enable an increase in the multifiltration bed's life at least two fold.
1998-07-13
Technical Paper
981715
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, V. M. Novikov, N. S. Farafonov, M. S. Amiragov, R. A. Gurovskaya, N. N. Protasov, V. V. Komolov, Ju. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper presents the results of ground and flight (on OSS Mir) tests of an updated purification assembly of the WRS-C system outfitted with a filter-reactor. The tests have proved that the filter-reactor oxidizes effectively basic organic contaminants in humidity condensate including ethyleneglycol to ones that easily undergo sorption, enables the operation of the recovery system in the event of an off-design increase in organic contaminants in condensate and significantly improves the lifetime of the purification assembly. The data obtained confirm a wise selection of the purification assembly hardware for the system for water recovery from humidity condensate WRS-CM for the ISS service module.
1999-07-12
Technical Paper
1999-01-2073
S. Romanov, A. Guzenberg
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2346
V. M. Zlotoplosky, S. I. Eremeev, D. A. Krytchenkov, S. Yu. Romanov, A. S. Guzenberg
In April 1998 during the 24th prime crew operation the first mock-up of the habitation atmosphere harmful contaminants analyzer was delivered to the MIR Space Station. Concentrations of various compounds including ammonia, freon, aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, methane and a number of other harmful contaminants were constantly measured by the device for half a year. The device mock-up test results allowed to make a number of important conclusions underlying the development of the operational monitoring gas analyzer designed for nominal and off-nominal toxicological monitoring of the ISS Service Module (SM) air. The results of measurements made by the device mock-up are presented in the article. The analysis of positive and negative aspects revealed in operation of the device mock-up aboard the MIR Space Station is given, the principle of operation of the gas analyzer intended for the ISS SM is reviewed, technical characteristics are presented in the article.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2356
N. M. Samsonov, N. S. Farafonov, L. I. Gavrilov, V. P. Korolev, Ju. E. Belaventsev, Ju. I. Grigoriev, S. Ju. Romanov, A. M. Rjabkin
The paper describes the design specifics of the system for oxygen generation by electrolysis Elektron and major results obtained in long-term operation of the system aboard space station Mir. Operational data analysis makes possible to draw a conclusion that the system is capable to attain life parameters for at least 2 years with maintaining serviceability for no less than 8 years without attendance and unit replacement. Based on flight operation the possibility of reducing power consumption by 10 per cent is proven. System design updates are realized in the water electrolysis system intended for the Russian segment of the international space station.
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