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Viewing 1 to 30 of 38
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1918
M. Cagri Cevik, Stefan Pischinger, Martin Rebbert, Franz Maassen
This paper introduces different modeling approaches of crankshafts, compares the refinement levels and discusses the difference between the results of the crankshaft durability calculation methodologies. A V6 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the refinement levels depending on the deviation between the signals such as main bearing forces and deflection angle. Although a good correlation is observed between the results in low speed range, the deviation is evident through the mid to high speed ranges. The deviation amplitude differs depending on the signal being observed and model being used. An inline 4 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the durability results. The analysis results show that the durability potential is underestimated with a classical crankshaft calculation approach which leads to a limitation of maximum speed of 5500 rpm.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0034
Thorsten Brands, Thomas Huelser, Peter Hottenbach, Hans-Jürgen Koss, Gerd Grunefeld
Multiple-injection strategies are widely used in DI diesel engines. However, the interaction of the injection pulses is not yet fully understood. In this work, a split injection into a combustion vessel is studied by multiple optical imaging diagnostics. The vessel provides quiescent high-temperature, high-pressure ambient conditions. A common-rail injector which is equipped with a three-hole nozzle is used. The spray is visualized by Mie scattering. First and second stage of ignition are probed by formaldehyde laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and OH* chemiluminescence imaging, respectively. In addition formation of soot is characterized by both laser-induced incandescence (LII) and natural luminosity imaging, showing that low-sooting conditions are established. These qualitative diagnostics yield ensemble-averaged, two-dimensional, time-resolved distributions of the corresponding quantities.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0059
Benedikt Heuser, Florian Kremer, Stefan Pischinger, Jürgen Klankermayer
In order to thoroughly investigate and improve the path from biofuel production to combustion, the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” was installed at RWTH Aachen University in 2007. Since then, a variety of fuel candidates have been investigated. In particular, 2-methyl tetrahydrofurane (2-MTHF) has shown excellent performance w.r.t. the particulate (PM) / NOx trade-off [1]. Unfortunately, the long ignition delay results in increased HC-, CO- and noise emissions. To overcome this problem, the addition of di-n-butylether (DNBE, CN ∼ 100) to 2-MTHF was analyzed. By blending these two in different volumetric shares, the effects of the different mixture formation and combustion characteristics, especially on the HC-, CO- and noise emissions, have been carefully analyzed. In addition, the overall emission performance has been compared to EN590 diesel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0373
Tobias Falkenstein, Mathis Bode, Seongwon Kang, Heinz Pitsch, Toshiyuki Arima, Hiroyoshi Taniguchi
Abstract Although spark-ignited engines have a considerable development history, the relevant flow physics and geometry design implications are still not fully understood. One reason is the lack of experimental and numerical methods with sufficiently high resolution or capabilities of capturing stochastic phenomena which could be used as part of the development cycle. More recently, Large-Eddy simulation (LES) has been identified as a promising technique to establish a better understanding of in-cylinder flow variations. However, simulations of engine configurations are challenging due to resolution as well as modeling requirements and computational cost for these unsteady multi-physics problems. LES on full engine geometries can even be prohibitively expensive. For this reason, the size of the computational LES domain is here reduced to the region of physical interest and boundary conditions are obtained from a RANS simulation of the whole experimental flow domain.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0399
Alexander Jaust, Bastian Morcinkowski, Stefan Pischinger, Jens Ewald
Abstract In this work, a transport and mixing model that calculates mixing in thermodynamic phase space was derived and validated. The mixing in thermodynamic multizone space is consistent to the one in the spatially resolved physical space. The model is developed using a turbulent channel flow as simplified domain. This physical domain of a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is divided into zones based on the quantitative value of transported scalars. Fluxes between the zones are introduced to describe mixing from the transport equation of the probability density function based on the mixing process in physical space. The mixing process of further scalars can then be carried out with these fluxes instead of solving additional transport equations. The relationship between the exchange flux in phase space and the concept of scalar dissipation are shown and validated by comparison to DNS results.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2656
J. Beeckmann, J. Keppner, T. Glatz, N. Peters
Oxygenates, such as methanol or ethanol, are frequently used as blending components in standard gasoline. One oxygenate, dimethyl ether (DME), is also used as a fuel component in some regions of the world, for example in Asia. In addition, patent reviews show the potential of DME as a blending component in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or mixed with propane. The laminar burning velocity is one key parameter for the numerical simulation of gasoline engine combustion processes. Therefore, it is of great interest for modern engine development to understand the effect of oxygenates on the laminar burning velocity. The experimental results have been conducted under engine-like conditions with elevated initial pressures of up to 20 bar and initial temperatures of 373 K. Experiments were done at equivalence ratios between 0.8 and 1.3. The experimental setup consists of a spherical closed pressurized combustion vessel with optical access.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2765
Andreas Janssen, Martin Muether, Stefan Pischinger, Andreas Kolbeck, Matthias Lamping
Fuels derived from biomass will most likely contain oxygen due to the high amount of hydrogen needed to remove oxygen in the production process. Today, alcohol fuels (e. g. ethanol) are well understood for spark ignition engines. The Institute for Combustion Engines at RWTH Aachen University carried out a fuel investigation program to explore the potential of alcohol fuels as candidates for future compression ignition engines to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. The soot formation and oxidation process when using alcohol fuels in diesel engines is not yet sufficiently understood. Depending on the chain length, alcohol fuels vary in cetane number and boiling temperature. Decanol possesses a diesel-like cetane number and a boiling point in the range of the diesel boiling curve.
2014-06-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2069
Barry M. James, Andreas Hofmann
Abstract The noise performance of fully electric vehicles is essential to ensure that they gain market acceptance. This can be a challenge for several reasons. Firstly, there is no masking from the internal combustion engine. Next, there is pressure to move to cost-efficient motor designs such as Switched Reluctance Motors, which have worse vibro-acoustic behaviour than their Permanent Magnet counterparts. Finally, power-dense, higher speed motors run closer fundamental frequency to the structural resonances of the system [1]. Experience has shown that this challenge is frequently not met. Reputable suppliers have designed and developed their “quiet” subsystems to state of the art levels, only to discover that the assembled E-powertrain is unacceptably noisy. The paper describes the process and arising results for the noise simulation of the complete powertrain.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2539
Hyun Woo Won, Norbert Peters, Heinz Pitsch, Nigel Tait, Gautam Kalghatgi
If fuels that are more resistant to auto-ignition are injected near TDC in compression ignition engines, they ignite much later than diesel fuel and combustion occurs when the fuel and air have had more chance to mix. This helps to reduce NOX and smoke emissions at much lower injection pressures compared to a diesel fuel. However, PPCI (Partially Premixed Compression Ignition) operation also leads to higher CO and HC at low loads and higher heat release rates at high loads. These problems can be significantly alleviated by managing the mixing through injector design (e.g. nozzle size and centreline spray angle) and changing CR (Compression Ratio). This work describes results of running a single-cylinder diesel engine on fuel blends by using three different nozzle design (nozzle size: 0.13 mm and 0.17 mm, centreline spray angle: 153° and 120°) and two different CRs (15.9:1 and 18:1).
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2240
Maria Cárdenas, Diana Martin, Reinhold Kneer
An experimental study on the interaction of sprays from clustered orifices is presented. Droplet size and velocity information has been gained by means of Phase Doppler Anemometry for different nozzle configurations varying the diverging opening angle between clustered sprays from 0° to 15°. These nozzles were investigated under high-pressure (50 bar) and high-temperature (800 K) conditions in a pressure chamber and the results are compared to two standard nozzles with flow rates corresponding either to the flow rate of the cluster nozzle configuration or half of the flow rate of this configuration. Two injection pressures, 600 bar and 1100 bar, were used to investigate all nozzles. This investigation completes the characterization of sprays from the cluster nozzles presented in an earlier work. Findings obtained therein were used to choose the measurement procedure for the present investigation and also to determine the spray width in order to obtain the spray angle.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2275
Florian Mathieu, Manuel Reddemann, Diana Martin, Reinhold Kneer
One fundamental subprocess for the utilization of alternative fuels for automotive applications is the in-cylinder mixture formation and therefore the fuel injection, which largely affects the combustion efficiency of internal combustion engines. This study analyzes the influence of the physical properties of various model-fuels on atomization and spray propagation at temperatures and pressures matching the operating conditions of today's gasoline engines. The experiments were carried out using an outwardly opening, piezo-driven gasoline injector. In order to cover a wide range of potential fuels the following liquids were investigated: Alcohols (Ethanol, Butanol and Decanol), alkanes (Iso-Octane, Dodecane and Heptane) and one furane (Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol). The macroscopic spray propagation of the fuels was investigated using shadowgraphy. For complementary spray characterization droplet sizes and velocities were measured using Phase-Doppler Anemometry.
2010-05-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-1502
J. Beeckmann, M. M. Aye, R. Gehmlich, N. Peters
Increasing concern for the environment and the impending scarcity of fossil fuels requires continued development in hydrocarbon combustion science. For compression-ignition engines, adding oxygenated compounds to the fuel can reduce noise, soot formation, and unburned hydrocarbons while simultaneously increasing thermal efficiency. In order to reliably model and design compression-ignition engines to use new fuel blends, accurate spray characteristic data is required. In this study, the spray characteristics of various blends of the oxygenated compound di-n-butyl ether (DNBE) with standard EN590 Diesel fuel are presented, including spray cone angle and spray penetration length for both liquid and gas phases. The experiments were conducted in a spray chamber at ambient conditions of 50 bar and 800 K, simulating TDC conditions in a Diesel engine. Injection pressures were varied from 700-1600 bar.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2784
J. Beeckmann, O. Röhl, N. Peters
Fuels containing oxygenates have become more and more important for spark ignition engines in recent years. Oxygenates are either used as an octane booster or as a biofuel component for fulfilling legislative regulations. Ethanol has been well established for blend rates up to 10%volliq. On the other hand butanol has been introduced as an alternative biofuel component. The effect of the laminar burning velocity of different fuel components on modern engine development is investigated by conducting experiments under high initial pressure and temperature. Initial conditions in this work are a pressure of p = 10 bar and a temperature of T = 373 K. Experiments were done at different fuel - air ratios between 0.8 and 1.3. Test fuels were the pure fuel components iso-octane, ethanol and n-butanol. Different chemical kinetic mechanisms for iso-octane, ethanol and n-butanol from literature are used to calculate laminar burning velocities.
2012-09-10
Journal Article
2012-01-1593
Manuel Dahmen, Manuel Hechinger, Juan Victoria Villeda, Wolfgang Marquardt
Depleting fossil resources, a constantly rising energy demand and worries about greenhouse gas emissions force society to explore novel concepts for future mobile propulsion. In the context of biofuels, the identification of novel, sustainably producible, tailored molecules meeting the property specifications derived from advanced engine combustion concepts therefore constitutes a major objective. Due to the tremendous amount of possible molecular structures, solely experimental search strategies are infeasible and highlight the need for a computer-aided biofuel identification framework. To this end, a holistic approach for deriving truly predictive Quantitative-Structure-Property-Relationships (QSPRs) for engine-relevant fuel properties is presented. Such QSPRs are combined with a rigorous generation of molecular structures aiming at identification of single-compound fuel candidates for use in compression ignition (CI) engines.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0288
Henning Kleeberg, Dean Tomazic, Jürgen Dohmen, Karsten Wittek, Andreas Balazs
Downsizing in combination with turbocharging currently represents the main technology trend for meeting CO2 emissions with gasoline engines. Besides the well-known advantages of downsizing the compression ratio has to be reduced in order to mitigate knock at higher engine loads along with increased turbocharging demand to compensate for the reduction in power. Another disadvantage occurs at part load with increasing boost pressure levels causing the part load efficiencies to deteriorate. The application of a variable compression ratio (VCR) system can help to mitigate these disadvantages. The 2-stage VCR system with variable kinetic lengths entails variable powertrain components which can be used instead of the conventional components and thus only require minor modifications for existing engine architectures. The presented variable length connecting rod system has been continuously developed over the past years.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0254
Jonas Warnberg, Marius Boehmer, Ingemar Denbratt
A regular flex-fuel engine can operate on any blend of fuel between pure gasoline and E85. Flex-fuel engines have relatively low efficiency on E85 because the hardware is optimized for gasoline. If instead the engine is optimized for neat ethanol, the efficiency may be much higher, as demonstrated in this paper. The studied two-liter engine was modified with a much higher compression ratio than suitable for gasoline, two-stage turbocharging and direct injection with piezo-actuated outwards-opening injectors, a stratified combustion system and custom in-house control system. The research engine exhibited a wide-open throttle performance similar to that of a naturally aspirated v8, while offering a part-load efficiency comparable to a state-of-the-art two-liter naturally aspirated engine. NOx will be handled by a lean NOx trap. Combustion characteristics were compared between gasoline and neat ethanol.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0396
Diana Cordes, Philipp Pischke, Reinhold Kneer
Spray penetration and mixture formation in GDI engines are crucial to a reliable ignition and the subsequent combustion. For the prediction of the mixture formation process, computational fluid dynamic simulations are applied. Therefore, details about the nozzle exit conditions are essential, either as boundary conditions to be set, or to validate the numerical results. This paper presents experimental results on the influence of boundary conditions on the spray structure at the nozzle exit of a GDI injector. The injector investigated is an outwardly opening piezo injector, generating a hollow cone spray with a string structure. The distribution of the strings (the so-called "string structure") is needed for the starting conditions of the computational fluid dynamic simulations, as the origin of the strings is unresolved so far.
2007-01-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-0020
Christoph Pauls, Gerd Grünefeld, Stefan Vogel, Norbert Peters
The influence of different fuels and injection pressures on the flame lift-off length (LOL), as well as the combustion structure under quiescent conditions in a heated high-pressure vessel were experimentally investigated using OH chemiluminescence measurements. This data was used to validate the newly developed G-equation coupled with MRIF (G-MRIF) model, which was designed to describe the lifted Diesel combustion process. The achieved results are very promising and could be used as a tool to apply this combustion mode into Diesel engines. Furthermore these measurements were used to validate the approach of a new combustion model, which was developed using former OH chemiluminescence measurements by the authors. Based on this approach the LOL is mainly determined by auto-ignition and therefore highly dependent on the cetane number. This model is presented in more detail within this work.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0944
S. Wissel, T. Hoffmann, P. Hottenbach, H.-J. Koss, C. Pauls, G. Grünefeld
The droplet velocity is an important parameter for breakup, evaporation, and combustion of Diesel sprays, but it is very difficult to measure it by widely used laser diagnostic techniques like PDA, PIV and LCV under realistic high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. This is basically caused by laser beam steering and multiple scattering of light due to very high droplet densities, in particular close to the nozzle. It was demonstrated recently, that these problems can be greatly reduced by the laser flow tagging (LFT) technique. For this purpose, the model fuel is doped with a phosphorescent tracer. A number of droplet groups within the spray are tagged by illuminating them with focused beams of a pulsed laser, and their velocities are measured by recording the phosphorescence twice after each laser pulse using a double-frame ICCD.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0945
T. Hoffmann, P. Hottenbach, H.-J. Koss, C. Pauls, G. Grünefeld
Mixture formation plays an important role for combustion and pollution formation in Diesel sprays. In particular air/fuel ratio (AFR) and temperature of the mixture short before ignition are crucial for these processes. Thus, these two quantities were measured quantitatively using 1-d spontaneous Raman scattering in this work. In addition, 1-d and 2-d Mie scattering was applied to visualize the distribution of the fuel droplets. 1-d and 2-d laser induced fluorescence (LIF) was also used to measure oxygen and fuel in a qualitative way in this work. The common rail Diesel injector was installed in a combustion vessel, in order to provide nearly quiescent high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. N-decane was used as the fuel, because it is a commonly used model fuel for standard Diesel fuel. It was doped with three different tracers with different boiling points in consecutive experiments in the case of 2-d LIF measurements.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1191
A. Vanegas, H. Won, C. Felsch, M. Gauding, N. Peters
In Common-Rail DI Diesel Engines, multiple injection strategies are considered as one of the methodologies to achieve optimum performance and emission reduction. However, multiple injections open a whole new horizon of parameters which affect the combustion process. These parameters include the number of injection events, the duration between the starts of each injection event, the splitting of the total fuel mass on the different injection events, etc. In the present work, the influence of the number of injection events and the influence of the duration between the starts of each injection event on emission levels are investigated. Combustion and pollutant formation were experimentally investigated in a Common-Rail DI Diesel engine. The engine was operated at conventional part-load conditions with 2000 rpm, no external EGR, and an injected fuel mass of 15 mg/cycle.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0671
K. Hoffmann, P. Drews, D. Abel, C. Felsch, A. Vanegas, N. Peters
Subject of this work is a simulation model for PCCI combustion that can be used in closed-loop control development. A detailed multi-zone chemistry model for the high-pressure part of the engine cycle is extended by a mean value model accounting for the gas exchange losses. The resulting model is capable of describing PCCI combustion with stationary excactness. It is at the same time very economic with respect to computational costs. The model is further extended by identified system dynamics influencing the stationary inputs. For this, a Wiener model is set up that uses the stationary model as a nonlinear system representation. In this way, a dynamic nonlinear model for the representation of the controlled plant Diesel engine is created.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0837
Jens Tang, Stefan Pischinger, Matthias Lamping, Thomas Körfer, Marek Tatur, Dean Tomazic
Within a public founded project test cell investigations were undertaken to identify parameters which predominantly influence the development of critical deposits in injection nozzles. A medium-duty diesel engine was operated in two different coking cycles with a zinc-free lubricant. One of the cycles is dominated by rated power, while the second includes a wide area of the operation range. During the experiments the temperatures at the nozzle tip, the geometries of the nozzle orifice and fuel properties were varied. For a detailed analysis of the deposits methods of electron microscopy were deployed. In the course of the project optical access to all areas in the nozzle was achieved. The experiments were evaluated by means of the monitoring of power output and fuel flow at rated power. The usage of a SEM (scanning electron microscope) and a TEM (transmission electron microscope) revealed images of the deposits with a magnification of up to 160 000.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1445
A. Vanegas, H. Won, N. Peters
In Common-Rail DI Diesel Engines, a low combustion temperature process is considered as one of the most important possibilities to achieve very small emissions and optimum performance. To reduce NOx and Soot strongly, it is necessary to achieve a homogenization of the mixture in order to avoid the higher local temperatures which are responsible for the NOx formation [1]. Through the homogenization it is also possible to obtain a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio in order to significantly reduce the Soot emissions. One way to achieve this homogeneous condition is to start injection very early together with the use of higher EGR rates. The direct effect of these conditions cause a longer ignition delay (this is the time between start of the injection and auto-ignition during physical and chemical sub processes such as fuel atomization, evaporation, fuel air mixing and chemical pre-reactions take place) so that the mixture formation has more time to achieve a homogeneous state.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0850
Michael Rottmann, Christoph Menne, Stefan Pischinger, Vivak Luckhchoura, Norbert Peters
So far, the effect of injection rate shaping on the diesel combustion in small-bore DI diesel engines has not been extensively investigated, especially at high part load conditions with high EGR rates. The benefit of injection rate shaping is already verified for heavy duty engines at high load conditions with and without EGR. For this investigation, single cylinder engine investigations were conducted at the VKA / RWTH Aachen University. In order to meet the future NOx legislation limits like US-Tier2Bin5 it is crucial to reduce NOx especially at the high load points of the certification cycles, as FTP75 or US06. For the single cylinder investigations two part load points were chosen, which have relevance for the mentioned certification cycles. The experimental work focuses on different rate shapes as rectangular (Common-Rail type), ramp and boot shape at high EGR rates.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0855
P. Hottenbach, T. Brands, G. Grünefeld
One of the basic topics in the design of new injection systems for DI Diesel engines is to decrease the soot emissions. A promising approach to minimize soot production are nozzles with clustered holes. A basic idea of the Cluster Configuration (CC) nozzles is to prevent a fuel rich area in the center of the flame where most of the soot is produced, and to minimize the overall soot formation in this way. For this purpose each hole of a standard nozzle is replaced by two smaller holes. The diameter of the smaller holes is chosen so that the flow rate of all nozzles should be equal. The basic strategy of the cluster nozzles is to provide a better primary break up and therefore a better mixture formation caused by the smaller nozzle holes, but a comparable penetration length of the vapor phase due to merging of the sprays. Three possible arrangements of the clustered holes are investigated in this study. Both the cluster angle and the orientation to the injector axis are varied.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2485
Tamara Ottenwaelder, Thomas Raffius, Christian Schulz, Philipp Adomeit, Gerd Grunefeld, Stefan Pischinger
Abstract In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels out of renewable sources. For this reason in this paper a blend out of 1-octanol and di-n-butylether and pure di-n-butylether are investigated in comparison to n-heptane as diesel-like fuel. The alternative fuels have a different combustion behavior particularly concerning important combustion parameters like ignition delay and mixture formation. Especially the formation of pollutants like nitrogen oxides in the combustion of alternative fuels is of global interest. The knowledge of the combustion behavior is important to design new engine geometries or implement a new calibration of the engine. In previous measurements in a single cylinder engine it was found out that both alternative fuels form nearly no soot emissions. For this reason now NOx is investigated optically to avoid the traditional soot NOx trade-off in diesel combustion.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2492
Joachim Beeckmann, Liming Cai, David Schaback, Raik Hesse, Heinz Pitsch
Abstract Ethanol currently remains the leading biofuel in the transportation sector, with special focus on spark ignition engines, as a pure as well as a blend component. In order to provide reliable numerical simulations of gasoline combustion processes under the influence of ethanol for modern engine research, it is mandatory to develop well validated detailed kinetic combustion models. One key parameter for the numerical simulation is the laminar burning velocity. Under the aspect of minimizing the general simulation effort for burning velocities, well-validated models have to be reduced. As a base kinetic mechanism for the reduction and optimisation process with respect to burning velocity calculations, a detailed model presented by Zhao et al. (Int. J. Chem. Kin. 40 (1) (2007) 1-18) is chosen. The model has been extensively validated against shock tube, rapid compression machine and burning velocity data. The detailed model consists of 55 species and 290 reactions.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8084
Yousef Jeihouni, Katharina Eichler, Michael Franke
Abstract In order to comply with demanding Greenhous Gas (GHG) standards, future automotive engines employ advanced engine technologies including waste heat recovery (WHR) systems. A waste heat recovery system converts part of engine wasted exergies to useful work which can be fed back to the engine. Utilizing this additional output power leads to lower specific fuel consumption and CO2 emission when the total output power equals the original engine output power. Engine calibration strategies for reductions in specific fuel consumption typically results in a natural increase of NOx emissions. The utilization of waste heat recovery systems provides a pathway which gives both reduction in emissions and reduction in specific fuel consumption. According to DOE (Department of Energy), US heavy-duty truck engines’ technology need to be upgraded towards higher brake thermal efficiencies (BTE). DOE target is BTE>55% for Class-8 heavy-duty vehicles in the United States.
2015-06-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9042
Timo van Overbrueggen, Michael Klaas, Björn Bahl, Wolfgang Schroeder
Abstract New combustion processes require an understanding of the highly three-dimensional flow field to effectively decrease fuel consumption and pollutant emission. Due to the complex spatial character of the flow the knowledge of the development of the flow in an extended volume is necessary. Previous investigations were able to visualize the discrete three-dimensional flow field through multi-plane stereoscopic PIV. In this study, cycle resolved tomographic particle-image velocimetry measurement have been performed to obtain a fully resolved representation of the three-dimensional flow structures at each instant. The analysis is based on the measurements at 80°, 160°, and 240° after top dead center(atdc) such that the velocity distributions at the intake, the end of the intake, and the compression stroke at an engine speed of 1,500 rpm are discussed in detail.
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